Washington's 5th congressional district
Washington's 5th congressional district encompasses the Eastern Washington counties of Ferry, Pend Oreille, Spokane, Walla Walla, Columbia and Asotin. It is centered on the state's second largest city. Since 2005, the 5th District has been represented in the U. S. House of Representatives by Cathy McMorris Rodgers, a Republican. Rodgers's predecessor, George Nethercutt, defeated Tom Foley Speaker of the House, in the 1994 elections. In presidential elections, the 5th District was once competitive, but in recent years has been a safe bet for the Republicans. Although George W. Bush carried the district with 57% in 2000 and 2004, John McCain just narrowly won the district with 52% of the vote, while Barack Obama received 46% in 2008. In 2012, President Obama's share of the vote dropped to 44%; the first election in the 5th District was in 1914, won by Democrat Clarence Dill. Following the 1910 census, Washington gained two seats in the U. S. House, from three to five, but did not reapportion for the 1912 election.
The two new seats were elected as statewide at-large, with each voter casting ballots for three congressional seats, their district and two at-large. After that election, the state was reapportioned to five districts for the 1914 election; the state's 6th District was first contested in the 1932 election. United States House of Representatives elections in Washington, 2008 United States House of Representatives elections in Washington, 2010 United States House of Representatives elections in Washington, 2012 Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Washington State Redistricting Commission Find your new congressional district: a searchable map, Seattle Times, January 13, 2012
Lower Monumental Dam
Lower Monumental Lock and Dam is a hydroelectric, run-of-the-river dam in the northwest United States. Located on the Snake River, it bridges Walla Walla counties in southeast Washington, it is 43 miles north of Walla Walla. Construction began in June 1961, the main structure and three generators were completed in 1969, with an additional three generators finished in 1981. Generating capacity is 810 megawatts, with an overload capacity of 932 MW; the spillway is 572 feet in length. Lower Monumental Dam is part of the Columbia River Basin system of dams. Behind the dam, Lake Herbert G. West is the reservoir. Lake Sacajawea, formed from Ice Harbor Dam, runs 22 miles southwest, downstream from the base of the dam. Navigation lockSingle-lift Width: 86 ft Length: 666 ft List of dams in the Columbia River watershed Lower Granite Dam Little Goose Dam Ice Harbor Dam Lower Monumental Lock & Dam @ US Army Corps of Engineers
The Snake River is a major river of the greater Pacific Northwest region in the United States. At 1,078 miles long, it is the largest tributary of the Columbia River, in turn the largest North American river that empties into the Pacific Ocean; the Snake River rises in western Wyoming flows through the Snake River Plain of southern Idaho, the rugged Hells Canyon on the Oregon–Idaho border and the rolling Palouse Hills of Washington, emptying into the Columbia River at the Tri-Cities, Washington. The Snake River drainage basin encompasses parts of six U. S. is known for its varied geologic history. The Snake River Plain was created by a volcanic hotspot which now lies underneath the Snake River headwaters in Yellowstone National Park. Gigantic glacial-retreat flooding episodes that occurred during the previous Ice Age carved out canyons and waterfalls along the middle and lower Snake River. Two of these catastrophic flooding events, the Missoula Floods and Bonneville Flood affected the river and its surroundings.
Prehistoric Native Americans lived along the Snake starting more than 11,000 years ago. Salmon from the Pacific Ocean spawned by the millions in the river, were a vital resource for people living on the Snake downstream of Shoshone Falls. By the time Lewis and Clark explored the area, the Nez Perce and Shoshone were the dominant Native American groups in the region. Explorers and fur trappers further changed and used the resources of the Snake River basin. At one point, sign language used by the Shoshones representing weaving baskets was misinterpreted to represent a snake, giving the Snake River its name. By the middle 19th century, the Oregon Trail had become well established, bringing numerous settlers to the Snake River region. Steamboats and railroads moved agricultural products and minerals along the river throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries. Starting in the 1890s, fifteen major dams have been built on the Snake River to generate hydroelectricity, enhance navigation, provide irrigation water.
However, these dams blocked salmon migration above Hells Canyon and have led to water quality and environmental issues in certain parts of the river. The removal of several dams on the lower Snake River has been proposed, in order to restore some of the river's once-tremendous salmon runs. Formed by the confluence of three tiny streams on the southwest flank of Two Oceans Plateau in Yellowstone National Park, western Wyoming, the Snake starts out flowing west and south into Jackson Lake, its first 50 miles run through Jackson Hole, a wide valley between the Teton Range and the Gros Ventre Range. Below the tourist town of Jackson, the river turns west and flows through Snake River Canyon, cutting through the Snake River Range and into eastern Idaho, it receives the Hoback and Greys Rivers before entering Palisades Reservoir, where the Salt River joins at the mouth of Star Valley. Below Palisades Dam, the Snake River flows through the Snake River Plain, a vast arid physiographic province extending through southern Idaho south-west of the Rocky Mountains and underlain by the Snake River Aquifer, one of the most productive aquifers in the United States.
