National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Greenwich Village referred to by locals as "the Village", is a neighborhood on the west side of Manhattan, New York City, within Lower Manhattan. Broadly, Greenwich Village is bounded by 14th Street to the north, Broadway to the east, Houston Street to the south, the Hudson River to the west. Greenwich Village contains several subsections, including the West Village west of Seventh Avenue and the Meatpacking District in the northwest corner of Greenwich Village. In the 20th century, Greenwich Village was known as an artists' haven, the Bohemian capital, the cradle of the modern LGBT movement, the East Coast birthplace of both the Beat and'60s counterculture movements. Groenwijck, one of the Dutch names for the village, was Anglicized to Greenwich. Greenwich Village contains Washington Square Park, as well as two of New York's private colleges, New York University and the New School. Greenwich Village is part of Manhattan Community District 2, is patrolled by the 6th Precinct of the New York City Police Department.
Greenwich Village has undergone extensive commercialization. The neighborhood is bordered by Broadway to the east, the North River to the west, Houston Street to the south, 14th Street to the north, centered on Washington Square Park and New York University; the neighborhoods surrounding it are the East Village and NoHo to the east, SoHo and Hudson Square to the south, Chelsea and Union Square to the north. The East Village was considered part of the Lower East Side and has never been considered a part of Greenwich Village; the western part of Greenwich Village is known as the West Village. The Far West Village is another sub-neighborhood of Greenwich Village, bordered on its west by the Hudson River and on its east by Hudson Street. Into the early 20th century, Greenwich Village was distinguished from the upper-class neighborhood of Washington Square—based on the major landmark of Washington Square Park or Empire Ward in the 19th century. Encyclopædia Britannica's 1956 article on "New York" states that the southern border of the Village is Spring Street, reflecting an earlier understanding.
The newer district of SoHo has since encroached on this border. As Greenwich Village was once a rural, isolated hamlet to the north of the 17th century European settlement on Manhattan Island, its street layout is more organic than the planned grid pattern of the 19th century grid plan. Greenwich Village was allowed to keep the 18th century street pattern of what is now called the West Village: areas that were built up when the plan was implemented, west of what is now Greenwich Avenue and Sixth Avenue, resulted in a neighborhood whose streets are different, in layout, from the ordered structure of the newer parts of Manhattan. Many of the neighborhood's streets some curve at odd angles; this is regarded as adding to both the historic character and charm of the neighborhood. In addition, as the meandering Greenwich Street used to be on the Hudson River shoreline, much of the neighborhood west of Greenwich Street is on landfill, but still follows the older street grid; when Sixth and Seventh Avenues were built in the early 20th century, they were built diagonally to the existing street plan, many older, smaller streets had to be demolished.
Unlike the streets of most of Manhattan above Houston Street, streets in the Village are named rather than numbered. While some of the named streets are now numbered, they still do not always conform to the usual grid pattern when they enter the neighborhood. For example, West 4th Street runs east-west across most of Manhattan, but runs north-south in Greenwich Village, causing it to intersect with West 10th, 11th, 12th Streets before ending at West 13th Street. A large section of Greenwich Village, made up of more than 50 northern and western blocks in the area up to 14th Street, is part of a Historic District established by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission; the District's convoluted borders run no farther south than 4th Street or St. Luke's Place, no farther east than Washington Square East or University Place. Redevelopment in that area is restricted, developers must preserve the main façade and aesthetics of the buildings during renovation. Most of the buildings of Greenwich Village are mid-rise apartments, 19th century row houses, the occasional one-family walk-up, a sharp contrast to the high-rise landscape in Midtown and Downtown Manhattan.
Politically, Greenwich Village is in New York's 10th congressional district. It is in the New York State Senate's 25th district, the New York State Assembly's 66th district, the New York City Council's 3rd district. In the 16th century, Native Americans referred to its farthest northwest corner, by the cove on the Hudson River at present-day Gansevoort Street, as Sapokanikan; the land was cleared and turned into pasture by Dutch and freed African settlers in the 1630s, who named their settlement Noortwyck. In the 1630s, Governor Wouter van Twiller farmed tobacco on 200 acres (0.81 k
World Monuments Fund
World Monuments Fund is a private, non-profit organization dedicated to the preservation of historic architecture and cultural heritage sites around the world through fieldwork, grantmaking and training. Founded in 1965, WMF is headquartered in New York, has offices and affiliates around the world, including Cambodia, Peru, Portugal and the United Kingdom. In addition to hands-on management, the affiliates identify and manage projects, negotiate local partnerships, attract local support to complement funds provided by donors; the International Fund for Monuments was an organization created by Colonel James A. Gray after his retirement from the U. S. Army in 1960. Gray had conceived of a visionary project to arrest the settlement of the Leaning Tower of Pisa by freezing the soil underneath, formed the organization in 1965 as a vehicle for the implementation of this idea. Though this project did not materialize, an opportunity arose for the young organization to participate in the conservation of the rock-hewn churches of Lalibela in Ethiopia.
