A mandolin is a stringed musical instrument in the lute family and is plucked with a plectrum or "pick". It has four courses of doubled metal strings tuned in unison, although five and six course versions exist; the courses are tuned in a succession of perfect fifths. It is the soprano member of a family that includes the mandola, octave mandolin and mandobass. There are many styles of mandolin, but three are common, the Neapolitan or round-backed mandolin, the carved-top mandolin and the flat-backed mandolin; the round-back has a deep bottom, constructed of strips of wood, glued together into a bowl. The carved-top or arch-top mandolin has a much shallower, arched back, an arched top—both carved out of wood; the flat-backed mandolin uses thin sheets of wood for the body, braced on the inside for strength in a similar manner to a guitar. Each style of instrument is associated with particular forms of music. Neapolitan mandolins feature prominently in traditional music. Carved-top instruments are common in American folk music and bluegrass music.
Flat-backed instruments are used in Irish and Brazilian folk music. Some modern Brazilian instruments feature an extra fifth course tuned a fifth lower than the standard fourth course. Other mandolin varieties differ in the number of strings and include four-string models such as the Brescian and Cremonese, six-string types such as the Milanese and the Sicilian and 6 course instruments of 12 strings such as the Genoese. There has been a twelve-string type and an instrument with sixteen-strings. Much of mandolin development revolved around the soundboard. Pre-mandolin instruments were quiet instruments, strung with as many as six courses of gut strings, were plucked with the fingers or with a quill. However, modern instruments are louder—using four courses of metal strings, which exert more pressure than the gut strings; the modern soundboard is designed to withstand the pressure of metal strings that would break earlier instruments. The soundboard comes in many shapes—but round or teardrop-shaped, sometimes with scrolls or other projections.
There is one or more sound holes in the soundboard, either round, oval, or shaped like a calligraphic f. A round or oval sound hole may be bordered with decorative rosettes or purfling. Mandolins evolved from the lute family in Italy during the 17th and 18th centuries, the deep bowled mandolin, produced in Naples, became common in the 19th century. Dating to c. 13,000 BC, a cave painting in the Trois Frères cave in France depicts what some believe is a musical bow, a hunting bow used as a single-stringed musical instrument. From the musical bow, families of stringed instruments developed. In turn, this led to being able to play chords. Another innovation occurred when the bow harp was straightened out and a bridge used to lift the strings off the stick-neck, creating the lute; this picture of musical bow to harp bow has been contested. In 1965 Franz Jahnel wrote his criticism stating that the early ancestors of plucked instruments are not known, he felt that the harp bow was a long cry from the sophistication of the 4th-century BC civilization that took the primitive technology and created "technically and artistically well made harps, lyres and lutes."
Musicologists have put forth examples of that 4th-century BC technology, looking at engraved images that have survived. The earliest image showing a lute-like instrument came from Mesopotamia prior to 3000 BC. A cylinder seal from c. 3100 BC or earlier shows. From the surviving images, theororists have categorized the Mesopotamian lutes, showing that they developed into a long variety and a short; the line of long lutes may have developed into pandura. The line of short lutes was further developed to the east of Mesopotamia, in Bactria and Northwest India, shown in sculpture from the 2nd century BC through the 4th or 5th centuries AD. Bactria and Gandhara became part of the Sasanian Empire. Under the Sasanians, a short almond shaped lute from Bactria came to be called the barbat or barbud, developed into the Islamic world's oud or ud; when the Moors conquered Andalusia in 711 AD, they brought their ud along, into a country that had known a lute tradition under the Romans, the pandura. During the 8th and 9th centuries, many musicians and artists from across the Islamic world flocked to Iberia.