Southwest of Rexburg, the Snake is joined from the north by Henrys Fork. The Henrys Fork is sometimes called the North Fork of the Snake River, with the main Snake above their confluence known as the "South Fork". From there it turns south, flowing through downtown Idaho Falls past the Fort Hall Indian Reservation and into American Falls Reservoir, where it is joined by the Portneuf River; the Portneuf River Valley is an overflow channel that in the last glacial period carried floodwaters from pluvial Lake Bonneville into the Snake River altering the landscape of the Snake River Plain through massive erosion. From there the Snake resumes its journey west, it is interrupted by several major cataracts, the largest being 212-foot Shoshone Falls, which marked the upriver limit of migrating salmon. A short distance downstream. Near Twin Falls, the Snake approaches the southernmost point in its entire course, after which it starts to flow west-northwest; the Snake continues through its canyon, receiving the Malad River from the east near Bliss and the Bruneau River from the south in C.
J. Strike Reservoir, it passes through an agricultural valley about 30 miles southwest of Boise and flows west into Oregon, before turning north to define the Idaho–Oregon border. Here the Snake River doubles in size as it receives several major tributaries – the Owyhee from the southwest the Boise and Payette rivers from the east, further downstream the Malheur River from the west and Weiser River from the east. North of Boise, the Snake enters Hells Canyon, a steep, rapid-strewn gorge that cuts through the Salmon River Mountains and Blue Mountains of Idaho and Oregon. Hells Canyon is one of the most rugged and treacherous portions of the course of the Snake River, posing a major obstacle for 19th-century American explorers. Here the Snake is impounded by Hells Canyon and Brownlee Dams, which together make up the Hells Canyon Hydroelectric Project. At the halfway point in Hells Canyon, in one of the most remote and inaccessible sections of its course, the Snake River is joined from the east by its largest tributary, the Salmon River.
From there, the Snake begins to form the Washington–Idaho border, receiving the Grande Ronde River from the west before receiving the Clearwater River from the east at Lewiston, which marks the head of navigation on the Snake. The river leaves Hells Canyon and turns west, winding through the Palouse Hills of eastern Washington; the Lower Snake River Project's four dams and
Marcus Whitman was an American physician. In 1836, Marcus Whitman led an overland party by wagon to the West. Whitman and his wife Narcissa, along with Reverend Henry Spalding and his wife Eliza and William Gray, founded a mission at present day Walla Walla, Washington in an effort to convert local Indians to Christianity. In the winter of 1842 Whitman returned east, returning the following summer with the first large wagon train across the Oregon Trail; the new settlers encroached on the Cayuse Indians living near the Whitman Mission and were unsuccessful in their efforts to Christianize the Tribe. Following the deaths of a large number of nearby Cayuse from an outbreak of measles, some remaining Cayuse accused Marcus Whitman of murder, suggesting that he had administered poison and was a failed shaman. In retaliation, a group of Cayuse killed the Whitmans and twelve other settlers on November 29, 1847, an event that came to be known as the Whitman Massacre. Continuing warfare between settlers and Indians reduced the Cayuse numbers further.
On September 4, 1802, Whitman was born in New York to Beza and Alice Whitman. After his father's death when Whitman was seven, he was sent to Massachusetts to live with his uncle. Whitman did not have the money for such schooling, he returned to New York as a young man. He studied medicine for two years with an experienced physician under the form of apprenticeship approved and received his degree from Fairfield Medical College in New York, he was interested in going to the west. In 1835, he traveled with the missionary Samuel Parker to present-day northwestern Montana and northern Idaho, to minister to bands of the Flathead and Nez Perce nations. During this journey, Whitman treated several fur trappers during an outbreak of cholera. At the end of their stay, he promised the Nez Perce that he would return with other missionaries and teachers to live with them. In 1836, Whitman married a teacher of physics and chemistry, she had been eager to travel west as a missionary, but she had been unable to do so as a single woman.
They had one daughter, Alice Clarissa, born On March 14, 1837, the first Anglo-American child born in Oregon Country. She was named after her grandmothers. Alice Clarissa drowned in the Walla Walla River at age two; as settlers came in increasing numbers, the Whitmans took in eleven orphaned children, including the adoption of the Sager orphans. They established a kind of boarding school for settlers' children at their mission. On May 25, 1836, the Whitmans, a group of other missionaries including Henry and Eliza Spalding, joined a caravan of fur traders and traveled west; the fur company caravan was led by the mountain men Milton Thomas Fitzpatrick. The fur traders had each pulled by six mules. An additional cart drawn by two mules carried Milton Sublette, who had lost a leg a year earlier and walked on a "cork" one made by a friend; the combined group arrived at the fur-traders' annual rendezvous on July 6. The group established several missions as well as Whitman's settlement at a Cayuse settlement called Waiilatpu in the Cayuse language, meaning "place of the rye grass".
It was located just west of the northern end of the Blue Mountains. The present-day city of Walla Walla, Washington developed six miles to the east; the settlement was in the territory of the Nez Perce tribes. Whitman farmed and provided medical care, while Narcissa set up a school for the Native American children. In 1842, Whitman traveled east, on his return, he accompanied the first large group of wagon trains west, his alleged political influence over the United States' claim to the Oregon country, as well as his purported leadership role in the emigration, were exaggerated in the decades following his death, leading to great controversy in popular and academic literature. Known as the "Great Emigration", the 1843 expedition established the viability of the Oregon Trail for homesteaders. Not having much success with converting the Cayuse, the Whitmans gave more attention to the settlers, they established a boarding school for settlers' children. The Cayuse resented the encroachment of white settlers.
More the influx of settlers in the territory brought new infectious diseases to the Indian Tribes, including a severe epidemic of measles in 1847. The Native Americans lack of immunity to Eurasian diseases resulted in high death rates, with children dying in large numbers; the Whitmans cared for both Cayuse and white settlers, but half of the Cayuse died and nearly all the Cayuse children perished. Seeing that more whites had survived, the Cayuse blamed the Whitmans for the devastating deaths among their people; the Cayuse tradition held medicine men responsible for the patient's recovery. Their despair at the deaths of their children, led the Cayuse under Chief Tiloukaikt to kill the Whitmans in their home on November 29, 1847. Warriors destroyed most of the buildings at Waiilatpu and killed twelve other white settlers in the community; the events became known among white settlers as the Whitman Massacre. The Cayuse held another 53 women and children captive for a month before releasing them through negotiations.
These events, continued white encroachment, triggered a continuing conflict between the settlers and the Cayuse that became known as the Cayuse War. Historians have noted contemporary accounts of competition between the Protestant missionaries and Catholic priests, who had become established with Jesuit missions from Canada and St. Louis, Missouri, as contributing to the tensions; the Roman Catholic priest
Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States. It borders the state of Montana to the east and northeast, Wyoming to the east and Utah to the south, Washington and Oregon to the west. To the north, it shares a small portion of the Canadian border with the province of British Columbia. With a population of 1.7 million and an area of 83,569 square miles, Idaho is the 14th largest, the 12th least populous and the 7th least densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. The state's capital and largest city is Boise. Idaho prior to European settlement was inhabited by Native American peoples, some of whom still live in the area. In the early 19th century, Idaho was considered part of the Oregon Country, an area disputed between the U. S. and the United Kingdom. It became U. S. territory with the signing of the Oregon Treaty of 1846, but a separate Idaho Territory was not organized until 1863, instead being included for periods in Oregon Territory and Washington Territory. Idaho was admitted to the Union on July 3, 1890, becoming the 43rd state.
Forming part of the Pacific Northwest, Idaho is divided into several distinct geographic and climatic regions. In the state's north, the isolated Idaho Panhandle is linked with Eastern Washington, with which it shares the Pacific Time Zone – the rest of the state uses the Mountain Time Zone; the state's south includes the Snake River Plain, while the south-east incorporates part of the Great Basin. Idaho is quite mountainous, contains several stretches of the Rocky Mountains; the United States Forest Service holds about 38 % of the most of any state. Industries significant for the state economy include manufacturing, mining and tourism. A number of science and technology firms are either headquartered in Idaho or have factories there, the state contains the Idaho National Laboratory, the country's largest Department of Energy facility. Idaho's agricultural sector supplies many products, but the state is best known for its potato crop, which comprises around one-third of the nationwide yield; the official state nickname is the "Gem State".
The name's origin remains a mystery. In the early 1860s, when the United States Congress was considering organizing a new territory in the Rocky Mountains, eccentric lobbyist George M. Willing suggested the name "Idaho", which he claimed was derived from a Shoshone language term meaning "the sun comes from the mountains" or "gem of the mountains". Willing claimed he had invented the name. Congress decided to name the area Colorado Territory when it was created in February 1861. Thinking they would get a jump on the name, locals named a community in Colorado "Idaho Springs". However, the name "Idaho" did not fall into obscurity; the same year Congress created Colorado Territory, a county called Idaho County was created in eastern Washington Territory. The county was named after a steamship named Idaho, launched on the Columbia River in 1860, it is unclear after Willing's claim was revealed. Regardless, part of Washington Territory, including Idaho County, was used to create Idaho Territory in 1863.