In 1966 Gray secured the support of philanthropist Lila Acheson Wallace, who offered $150,000 to the International Fund for Monuments and UNESCO for this project. The project continued until the Communist overthrow of Haile Selassie I and the subsequent expulsion of foreigners from Ethiopia. After Ethiopia, Gray's interests shifted to Easter Island in Chile. Gray formed the Easter Island Committee, with Norwegian ethnographer and adventurer Thor Heyerdahl as its honorary chairman. Gray arranged to have one of the monolithic human figures known as moai exhibited in the United States. With the help of anthropologist William Mulloy, Gray selected an 8-foot-tall, five-ton head, exhibited in front of the Seagram Building in New York and in the Pan American Union building in Washington, D. C. An important chapter for the organization started with its involvement in the broad international effort led by UNESCO for the protection of the city of Venice, Italy from catastrophic flooding. After the high tide of 4 November 1966, the city, including the historic Piazza San Marco, was inundated for more than twenty-four hours.
The International Fund for Monuments set up a Venice Committee, with Professor John McAndrew of Wellesley College as chairman and Gray as executive secretary. On the part of the Committee, appeals were made to the American public, local chapters set up in American cities; this early initiative led to the formation of the independent organization Save Venice in 1971. These efforts helped establish a reputation for IFM. In Spain, the organization formed a Committee for Spain under the leadership of American diplomat and U. S. Ambassador to Spain in 1965–67 Angier Biddle Duke. At the invitation of UNESCO in the 1970s IFM became involved in architectural conservation in Nepal, where the organization adopted the Mahadev temple complex in Gokarna, in Nepal's Kathmandu Valley; the 14th-century temple building was surveyed, rotten timbers were replaced, the foundations were strengthened. Sculpted wooden architectural elements were painstakingly cleaned of layers of a motor oil coating, applied annually for protection.
At the request of UNESCO, IFM launched a project for the preservation of the Citadelle Laferrière, a large mountaintop fortress near Milot, Haiti. The site was the keystone of a defensive system constructed in the early period of Haitian independence to protect the young state from French attempts to reclaim it as a colony. Local artisans reconstructed wooden and tile roofs over the grand gallery and batteries using traditional carpentry methods, consolidated the stone galleries of the fortress. IFM sponsored a traveling exhibition and a film about the history of the Citadelle, used for educational purposes in the United States. Through donations and matching funds, WMF has worked with local community and government partners worldwide to safeguard and conserve places of historic value for future generations. To date, WMF has worked at more than 500 sites in 91 countries, including many UNESCO World Heritage Sites. WMF has worked at internationally famous tourist attractions as well as lesser-known sites.
Prominent projects are many temples at Angkor, starting in 1990, including Preah Khan and Phnom Bakheng. WMF has participated in projects in the United States, including Ellis Island, Taos Pueblo, Mesa Verde National Park, the Mount Lebanon Shaker Society, many sites in New Orleans and the Gulf Coast; every two years WMF publishes the World Monuments Watch. Since the first list was compiled in 1996, this program has drawn international attention to cultural heritage sites around the world threatened by neglect, armed conflict, commercial development, natural disasters, climate change. Through the World Monuments Watch, WMF fosters community support for the protection of endangered sites, attracts technical and financial support for the sites; the sites are nominated by international and local preservation groups and professionals, including local authorities. Sites of all types, including secular and religious architecture, archaeologic
In architecture and city planning, a terrace or terrace house or townhouse is a form of medium-density housing that originated in Europe in the 16th century, whereby a row of attached dwellings share side walls. They are known in some areas as row houses. Terrace housing can be found throughout the world, though it is in abundance in Europe and Latin America, extensive examples can be found in Australia and North America; the Place des Vosges in Paris is one of the early examples of the style. Sometimes associated with the working class and reproduction terraces have become part of the process of gentrification in certain inner-city areas. Though earlier Gothic ecclesiastical examples, such as Vicars' Close, Wells are known, the practice of building new domestic homes uniformly to the property line began in the 16th century following Dutch and Belgian models and became known in English as "row" houses. "Yarmouth Rows" in Great Yarmouth, Norfolk is an example where the building fronts uniformly ran right to the property line.
