Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed
Rio Hondo (California)
The Rio Hondo is a tributary of the Los Angeles River in Los Angeles County, California 16.4 miles long. As a named river, it begins in Irwindale and flows southwest to its confluence in South Gate, passing through several cities. Above Irwindale its main stem is known as Santa Anita Creek, which extends another 10 miles northwards into the San Gabriel Mountains where the source, or headwaters, of the river are found; the Rio Hondo has sometimes been described as a second channel of the San Gabriel River. For much of its length, the rivers flow parallel to each other about two miles apart. Both rivers pass through the Whittier Narrows, a natural gap in the hills which form the southern boundary of the San Gabriel Valley. Here, both rivers are impounded by the Whittier Narrows Dam, which the Army Corps of Engineers describes as, "the central element of the Los Angeles County Drainage Area flood control system". During major storms, the outlet works at Whittier Narrows Dam can direct water to either channel, or runoff can be stored.
The Rio Hondo and San Gabriel River have both been part of a revitalization program called the Emerald Necklace. The goal of this program is to create a "necklace" of parks and reclaimed wild spaces with the two rivers, they are connected by a narrow strip in Irwindale and by Whittier Narrows to give them the appearance of a necklace if viewed from above. The project garnered broad support from organizations such as the Sierra Club along with the governments of the many cities the rivers pass through. Most of the Rio Hondo is a concrete-lined channel to serve its primary flood control function, but in two places the river flows over open ground: the Peck Road Water Conservation Park, the Whittier Narrows Recreation Area. Large spreading grounds for water conservation surround much of the river, its bike paths are popular; the river passes through the location of the Battle of Rio San Gabriel, fought on January 8, 1847, which resulted in a U. S. victory. Although the battle was fought on west bank of the present-day Rio Hondo near where it is crossed by Washington Blvd, the battle is named after the San Gabriel, which at that time flowed along these banks.
A flood in 1867 caused the San Gabriel to change course. The old San Gabriel was renamed the Rio Hondo after this flood. In Downey, the Rio Hondo was once known as the "Old River", because it was the old course of the San Gabriel River; the Old River School was named for it, Old River School Road was named for the school. The "New River" is the present course of the San Gabriel River; the Rio Hondo College and Rio Hondo Preparatory School were named after the river. From mouth to source: Eaton Wash Rio Hondo College LA Bike Paths: the Rio Hondo Bicycle Path Army Corps of Engineers - Whittier Narrows Dam Rio Hondo Preparatory School
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
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Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water; the depth at which soil pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock become saturated with water is called the water table. Groundwater is recharged from and flows to the surface naturally. Groundwater is often withdrawn for agricultural and industrial use by constructing and operating extraction wells; the study of the distribution and movement of groundwater is hydrogeology called groundwater hydrology. Groundwater is thought of as water flowing through shallow aquifers, but, in the technical sense, it can contain soil moisture, immobile water in low permeability bedrock, deep geothermal or oil formation water. Groundwater is hypothesized to provide lubrication that can influence the movement of faults, it is that much of Earth's subsurface contains some water, which may be mixed with other fluids in some instances.
Groundwater may not be confined only to Earth. The formation of some of the landforms observed on Mars may have been influenced by groundwater. There is evidence that liquid water may exist in the subsurface of Jupiter's moon Europa. Groundwater is cheaper, more convenient and less vulnerable to pollution than surface water. Therefore, it is used for public water supplies. For example, groundwater provides the largest source of usable water storage in the United States, California annually withdraws the largest amount of groundwater of all the states. Underground reservoirs contain far more water than the capacity of all surface reservoirs and lakes in the US, including the Great Lakes. Many municipal water supplies are derived from groundwater. Polluted groundwater is less visible and more difficult to clean up than pollution in rivers and lakes. Groundwater pollution most results from improper disposal of wastes on land. Major sources include industrial and household chemicals and garbage landfills, excessive fertilizers and pesticides used in agriculture, industrial waste lagoons and process wastewater from mines, industrial fracking, oil field brine pits, leaking underground oil storage tanks and pipelines, sewage sludge and septic systems.
An aquifer is a layer of porous substrate that transmits groundwater. When water can flow directly between the surface and the saturated zone of an aquifer, the aquifer is unconfined; the deeper parts of unconfined aquifers are more saturated since gravity causes water to flow downward. The upper level of this saturated layer of an unconfined aquifer is called the water table or phreatic surface. Below the water table, where in general all pore spaces are saturated with water, is the phreatic zone. Substrate with low porosity that permits limited transmission of groundwater is known as an aquitard. An aquiclude is a substrate with porosity, so low it is impermeable to groundwater. A confined aquifer is an aquifer, overlain by a impermeable layer of rock or substrate such as an aquiclude or aquitard. If a confined aquifer follows a downward grade from its recharge zone, groundwater can become pressurized as it flows; this can create artesian wells that flow without the need of a pump and rise to a higher elevation than the static water table at the above, aquifer.
The characteristics of aquifers vary with the geology and structure of the substrate and topography in which they occur. In general, the more productive aquifers occur in sedimentary geologic formations. By comparison and fractured crystalline rocks yield smaller quantities of groundwater in many environments. Unconsolidated to poorly cemented alluvial materials that have accumulated as valley-filling sediments in major river valleys and geologically subsiding structural basins are included among the most productive sources of groundwater; the high specific heat capacity of water and the insulating effect of soil and rock can mitigate the effects of climate and maintain groundwater at a steady temperature. In some places where groundwater temperatures are maintained by this effect at about 10 °C, groundwater can be used for controlling the temperature inside structures at the surface. For example, during hot weather cool groundwater can be pumped through radiators in a home and returned to the ground in another well.
During cold seasons, because it is warm, the water can be used in the same way as a source of heat for heat pumps, much more efficient than using air. The volume of groundwater in an aquifer can be estimated by measuring water levels in local wells and by examining geologic records from well-drilling to determine the extent and thickness of water-bearing sediments and rocks. Before an investment is made in production wells, test wells may be drilled to measure the depths at which water is encountered and collect samples of soils and water for laboratory analyses. Pumping tests can be performed in test wells to determine flow characteristics of the aquifer. Groundwater makes up about twenty percent of the world's fresh water supply, about 0.61% of the entire world's water, including oceans and permanent ice. Global groundwater storage is equal to the total amount of freshwater stored in the snow and ice pack, including the north and south poles; this makes it an important resource that can act as a natural storage that can buffer against shortages of surface water, as in during times of drought.
Groundwater is replenished b
A spreading ground is a water conservation facility that retains surface water long enough for it to percolate into the soil. Spreading grounds must be located where underlying soils are permeable and connected to a target aquifer. Locating them above silt or clay would prevent the surface water from reaching formations that store water; when natural percolation of precipitation is insufficient to replenish groundwater withdrawn for human use, artificial recharge helps prevent aquifer depletion and saltwater intrusion. Spreading grounds are one of several available technologies, are useful to harness storm water runoff in populated areas with low annual precipitation. For example, Los Angeles County, California has 27 such facilities, four more operated in conjunction with the department, many of which date to the 1930s. While managed aquifer recharge projects utilizing storm water and diverted surface water runoff augment groundwater recharge, data suggests that the infiltration capacity of spreading grounds in drought-prone regions is underused due to the seasonality of rainfall.
In response, interest is being generated around MAR projects that utilize recycled water to supplement other water sources. Orange County's Groundwater Replenishment System serves as an example of one such system, combining recycled water and storm water to recharge groundwater through spreading grounds to meet the municipality's annual water needs. Today, many spreading grounds, which were once considered single-purpose facilities, are being converted to combine municipalities' goals for groundwater recharge with demands for additional recreational opportunities, green space and wildlife habitat; the Dominguez Gap Wetlands in Long Beach, CA, which consists of two spreading grounds, is an example of one of these multi-purpose facilities. While the facility's east basin was converted into constructed wetlands, the west basin remains a spreading ground that recharges the local aquifer by an estimated 450-acre feet annually
Big Dalton Dam
Big Dalton Dam is a multiple arch concrete dam in Los Angeles County, built for the Los Angeles County Flood Control District and completed in August 1929. The dam is one of the earliest of the multiple arch "double-wall" buttress designs of engineer Fred A. Noetzli; the 991 acre-foot dam provides water conservation and controls flooding from Big Dalton Canyon, a watershed within the San Dimas Experimental Forest, part of the Angeles National Forest in the San Gabriel Mountains. It is about 4 miles northeast of the city of Glendora and is operated by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works. List of dams and reservoirs in California
The Sepulveda Dam is a project of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers designed to withhold winter flood waters along the Los Angeles River. Completed in 1941, at a cost of $6,650,561, it is located south of center in the San Fernando Valley eight miles east of the river's source in the western end of the Valley, in Los Angeles, California. Sepulveda Dam, along with Hansen Dam located in the north San Fernando Valley, was constructed in response to the historic 1938 floods which killed 144 people. Sepulveda Dam was placed at what was at the current edge of the city. East of the dam the river was crowded into a narrow bottom by the city's growth. One legacy of Sepulveda Dam is its flood control basin, a large and undeveloped area in the center of the Valley, used for wildlife refuge and recreation, but another legacy of the 1938 Los Angeles River flood was the post-World War II channelization of all the Valley's dry washes, which along with the post-World War II rapid suburbanization left the Valley with hot, concrete-lined river bottoms instead of greenbelts.
Although now, in part, these are being devolved as interconnecting bike paths. Behind the dam, the Sepulveda Basin is home to several large recreation areas including Woodley Park, a model aircraft field, The Japanese Garden, a wildlife refuge, a water reclamation plant, an armory; the Basin is kept free of urban over-building so that water can build up there during a prospective hundred-year flood. It is an often-used location for car commercials; when the 1914 flood caused $10 million in damages to the developing basin areas, a public outcry began for action to address the recurring flooding problems. During the following year, the Los Angeles County Flood Control District was formed; some of the early flood control efforts included smaller areas of channelization and the planning for needed reservoirs. Taxpayers approved bond issues in 1924 to build the first major dams. However, they were not willing to provide enough funding for the much needed and substantial infrastructure downstream of these dams.
After two more destructive floods in the 1930s, most notably the 1938 flood, federal assistance was requested. The Army Corps of Engineers took a lead role in channelizing the river and constructing several dams which would create flood control basins behind them. Channelization began in 1938, by 1960, the project was completed to form the present fifty-one mile engineered waterway. Included in this work were Hansen Dam, completed in 1940 and followed by Sepulveda Dam in 1941. In 1973, Burbank Blvd was built through the Sepulveda Basin, Woodley Ave was built in the recreation area in 1975. For 28 years the Sepulveda Dam did its job without incident until 1969 when the Los Angeles River overflowed its banks causing millions of dollars in damage. In 1988 the Los Angeles River's banks were raised to avoid another incident. In 1994 a hundred-year flood occurred in the Los Angeles River; the dam was restored and went without incident for another 11 years until the Los Angeles River again overflowed its banks in 2005.
During the 2028 Summer Olympics, the area around the dam will host Canoe Slalom and Shooting. The 2,000-acre Sepulveda Basin Recreation Area is a flood control basin managed by the Los Angeles City Department of Recreation and Parks. Woodley Park is a large city park located on Woodley Avenue between Burbank Boulevards; the Leo Magnus Cricket Complex, a dog park, group picnic areas are within the park. The park was opened in 1975; the Japanese Garden is a 6.5 acres public Japanese garden located on the grounds of the Tillman Water Reclamation Plant adjacent to Woodley Park. Lake Balboa Park known as Anthony C. Beilenson Park, is water recreation facility with boat rentals and fishing. Lake Balboa is a 27 acres lake filled with water reclaimed from the Tillman Water Reclamation Plant, it has barbecue pits, children's play area, picnic tables, covered picnic pavilions. There are many Flowering cherry trees in the park; the Sepulveda Basin Wildlife Reserve is at the southeast end of the Sepulveda Flood Control Basin and Recreation Area.
It has two sections, the North Reserve and South Reserve, located north and south of Burbank Boulevard. Both have nature paths and hiking trails. Access and parking are in eastern Woodley Park near to the Tillman Water Reclamation Plant, or from Burbank Boulevard east of Woodley Avenue. Haskell Creek flows through the nature preserve, there are several wildlife ponds. Over 200 species of birds have been seen in the basin. Many, attracted by the water, gather here during spring migrations; the Sepulveda Basin Wildlife Reserve is an ongoing habitat restoration project, with locally native California plants. Native trees include Fremont's cottonwood, Coast live oak, Valley oak, California Black Walnut, California sycamore; the Sepulveda Dam Recreation Area Bike Path is a 9 miles bicycle path route looping around the recreation area. It runs from Victory Boulevard near Interstate 405, westward to White Oak Avenue, south on White Oak to Burbank Boulevard, east on Burbank to Woodley Boulevard, north on Woodley returning to Victory Boulevard.
Public access is continuous along it. A shorter route heads south on Balboa Boulevard, which crosses a natural stretch of the Los Angeles River that lined with native Arroyo willows, California sycamores, other California native plants; the loop sections along Victory and Burbank can be frequented by joggers. The bike path can seasonally have burr-bearing weeds. There is ample free parking available in the public park, sports field