Despite this lack of evidence for the origin of the name, many textbooks well into the 20th century repeated as fact Willing's account the name "Idaho" derived from the Shoshone term "ee-da-how". A 1956 Idaho history textbook says:"Idaho" is a Shoshoni Indian exclamation; the word consists of three parts. The first is "Ee", which in English conveys the idea of "coming down"; the second is "dah", the Shoshoni stem or root for both "sun" and "mountain". The third syllable, "how", denotes the exclamation and stands for the same thing in Shoshoni that the exclamation mark does in the English language; the Shoshoni word is "Ee-dah-how", the Indian thought thus conveyed when translated into English means, "Behold! the sun coming down the mountain. An alternative etymology attributes the name to the Plains Apache word "ídaahę́", used in reference to The Comanche. Idaho borders six U. S. states and one Canadian province. The states of Washington and Oregon are to the west and Utah are to the south, Montana and Wyoming are to the east.
Idaho shares a short border with the Canadian province of British Columbia to the north. The landscape is rugged with some of the largest unspoiled natural areas in the United States. For example, at 2.3 million acres, the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness Area is the largest contiguous area of protected wilderness in the continental United States. Idaho is a Rocky Mountain state with scenic areas; the state has snow-capped mountain ranges, vast lakes and steep canyons. The waters of the Snake River rush through the deepest gorge in the United States. Shoshone Falls plunges down rugged cliffs from a height greater than Niagara Falls; the major rivers in Idaho are the Snake River, the Clark Fork/Pend Oreille River, the Clearwater River, the Salmon River. Other significant rivers include the Coeur d'Alene River, the Spokane River, the Boise River, the Payette River; the Salmon River empties into the Snake in Hells Canyon and forms the southern boundary of Nez Perce County on its north shore, of which Lewiston is the county seat.
The Port of Lewiston, at the confluence of the Clearwater and the Snake Rivers is the farthest inland seaport on the West Coast at 465 river miles from the Pacific at Astoria, Oregon. Idaho's highest point is 12,662 ft, in the Lost River Range north of Mackay. Idaho's lowest poi
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
The Palouse River is a tributary of the Snake River in Washington and Idaho, in the northwest United States. It flows for 167 miles southwestwards through the Palouse region of southeastern Washington, it is part of the Columbia River Basin. Its canyon was carved out by a fork in the catastrophic Missoula Floods of the previous ice age, which spilled over the northern Columbia Plateau and flowed into the Snake River, eroding the river's present course in a few thousand years; the Palouse River flows from northern Idaho into southeast Washington through the Palouse region, named for the river. The river originates in Idaho in northeastern Latah County, in the Hoodoo Mountains in the St. Joe National Forest, it flows westward, near State Highway 6. In Washington, the river flows in Whitman County to Palouse and to Colfax, where it meets its South Fork, which originates on the south slopes of Moscow Mountain of the Palouse Range, flows south of Moscow and west to Pullman. From Colfax, the river meanders west and ends up in the lower Snake River southwest of Hooper, but not before dropping over Palouse Falls.
The Palouse River enters the Snake River below the Little Goose Dam and above the Lower Monumental Dam. The Palouse River's drainage basin is 3,303 square miles in area, its mean annual discharge, as measured by USGS gage 13351000 at Hooper, is 599 cubic feet per second, with a maximum daily recorded flow of 27,800 cu ft/s, a minimum of zero flow. The Missoula Floods that swept periodically across eastern Washington and across the Columbia River Plateau during the Pleistocene epoch carved out the Palouse River Canyon, 1,000 feet deep in places; the ancestral Palouse River flowed through the now-dry Washtucna Coulee directly into the Columbia River. The present-day canyon was created when the Missoula Floods overtopped the northern drainage divide of the ancestral Palouse River, diverting it to the current course to the Snake River by eroding a new, deeper channel; the area is characterized by interconnected and hanging flood-created coulees, plunge pools, kolk created potholes, rock benches and pinnacles typical of scablands.
Palouse Falls Palouse Falls State Park List of rivers of Idaho List of longest streams of Idaho List of rivers of Washington Tributaries of the Columbia River U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: North Fork Palouse River U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: South Fork Palouse River Palouse River Fishing Palouse Falls Soil Erosion in Palouse River Watershed