The term terrace was borrowed from garden terraces by British architects of the late Georgian period to describe streets of houses whose uniform fronts and uniform height created an ensemble, more stylish than a "row". Townhouses are two- to three-storey structures that share a wall with a neighbouring unit; as opposed to an apartment building, townhouses do not have neighbouring units below them. They are similar in concept to row houses or terraced houses, except they are divided into smaller groupings of homes; the first and last of these houses is called an end terrace, is a different layout from the houses in the middle, sometimes called mid-terrace. In Australia, the term "terrace house" refers exclusively to Victorian and Edwardian era terraces or replicas always found in the older, inner city areas of the major cities. Terraced housing was introduced to Australia from England in the nineteenth century, basing their architecture on those in the UK, France and Italy. Large numbers of terraced houses were built in the inner suburbs of large Australian cities Sydney and Melbourne between the 1850s and the 1890s.
Detached housing became the popular style of housing in Australia following Federation in 1901. The most common building material used was brick covered with cement render and painted. Many terraces were built in the "Filigree" style, a style distinguished through heavy use of cast iron ornament, it has a level paved area in front known as terrace on the balconies and sometimes depicting native Australian flora. In the 1950s, many urban renewal programs were aimed at eradicating them in favour of modern development. In recent decades these inner-city areas and their terraced houses have been gentrified; the suburbs in which terrace houses are found are sought after in Australia due to their proximity to the Central Business Districts of the major cities. They are therefore sometimes quite expensive though they are not the preferred accommodation style; the lack of windows on the side, the small gardens, the relative darkness of the rooms is at odds with the design principles for modern Australian homes.
The lack of off-street parking that most have is an issue for the majority of Australians. In Finland, an agrarian country where urbanism was a late phenomenon, the rivitalo has not been seen as a urban house type. What is regarded as the first terraced house to be built, Ribbingshof, in the new Helsinki suburb of Kulosaari was designed by renowned architect Armas Lindgren, was inspired by ideas from the English Garden City movement and Hampstead Garden Suburb, was seen as a low density residential area. A leafy suburban street of terraced houses was that of Hollantilaisentie in the suburb of Munkkiniemi, designed by architect Eliel Saarinen, they were envisioned as workers' housing, as part of a grand new urban scheme for the entirety of north-west Helsinki, but from the outset became a fashionable middle-class residential area. Terraced housing in Finland is associated with suburban middle-class living, such as the Tapiola garden city, from the 1950s. Terraced housing has long been a popular form in France.
The Place des Vosges was one of the earliest examples of the arrangement. In Parisian squares, central blocks were given discreet prominence. Terraced building including housing was used during Haussmann's renovation of Paris between 1852 and 1870 creating whole streetscapes consisting of terraced rows; the first streets of houses with uniform fronts were built by the Huguenot entrepreneur Nicholas Barbon in the rebuilding after the Great Fire of London. Fashionable terraces appeared in London's Grosvenor Square from 1727 onwards and in Bath's Queen Square from 1729 onwards; the Scottish architect Robert Adam is credited with the development of the house itself. Early terraces were built by the two John Woods in Bath and under the direction of John Nash in Regent's Park, London; the term soon became commonplace. It is far from being the case; this is true in London, where some of the wealthiest people in the country owned them in locations such as Belgrave Square and Carlton House Terrace. These townhouses, in the British sense, were the London residences of noble
National Register of Historic Places listings in Manhattan
There are 559 properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in New York County, New York, which consists of Manhattan Island, the Marble Hill neighborhood, adjacent smaller islands around it. This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 5, 2019. National Register of Historic Places listings, by area, in Manhattan... New York CityNational Register of Historic Places listings in Kings County, New York National Register of Historic Places listings in Queens County, New York National Register of Historic Places listings in Richmond County, New York National Register of Historic Places listings in Bronx County, New York List of New York City Designated Landmarks in ManhattanNew York StateNational Register of Historic Places listings in New York List of National Historic Landmarks in New York Notes SourcesNational Register NY Landmarks
Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney
Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney was an American sculptor, art patron and collector, founder in 1931 of the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York City. She was a prominent social figure and hostess, born into the wealthy Vanderbilt family and married into the Whitney family. Gertrude Vanderbilt was born on January 9, 1875 in New York City, the second daughter of Cornelius Vanderbilt II and Alice Claypoole Gwynne, a great-granddaughter of "Commodore" Cornelius Vanderbilt, her older sister died before Gertrude was born, but she grew up with several brothers and a younger sister. The family's New York City home was an opulent mansion at 742–748 Fifth Avenue; as a young girl, Gertrude spent her summers in Newport, Rhode Island, at the family's summer home, The Breakers, where she kept up with the boys in all their rigorous sporting activities. She was educated by private tutors and at the exclusive Brearley School for women students in New York City, she kept small drawings and watercolor paintings in her personal journals which were her first signs of being interested in the arts.