Among them was Abu l-Hasan ‘Ali Ibn Nafi‘, a prominent musician who had trained under Ishaq al-Mawsili in Baghdad and was exiled to Andalusia before 833 AD. He taught and has been credited with adding a fifth string to his oud and with establishing one of the first schools of music in Córdoba. By the 11th century, Muslim Iberia had become a center for the manufacture of instruments; these goods spread to Provence, influencing French troubadours and trouvères and reaching the rest of Europe. Beside the introduction of the lute to Spain by the Moors, another important point of transfer of the lute from Arabian to European culture was Sicily, where it was brought either by Byzantine or by Muslim musicians. There were singer-lutenists at the court in Palermo following the N
Brett James Cornelius is an American singer and record producer based in Nashville. James' compositions have been credited on 494 recordings by a wide variety of artists. Signed to Career Records as a solo artist in 1995, James charted three singles and released a self-titled debut album that year, he returned to Arista as a recording artist in 2002. Since the early 2000s, James has become known as a songwriter for other country and pop music artists. Among his compositions is Carrie Underwood's 2006 number-one hit "Jesus, Take the Wheel", which received Grammy Awards for Best Country Song and Best Female Country Vocal Performance, his writers' credits include number-one hits for Jessica Andrews, Martina McBride, Kenny Chesney, Rodney Atkins, Jason Aldean. James was born in Missouri. James graduated from Christian Heritage Academy high-school in Del City, Oklahoma in 1986, he attended Baylor University, pledged Sigma Chi Fraternity, graduated in 1991 with a Bachelor of Science Degree. He attended medical school for a time in the early 90's, but dropped out to pursue a musical career as a recording artist on Career Records, a subsidiary of Arista Nashville, in 1995.
That year, he released his self-titled debut album, which included the charting singles "Female Bonding," "If I Could See Love" and "Worth the Fall." Included on this album was "Wake Up and Smell the Whiskey", co-written and released as a single by Dean Miller in 1997. In addition, he appeared on two compilation albums issued by Arista Nashville; the first of these was 1996's Star of Wonder: A Country Christmas, on which he sang "What Child Is This?", the other was a country-gospel album entitled Peace in the Valley, to which he contributed a recording of "What a Friend We Have in Jesus." This latter album was promoted via a special on The Nashville Network, now Spike. In 1998, James and Tammy Graham were both dropped from Career Records when it merged with Arista Nashville. James returned to his singing career in the early 2000s. After declining to join the band Sixwire, he re-signed with Arista Nashville and began working with producer Dann Huff. Although he twice charted in the Top 40 of the Hot Country Songs charts with "Chasing Amy" and "After All," he never released a full album.
In 1998, James was at a low point: he had left medical school at the University of Oklahoma after one year to go to Nashville to make a career, but after nine months of waiting tables and attending many open mic nights, he had not had much success, he was dropped from his recording and publishing deals. James thought he was according to entertainment writer David Ross. James met with Producer Mark Bright who agreed to sign him for little money to Bright's new publishing company, "Teracel Music", as its first and only writer. SIx weeks into the agreement, James was decided to go back. Bright asked him if he would continue to write songs anyway, to satisfy the one-year agreement, James promised to write every third day, he kept his promise saying, "It was a big creative shift—letting go of the dream of being a big star and just trying to write some cool music." He wrote many songs including "Jesus, Take the Wheel" and "Cowboy Casanova" for Teracel, his songs were recorded by artists such as Faith Hill, Kenny Chesney, Tim McGraw, Jason Aldean, Jessica Andrews, Martina McBride and Carrie Underwood.
Within the year's contract with Teracel, James had a hot streak of 33 songs to be recorded by major artists. In 2000, James quit school for a final time; the dean of the medical school agreed with James that his success as a songwriter was undeniable and wished him well, saying, "You have to go and do this... but you can't come back". His singles for other artists in the early 2000s included the number-one hits "Who I Am" by Jessica Andrews and "Blessed" by Martina McBride, he continued to write for other artists, with two more of his songs topping the charts: "When the Sun Goes Down" by Kenny Chesney and Uncle Kracker, "Jesus, Take the Wheel" by Carrie Underwood, in 2004 and 2006 respectively. "Jesus, Take the Wheel" won a Grammy Award for Best Female Country Vocal Performance and Best Country Song, the latter of, awarded to James and the song's other two songwriters. Rodney Atkins' "It's America", Chesney's "Out Last Night" and Carrie Underwood's "Cowboy Casanova", all co-written by James topped the country charts in 2009.
In 2010 James charted number one with Jason Aldean's "The Truth" and Chris Young's "The Man I Want to Be". ASCAP named James their country songwriter of the year in 2006 and again in 2010. Non-country artists who have recorded his works include Kelly Clarkson, Backstreet Boys, Bon Jovi and Paulina Rubio. James co-wrote American Idol season 10 winner Scotty McCreery's debut single "I Love You This Big". In 2008, James began working as a record producer, with his production credits including Gracin's We Weren't Crazy, Kristy Lee Cook's Why Wait, a re-release of Taylor Swift's self-titled debut album, Jessica Simpson's Do You Know and Kip Moore's Up All Night. James' songwriting credits include seven Number One hits. Besides these, he has co-written several other Top 10 country hits, including cuts by Rascal Flatts, Josh Gracin, Sara Evans, Tim McGraw, others
Now (Jessica Andrews album)
Now is the third album by country music singer Jessica Andrews. It was released on April 15, 2003; the single "There's More to Me Than You" served as its lead-off single, reaching Top 20 on the country charts. "Good Time" was a single, peaking at number 49 on the country charts. Several of the album's songs, including lead single "There's More to Me Than You", were written by Marcel, who would become Andrews's husband. Now is Andrews' last album, although she had multiple single releases afterward. In 2004, she recorded a duet with Bret Michaels of Poison titled "All I Ever Needed". After it, she released two singles for an unreleased fourth album for DreamWorks which would have been titled Ain't That Life, plus one single for Carolwood Records; the album was produced by Byron Gallimore, the producer of Andrews' previous two albums, except for the track "Second Sunday", produced by James Stroud and Billy Mann. Stephen Thomas Erlewine of Allmusic rated the album 4.5 out of 5 stars, concluding his review by saying: "But if this does have an adult-pop bent, it's still done better than nearly any other adult-pop in 2003, the times that Now does loosen up offer tantalizing possibilities of where Andrews could go next.
And, no matter which way you cut it, as of this writing Now is one of the best mainstream pop albums of 2003, with only Kelly Clarkson's Thankful rivaling it in consistency and quality." "There's More to Me Than You" – 3:46 "When Gentry Plays Guitar" – 3:45 "I Wish for You" – 4:07 "To Love You Once" – 3:55 "I Bring It to You" – 3:35 "Never Be Forgotten" – 3:48 "They Are the Roses" – 4:11 "Sunshine and Love" – 4:11 "You're the Man" – 4:12 "Cowboy Guarantee" – 5:01 "Now" – 4:47 "Second Sunday" – 3:32 "Windows on a Train" – 3:57 "God Don't Give Up on Us" – 4:07 "Good Time" – 4:26 "There's More To Me Than You" – 4:46 hidden track Compiled from liner notes. Byron Gallimore – production.
Melba Montgomery is an American country music singer. She is best known for her duet recordings in the 1960s with country music star George Jones and Charlie Louvin. In the 1970s, Montgomery was a successful solo artist in her own right, her best-known solo hit is the No. 1 hit, "No Charge". Montgomery was born into a musical family on October 14, 1938, in Iron City and raised in Florence, Alabama, she gained her first exposure to music through her father, a fiddler and guitarist who taught vocal lessons at the town's Methodist church. She started playing guitar at the age of ten. Music became a important part of Montgomery's life and she soon had serious dreams about achieving success in the country music industry. At age 20, Montgomery and her brother won an amateur talent contest held at Nashville radio station WSM's Studio C, which at that time housed the Grand Ole Opry. Montgomery gained a recording contract with United Artists Records in 1962 with the help of singer/promoter Roy Acuff. Montgomery went solo in 1962.
She wrote "We Must Have Been Out of Our Minds". The song spent over thirty weeks on the Billboard Country chart, peaked at No. 3 by 1963. It became the duo's best-known song together; the single's success brought a successful duet album with Jones as well, which released two other Top 20 hit singles, "Let's Invite Them Over" and "What's in Our Hearts". After finding success as a duet artist, Montgomery found the time to release a solo album. In 1964, Montgomery's America's No. 1 Country and Western Girl Singer. The album brought about a top 25 hit for Montgomery, "The Greatest One of All", which peaked at No. 22 on the Billboard Country Chart. For the rest of the decade, Montgomery had a few other minor solo hits, none of which made the country top 40. Jones continued to duet with Montgomery. However, in 1966, Montgomery was partnered with Gene Pitney for a duet album, Being Together, which spawned a top 15 hit, "Baby, Ain't That Fine". Although they parted ways, singles continued to be released by the duo of Jones and Montgomery, including "Did You Ever," which reached the top 30, followed by the minor hits "Baby, What's Wrong With Us" and "A Man Likes Things Like That", which were released only as singles in 1972.
In 1973, Montgomery switched to Elektra Records. Off her debut album off the label, Montgomery had a top 40 hit single, "Wrap Your Love Around Me," her first solo single to reach this far on the country charts in nearly ten years. Released in 1974, "No Charge" became a No. 1 country hit on the Billboard country chart, as well as top 40 hit on the Billboard pop chart. The song and the album became successful, Montgomery's only top 10 hit as a solo artist; the title track off of Montgomery's follow-up album, Don't Let the Good Times Fool You reached the top 15 in 1975, the only top 40 hit from the album. Subsequent singles released from the album, "Searchin'" and "Your Pretty Roses Come too Late" did not bring much success. However, in 1977, under United Artists, Montgomery released a self-titled album, a cover version of Merrilee Rush's pop hit, "Angel of the Morning" that reached the top 25; the single was Montgomery's last major country hit. In 1986, Montgomery released her last single, "Straight Talkin'", which peaked at No. 78.
Within the past 20 to 30 years, Montgomery has focused her career on songwriting. She has written songs for such artists as George Strait, Reba McEntire, Randy Travis, George Jones, Patty Loveless, Travis Tritt, Tracy Byrd, Terri Clark, John Prine, Jim Lauderdale, Sara Evans, Eddy Arnold, Connie Smith, Leon Russell, J. D. Souther, Rhonda Vincent, many more, she co-wrote George Strait's top five single. Montgomery has written many of her songs with various co-writers such as Jim Collins, Leslie Satcher, Jerry Salley, Steve Leslie, Jim Lauderdale, Verlon Thompson, J. D. Souther, Stephony Smith, Bill Anderson, Jennifer Kimball, Kathy Louvin, Carl Jackson, Larry Cordle, Larry Shell, Buddy Cannon, Jim "Moose" Brown, Tommy Polk, Kim Richey, Al Anderson, Clint Daniels, Tommy Karlas, Tommy Collins, brothers Earl "Peanut" Montgomery and Carl Montgomery. Official website CMT.com: Melba Montgomery Melba Montgomery Attends Martha Carson's 80th Birthday Celebration Melba Montgomery Biography at Allmusic Slipcue Country Music Guide - artist profile
Glenn Worf is an American session bassist. He has recorded with most major country music acts and tours with Mark Knopfler. Worf was born in Dayton, but grew up in Madison and has concentrated on the bass guitar since he was thirteen, he majored in music at the University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire. He abandoned the local scene and moved to Nashville. In addition to his studio work he performs in and around Nashville with the likes of Mike Henderson and Kevin Welch. Throughout his career, Worf has recorded with numerous performers including Bryan Adams, Trace Adkins, Craig Campbell, Billy Ray Cyrus, Alan Jackson, Wynonna Judd, Toby Keith, Martina McBride, Reba McEntire, Tim McGraw, Mark Knopfler, Jimmy Buffett, Miranda Lambert, Aaron Neville, Lee Roy Parnell, Kellie Pickler, Kenny Rogers, Bob Seger, Shania Twain, Keith Urban, Lee Ann Womack, Tammy Wynette, he is most well known for his work with former Dire Straits front man Mark Knopfler. Worf has contributed double and electric bass parts to every Knopfler solo album and is a member of his touring band.
He contributed to the BBC documentary on Knopfler, Mark Knopfler: a Life in Songs, shown on BBC 4 on 28 January 2011
Maria Luisa McKee is an American singer-songwriter. She is best known for her work with Lone Justice, her 1990 UK solo chart-topping hit, "Show Me Heaven", her song "If Love Is a Red Dress" from the film Pulp Fiction, she is the half-sister of Bryan MacLean, best known as a guitarist and vocalist in the band Love. McKee was a founding member of the cowpunk and proto Americana band, Lone Justice, in 1982, with whom she released two albums. Several compilations of both released and unreleased material and a BBC Live in Concert album have been released since the group disbanded. Bob Dylan wrote the song "Go Away Little Boy" for the band's debut album, Lone Justice, which appeared as a B-side; the band opened for such acts as Tom Petty. During this period of her career she was managed by Jimmy Iovine; when she was 19, she wrote Feargal Sharkey's 1985 song, "A Good Heart", which she has since recorded and released on her album Late December. Sharkey also covered "To Miss Someone" on his third solo album "Songs From The Mardi Gras".
In 1987 she appeared in the Robbie Robertson music video "Somewhere Down the Crazy River" and contributed back-up vocals to his debut solo album, which included the song. She released her first solo, self-titled album in 1989. On the album Richard Thompson played Steve Wickham from The Waterboys played fiddle, it received critical acclaim in Europe. Her song "Show Me Heaven", which appeared on the soundtrack to the film Days of Thunder, was a number one single in the UK for four weeks in 1990, she performed this song in public up until when she sang it at Dublin Pride. Her song "If Love Is a Red Dress, Hang Me in Rags" was selected by Quentin Tarantino for his feature film Pulp Fiction, it is the only original song on the soundtrack. In 1992 she released the song "Sweetest Child", produced by Youth and featured Robert "Throb" Young from the band Primal Scream. Following her debut, McKee has released two live albums; the album Life Is Sweet debuted McKee's lead guitar work described as "feral" by Mojo magazine which listed it as runner up to album of the year in their critics poll.
The raw postmodern album represented a smash up of her roots rock persona and is seen as a demarcation event in her career. It is now considered a minor classic and out of print; the three, High Dive, Peddlin' Dreams and Late December, were released independently via her own Viewfinder Records label. In 1995, Bette Midler recorded McKee's tracks "To Deserve You" and "The Last Time" for her platinum album Bette of Roses. In 1998, The Dixie Chicks recorded McKee's "Am I the Only One" and included it on their Grammy-nominated album Wide Open Spaces. McKee appears on the 2014 compilation Songs from a Stolen Spring that paired Western musicians with artists from the Arab Spring. On the album, McKee's performance of the Tony Joe White song "Ol' Mother Earth" was meshed with "I Still Exist" by the Egyptian band Massar Egbari, she recorded a medley of "Ride a White Swan" and "She Was Born to Be My Unicorn" for the Marc Bolan tribute album, Angel Headed Hipster, produced by Hal Wilner. The album includes tracks by Gavin Friday, Father John Misty and Nick Cave.
In addition to writing Sharkey's hit "A Good Heart", McKee has contributed to the Victoria Williams' tribute album Sweet Relief, on the song "Opelousas". She has provided backing vocals to U2's cover of Creedence Clearwater Revival's "Fortunate Son", as well as to the Counting Crows' 1993 debut August and Everything After on "Sullivan Street" and "Mr. Jones". On Robin Zander's 1993 solo album she sang backing vocals for the track "Reactionary Girl", she sang backing vocals on Robbie Robertson's debut and self-titled solo album, on the track "American Roulette". Much lesser known is her contribution of lead and co-lead vocals on two tracks on a contemporary Christian praise and worship album called Come As You Are. McKee contributed a song, "Never Be You," for the soundtrack to the Walter Hill movie Streets of Fire, she recorded a duet, "Friends in Time", with The Golden Horde on their eponymously titled album in 1991. She recorded another duet, "This Road is Long," with Stuart A. Staples of the band Tindersticks on his 2006 album.
In addition she co-wrote the duet, titled "Promise You Anything," with Steve Earle which appeared on his 1990 album, The Hard Way. She teamed with Dwight Yoakam for a duet on "Bury Me," from his 1986 debut, Cadillacs, Etc. Etc. McKee contributed the lyrics and vocals to the song "No Big Bang" on the only album by The Heads, No Talking, Just Head playing guitar and synthesizer on the song together with the band ex-members of Talking Heads. In 2016, she performed the Blind Willie Johnson song, "Let Your Light Shine On Me", on the tribute album God Don't Never Change: The Songs of Blind Willie Johnson. In 2013, McKee and her husband, Jim Akin, self-released their first independent feature film, After the Triumph of Your Birth, through their production company, Shootist Films; the film was written, shot and edited by Akin and features McKee in her acting debut as an ensemble cast member. They scored the film together and the soundtrack was released in 2012. Shootist Films' second feature film The Ocean of Helena Lee was released May 2015 with accompanying soundtrack.
The film played a week run at The American Cinematheq
Dobro is an American brand of resonator guitar owned by the Gibson Guitar Corporation. In popular usage, the term is used as a generic trademark for any wood-bodied, single-cone resonator guitar; the Dobro was made by the Dopyera brothers when they formed the Dobro Manufacturing Company. Their design, with a single inverted resonator, was introduced to compete with the patented Tricone and biscuit designs produced by the National String Instrument Corporation; the Dobro name appeared on other instruments, notably electric lap steel guitars and solid body electric guitars and on other resonator instruments such as Safari resonator mandolins. The name originated in 1928 when the Dopyera brothers and Emil, formed the Dobro Manufacturing Company. Dobro is a word meaning ` good' in their native Slovak. An early company motto was "Dobro means good in any language." The Dobro was the third resonator guitar design by John Dopyera, the inventor of the resonator guitar, but the second to enter production.
Unlike his earlier tricone design, the Dobro had a single resonator cone and it was inverted, with its concave surface facing up. The Dobro company described this as a bowl shaped resonator; the Dobro was cheaper to produce. In Dopyera's opinion, the cost of manufacture had priced the resonator guitar beyond the reach of many players, his failure to convince his fellow directors at the National String Instrument Corporation to produce a single-cone version was a motivating factor for leaving. Since National had applied for a patent on the single cone, Dopyera had to develop an alternative design, he did this by inverting the cone so that, rather than having the strings rest on the apex of the cone as the National method did, they rested on a cast aluminum spider that had eight legs sitting on the perimeter of the downward-pointing cone. In the following years both Dobro and National built a wide variety of metal- and wood-bodied single-cone guitars, while National continued with the Tricone for a time.
Both companies sourced many components from National director Adolph Rickenbacher, John Dopyera remained a major shareholder in National. By 1934, the Dopyera brothers had gained control of both National and Dobro, they merged the companies to form the National-Dobro Corporation. From the outset, wooden bodies had been sourced from existing guitar manufacturers the plywood student guitar bodies made by the Regal Musical Instrument Company. Dobro had granted Regal a license to manufacture resonator instruments. By 1937, it was the only manufacturer, the license was made exclusive. Regal continued to manufacture and sell resonator instruments under many names, including Regal, Old Kraftsman, Ward. However, they ceased all resonator guitar production following the United States entry into World War II in 1941. Emil Dopyera manufactured Dobros from 1959 under the brand name Dopera's Original before selling the company and name to Semie Moseley. Moseley merged it with his Mosrite guitar company and manufactured Dobros for a time.
Meanwhile, in 1967, Rudy and Emil Dopyera formed the Original Musical Instrument Company to manufacture resonator guitars, which they at first branded Hound Dog. However, in 1970, they again acquired the Dobro name—Mosrite having gone into temporary liquidation; the Gibson Guitar Corporation acquired OMI in 1993, along with the Dobro name. They moved production to Nashville. Gibson now uses the name Dobro only for models with the inverted-cone design that the original Dobro Manufacturing Company used. Gibson carries biscuit-style single-resonator guitars, but it sells them under names such as "Hound Dog"; the Dobro was first introduced to country music by Roy Acuff. The name Dobro is generically associated with all resonator designs. Gibson, as the owner of the trademark, reserves the use of the name Dobro as a registered trademark for its own product line. Notwithstanding, the name is sometimes used generically for any resonator guitar, as indicated in such songs as The Ballad of Curtis Loew by Lynyrd Skynyrd, Valium Waltz by the Old 97's, When Papa Played the Dobro by Johnny Cash on the Ride This Train album.
Hound Dog Roundneck Hound Dog Squareneck Hound Dog Deluxe Roundneck Hound Dog Deluxe Squareneck Phil Ledbetter Series Gibson Phil Ledbetter Signature Resonator Gibson Phil Ledbetter Mahogany "Limited Edition" As of 2006, many makers, including Gibson, manufacture resonator guitars similar to the original inverted-cone design. Gibson manufactures biscuit-style resonator guitars, but reserves the Dobro name for its inverted-cone models; these "biscuit" guitars are used for blues and are played vertically instead of horizontally like a "spider" bridge. Contemporary manufacturers of the inverted cone design resonator guitar other than Gibson include Tim Scheerhorn and Paul Beard. Virtuoso resonator guitarist Jerry Douglas has used guitars from these builders for nearly three decades. Both Scheerhorn and Beard produce instruments of a radically different structural design to the original Dobro instruments, while retaining the inverted cone and spider bridge. Dobro products on Epiphone website "History of the Pre-War Dobro" by Randy Getz Dobro Valpro at Elderly.com