While visiting Europe in the early 1900s, Gertrude Whitney discovered the burgeoning art world of Montmartre and Montparnasse in France. What she saw encouraged her to pursue her creativity and become a sculptor, she studied at the Art Students League of New York with Hendrik Christian Andersen and James Earle Fraser. Other women students in her classes included Malvina Hoffman. In Paris she studied with Andrew O'Connor and received criticism from Auguste Rodin in Paris, her training with sculptors of public monuments influenced her direction. Although her catalogs include numerous smaller sculptures, she is best known today for her monumental works, her first public commission was Aspiration, a life-size male nude in plaster, which appeared outside the New York State Building at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York, in 1901. She worked under an assumed name, fearing that she would be portrayed as a socialite and her work not taken seriously. Neither her family nor her husband were supportive of her desire to work as an artist.
She once told an artist friend, "Never expect Harry to take your work seriously... It never has made any difference to him that I feel as I do about art and it never will." She believed that a man would have been taken more as an artist, that her wealth put her in a lose-lose situation: criticized if she took commissions because other artists were more needy, but blamed for undercutting the market for other artists if she was not paid. In 1907, Whitney established an studio in Greenwich Village, she set up a studio in Passy, a fashionable Parisian neighborhood in the XVI arrondissement. By 1910 she was exhibiting her work publicly under her own name. Paganisme Immortel, a statue of a young girl sitting on a rock, with outstretched arms, next to a male figure, was shown at the 1910 National Academy of Design. Spanish Peasant was accepted at the Paris Salon in 1911, Aztec Fountain was awarded a bronze medal in 1915 at the San Francisco Exhibition, her first solo show occurred in New York City in 1916.
The first charity exhibition she organized was in 1914 called the 50-50 Art Sale. During World War I, Gertrude Whitney dedicated a great deal of her time and money to various relief efforts and maintaining a operational hospital for wounded soldiers in Juilly, about 35 kilometres northwest of Paris in France. While at this hospital, Gertrude Whitney made drawings of the soldiers which became plans for her memorials in New York City, her work prior to the war had a much less realistic style, which she strayed away from to give the work a more serious feeling. In 1915, her brother Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt perished in the sinking of the RMS Lusitania, she completed a series of smaller pieces realistically depicting soldiers in wartime, but her smaller works were not seen as significant during her lifetime. Since her death critics have recognized the expert craftsmanship of her smaller works. In addition to participating in shows with other artists, Whitney held a number of solo exhibitions during her career.
These included a show of her wartime sculptures at her Eighth Street Studio in November 1919. The majority of works created in this period of her work were made in her studio in Paris; the Whitney museum of American art held a commemorative show of her works in 1943. Following the end of the War, Whitney was involved in the creation of a number of commemorative sculptures. During the 1920s her works received critical acclaim both in Europe and the United States her monumental works. During the 1930s the popularity of monumental pieces declined. Whitney's last pieces of public arts were the Spirit of Flight, created for the New York World's Fair of 1939, the Peter Stuyvesant Monument in New York City. Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney's numerous works in the United States include: Aztec Fountain – Pan American Union Building, Washington, D. C. 1912 Fountain of El Dorado – 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition, San Francisco, California Two reliefs on the Victory Arch – Madison Square, New York City, 1918–19 Washington Heights-Inwood War Memorial – Mitchell Square Park, Washington Heights, New York City, erected 1922 Buffalo Bill – The Scout, William F. Cody Memorial – Cody, dedicated 1924 Untermyer Memorial, Woodlawn Cemetery, New York City, 1925 The Founders of the Daughters of the American Revolution, a memorial honoring the four founders – Constitution Hall, Washington, D.
National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat