BBC Television is a service of the British Broadcasting Corporation. The corporation has operated in the United Kingdom under the terms of a royal charter since 1927, it produced television programmes from its own studios since 1932, although the start of its regular service of television broadcasts is dated to 2 November 1936. The BBC's domestic television channels have no commercial advertising and collectively they account for more than 30% of all UK viewing; the services are funded by a television licence. As a result of the 2016 Licence Fee settlement, the BBC Television division was split, with in-house television production being separated into a new division called BBC Studios and the remaining parts of television being renamed as BBC Content; the BBC operates several television networks, television stations, related programming services in the United Kingdom. As well as being a broadcaster, the corporation produces a large number of its own programmes in-house and thereby ranks as one of the world's largest television production companies.
John Logie Baird set up the Baird Television Development Company in 1926. Baird used his electromechanical system with a vertically-scanned image of 30 lines, just enough resolution for a close-up of one person, a bandwidth low enough to use existing radio transmitters; the simultaneous transmission of sound and pictures was achieved on 30 March 1930, by using the BBC's new twin transmitter at Brookmans Park. By late 1930, thirty minutes of morning programmes were broadcast from Monday to Friday, thirty minutes at midnight on Tuesdays and Fridays after BBC radio went off the air. Baird's broadcasts via the BBC continued until June 1932; the BBC began its own regular television programming from the basement of Broadcasting House, London, on 22 August 1932. The studio moved to larger quarters in 16 Portland Place, London, in February 1934, continued broadcasting the 30-line images, carried by telephone line to the medium wave transmitter at Brookmans Park, until 11 September 1935, by which time advances in all-electronic television systems made the electromechanical broadcasts obsolete.
After a series of test transmissions and special broadcasts that began in August 1936, the BBC Television Service launched on 2 November 1936 from a converted wing of Alexandra Palace in London. "Ally Pally" housed two studios, various scenery stores, make-up areas, dressing rooms and the transmitter itself, which broadcast on the VHF band. BBC television used two systems on alternate weeks: the 240-line Baird intermediate film system and the 405-line Marconi-EMI system; the use of both formats made the BBC's service the world's first regular high-definition television service. The first programme broadcast – and thus the first on a dedicated TV channel – was "Opening of the BBC Television Service" at 15:00; the first major outside broadcast was the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth in May 1937. The two systems were to run on a trial basis for six months. However, the Baird system, which used a mechanical camera for filmed programming and Farnsworth image dissector cameras for live programming, proved too cumbersome and visually inferior, ended with closedown on Saturday 13 February 1937.
The station's range was a 40 kilometres radius of the Alexandra Palace transmitter—in practice, transmissions could be picked up a good deal further away, on one occasion in 1938 were picked up by engineers at RCA in New York, who were experimenting with a British television set. The service was reaching an estimated 25,000–40,000 homes before the outbreak of World War II which caused the service to be suspended in September 1939. On 1 September 1939, two days before Britain declared war on Germany, the station was taken off air with little warning. Many of the television service's technical staff and engineers would be needed for the war effort, in particular on the radar programme; the last programme transmitted was a Mickey Mouse cartoon, Mickey's Gala Premier, followed by test transmissions. According to figures from Britain's Radio Manufacturers Association, 18,999 television sets had been manufactured from 1936 to September 1939, when production was halted by the war. BBC Television returned on 7 June 1946 at 15:00.
Jasmine Bligh, one of the original announcers, made the first announcement, saying,'Good afternoon everybody. How are you? Do you remember me, Jasmine Bligh?'. The Mickey Mouse cartoon of 1939 was repeated twenty minutes later. Alexandra Palace was the home base of the channel until the early 1950s when the majority of production moved into the newly acquired Lime Grove Studios. Postwar broadcast coverage was extended to Birmingham in 1949 with the opening of the Sutton Coldfield transmitting station, by the mid-1950s most of the country was covered, transmitting a 405-line interlaced image on VHF; when the ITV was launched in 1955, the BBC Television Service showed popular programming, including comedies, documentaries, game shows, soap operas, covering a wide range
In a modern sense, comedy refers to any discourse or work intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter in theatre, film, stand-up comedy, or any other medium of entertainment. The origins of the term are found in Ancient Greece. In the Athenian democracy, the public opinion of voters was influenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theaters; the theatrical genre of Greek comedy can be described as a dramatic performance which pits two groups or societies against each other in an amusing agon or conflict. Northrop Frye depicted these two opposing sides as a "Society of Youth" and a "Society of the Old." A revised view characterizes the essential agon of comedy as a struggle between a powerless youth and the societal conventions that pose obstacles to his hopes. In this struggle, the youth is understood to be constrained by his lack of social authority, is left with little choice but to take recourse in ruses which engender dramatic irony which provokes laughter.
Satire and political satire use comedy to portray persons or social institutions as ridiculous or corrupt, thus alienating their audience from the object of their humor. Parody subverts popular genres and forms, critiquing those forms without condemning them. Other forms of comedy include screwball comedy, which derives its humor from bizarre, surprising situations or characters, black comedy, characterized by a form of humor that includes darker aspects of human behavior or human nature. Scatological humor, sexual humor, race humor create comedy by violating social conventions or taboos in comic ways. A comedy of manners takes as its subject a particular part of society and uses humor to parody or satirize the behavior and mannerisms of its members. Romantic comedy is a popular genre that depicts burgeoning romance in humorous terms and focuses on the foibles of those who are falling in love; the word "comedy" is derived from the Classical Greek κωμῳδία kōmōidía, a compound either of κῶμος kômos or κώμη kṓmē and ᾠδή ōidḗ.
The adjective "comic", which means that which relates to comedy is, in modern usage confined to the sense of "laughter-provoking". Of this, the word came into modern usage through the Latin comoedia and Italian commedia and has, over time, passed through various shades of meaning; the Greeks and Romans confined their use of the word "comedy" to descriptions of stage-plays with happy endings. Aristotle defined comedy as an imitation of men worse than the average. However, the characters portrayed in comedies were not worse than average in every way, only insofar as they are Ridiculous, a species of the Ugly; the Ridiculous may be defined as a deformity not productive of pain or harm to others. In the Middle Ages, the term expanded to include narrative poems with happy endings, it is in this sense that Dante used the term in the title of La Commedia. As time progressed, the word came more and more to be associated with any sort of performance intended to cause laughter. During the Middle Ages, the term "comedy" became synonymous with satire, with humour in general.
Aristotle's Poetics was translated into Arabic in the medieval Islamic world, where it was elaborated upon by Arabic writers and Islamic philosophers, such as Abu Bischr, his pupils Al-Farabi and Averroes. They disassociated comedy from Greek dramatic representation and instead identified it with Arabic poetic themes and forms, such as hija, they viewed comedy as the "art of reprehension", made no reference to light and cheerful events, or to the troubling beginnings and happy endings associated with classical Greek comedy. After the Latin translations of the 12th century, the term "comedy" gained a more general meaning in medieval literature. In the late 20th century, many scholars preferred to use the term laughter to refer to the whole gamut of the comic, in order to avoid the use of ambiguous and problematically defined genres such as the grotesque and satire. Starting from 425 BCE, Aristophanes, a comic playwright and satirical author of the Ancient Greek Theater, wrote 40 comedies, 11 of which survive.
Aristophanes developed his type of comedy from the earlier satyr plays, which were highly obscene. The only surviving examples of the satyr plays are by Euripides, which are much examples and not representative of the genre. In ancient Greece, comedy originated in bawdy and ribald songs or recitations apropos of phallic processions and fertility festivals or gatherings. Around 335 BCE, Aristotle, in his work Poetics, stated that comedy originated in phallic processions and the light treatment of the otherwise base and ugly, he adds that the origins of comedy are obscure because it was not treated from its inception. However, comedy had its own Muse: Thalia. Aristotle taught that comedy was positive for society, since it brings forth happiness, which for Aristotle was the ideal state, the final goal in any activity. For Aristotle, a comedy did not need to involve sexual humor. A comedy is about the fortunate rise of a sympathetic character. Aristotle divides comedy into three categories or subgenres: farce, romantic comedy, satire.
On the contrary, Plato taught. He believed that it produces an emotion that overrides ra
Baghdad is the capital of Iraq. The population of Baghdad, as of 2016, is 8,765,000, making it the largest city in Iraq, the second largest city in the Arab world, the second largest city in Western Asia. Located along the Tigris River, the city was founded in the 8th century and became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate. Within a short time of its inception, Baghdad evolved into a significant cultural and intellectual center for the Islamic world. This, in addition to housing several key academic institutions, as well as hosting multiethnic and multireligious environment, garnered the city a worldwide reputation as the "Centre of Learning". Baghdad was the largest city of the Middle Ages for much of the Abbasid era, peaking at a population of more than a million; the city was destroyed at the hands of the Mongol Empire in 1258, resulting in a decline that would linger through many centuries due to frequent plagues and multiple successive empires. With the recognition of Iraq as an independent state in 1938, Baghdad regained some of its former prominence as a significant center of Arab culture.
In contemporary times, the city has faced severe infrastructural damage, most due to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the subsequent Iraq War that lasted until December 2011. In recent years, the city has been subjected to insurgency attacks; the war had resulted in a substantial loss of historical artifacts as well. As of 2018, Baghdad was listed as one of the least hospitable places in the world to live, ranked by Mercer as the worst of 231 major cities as measured by quality-of-life; the name Baghdad is pre-Islamic, its origin is disputed. The site where the city of Baghdad developed has been populated for millennia. By the 8th century AD, several villages had developed there, including a Persian hamlet called Baghdad, the name which would come to be used for the Abbasid metropolis. Arab authors, realizing the pre-Islamic origins of Baghdad's name looked for its roots in Persian, they suggested various meanings, the most common of, "bestowed by God". Modern scholars tend to favor this etymology, which views the word as a compound of bagh "god" and dād "given", In Old Persian the first element can be traced to boghu and is related to Slavic bog "god", while the second can be traced to dadāti.
A similar term in Middle Persian is the name Mithradāt, known in English by its Hellenistic form Mithridates, meaning "gift of Mithra". There are a number of other locations in the wider region whose names are compounds of the word bagh, including Baghlan and Bagram in Afghanistan or a village called Bagh-šan in Iran; the name of the town Baghdati in Georgia shares the same etymological origins. A few authors have suggested older origins for the name, in particular the name Bagdadu or Hudadu that existed in Old Babylonian, the Babylonian Talmudic name of a place called "Baghdatha"; some scholars suggested Aramaic derivations. When the Abbasid caliph, al-Mansur, founded a new city for his capital, he chose the name Madinat al-Salaam or City of Peace; this was the official name on coins and other official usage, although the common people continued to use the old name. By the 11th century, "Baghdad" became the exclusive name for the world-renowned metropolis. After the fall of the Umayyads, the first Muslim dynasty, the victorious Abbasid rulers wanted their own capital from which they could rule.
They chose a site north of the Sassanid capital of Ctesiphon, on 30 July 762 the caliph Al-Mansur commissioned the construction of the city. It was built under the supervision of the Barmakids. Mansur believed that Baghdad was the perfect city to be the capital of the Islamic empire under the Abbasids. Mansur loved the site so much he is quoted saying: "This is indeed the city that I am to found, where I am to live, where my descendants will reign afterward"; the city's growth was helped by its excellent location, based on at least two factors: it had control over strategic and trading routes along the Tigris, it had an abundance of water in a dry climate. Water exists on both the north and south ends of the city, allowing all households to have a plentiful supply, uncommon during this time. Baghdad eclipsed Ctesiphon, the capital of the Sassanians, located some 30 km to the southeast. Today, all that remains of Ctesiphon is the shrine town of Salman Pak, just to the south of Greater Baghdad.
Ctesiphon itself had replaced and absorbed Seleucia, the first capital of the Seleucid Empire, which had earlier replaced the city of Babylon. According to the traveler Ibn Battuta, Baghdad was one of the largest cities, not including the damage it has received; the residents are Hanbal. Bagdad is home to the grave of Abu Hanifa where there is a cell and a mosque above it; the Sultan of Bagdad, Abu Said Bahadur Khan, was a Tartar king. In its early years, the city was known as a deliberate reminder of an expression in the Qur'an, when it refers to Paradise, it took four years to build. Mansur assembled engineers and art constructionists from around the world to come together and draw up plans for the city. Over 100,000 construction workers came to survey the plans. July was chosen as the starting time because two astrologers, Naubakht Ahva
British Comedy Guide
British Comedy Guide or BCG is a British website covering all forms of British comedy, across all media. At the time of writing, BCG has published guides to more than 7,000 individual British comedies - TV and radio situation comedy, sketch shows, comedy dramas, satire and panel games. Other notable features on BCG include a news section, a message board, interviews with comedians and actors, a series of comment and opinion articles, a searchable merchandise database, a section offering advice to aspiring comedy writers; the website runs The Comedy.co.uk Awards and hosts several podcast series, some of which have won awards. British Comedy Guide attracts over 500,000 unique visitors a month, making it Britain's most-visited comedy-related reference website; the website was founded in August 2003 as the British Sitcom Guide, a website devoted to British sitcom TV programmes. The website was established by Mark Boosey, a freelance web developer as a hobby. However, in 2008, it was decided to expand the remit of the website to cover all forms of British comedy, thus the BSG was re-launched as British Comedy Guide or BCG, has continued to expand since this point.
Other features added since the site's re-launch in 2008 as British Comedy Guide include a series of podcasts, a section featuring interviews with people working in the British comedy industry and a Twitter-based news service. The website went through another relaunch in 2016, where it underwent a re-design of the layout, a new logo, increased coverage of online comedy and people working in British comedy. In 2015, BCG's data specialist Ian Wolf was awarded the inaugural "Unsung Hero" at the first FringePig Ham Fist awards for his work collating reviews during that year's Edinburgh Festival Fringe. BCG hosts a range of podcasts; as It Occurs To Me was nominated for a Sony Radio Academy Award in 2010, Do The Right Thing won the Bronze Sony Award for "Best Internet Programme" in 2012, Pappy's Flatshare Slamdown won the 2012 Loaded Lafta award for "Best Podcast", Richard Herring's Leicester Square Theatre Podcast won the Bronze Sony Radio Award for comedy in 2013. In June 2013, an episode of Richard Herring's Leicester Square Theatre Podcast saw host Richard Herring interviewing Stephen Fry, in which Fry revealed that he had attempted to commit suicide.
The story was reported across the media, including the BBC and Sky News. The podcasts hosted by BCG are: In January 2007, the website launched The British Sitcom Guide Awards, which were renamed The British Comedy Guide Awards and are now known as The Comedy.co.uk Awards. The awards are notable for allowing the public to choose the winners via an online poll, but with no shortlist - all broadcast programmes are available to choose; this differs from the British Comedy Awards which relies on broadcasters to put their programmes forward for nomination, only uses a small panel of judges to determine the results. Additionally, The Comedy.co.uk Awards seeks to name not just the winners, but the worst programme in each category too. In order to be considered for a Comedy.co.uk Award, a programme must be a British comedy which has had at least one new episode broadcast on British TV or radio between 1 January and 31 December of the previous year. The only exception is shows which span across the new year, in which case it is nominated only in the first of the years.
Up until the 2015 awards the visitors taking part in the poll are asked to give three votes in each category: one to their favourite show, one to their second favourite show, one to their least favourite show. The vote for "top favourite" scores two points for the selected programme, a vote for a "second favourite" scores one; the comedy programme with the most points is declared the winner in that category. The show which receives the highest number of "worst" votes is declared the worst comedy in that category; the 2016 awards change format, removing the "worst" categories, people voting for the top three programmes, with their favourite show scoring three points, their second favourite two points, their third favourite one point. In the first week of voting all comedies from the year could be voted on, in the second week the six most popular shows in every category formed a shortlist. All of the awards are voted for by the website's users except one, the British Comedy Guide Editors' Award, an award voted for just by the controllers of the guide, is given "to the show, channel, or indeed anything else comedy related that deserves some recognition."
The first awards were presented in January 2007 and were known at the time as The British Sitcom Guide Awards 2006, but have since been renamed. Below are the awards; the second awards were presented in January 2008 under the title The British Sitcom Guide Awards 2007. Below are the results; the third awards were the first to include radio shows. The 2008 awards were known as the British Comedy Guide Awards 2008, but were renamed in 2009 to reflect the website's new URL. Below are the awards; the fourth awards were presented in January 2010. Below are the results; the fifth awards were presented in January 2011. Below are the results; the sixth awards were presented on 23 January 2012. Below are the results; the seventh awards were presented on 21 January 2013. Below are the results; the eighth awards were presented on 20 January 2014. Below are the results; the ninth awards were presented on 26 January 2015. Below are the results; the tenth awards were presented on 1 February 2016. Below are the results.
The 11th awards will be presented on 23 January 2016. Below are the winners; the 12th awards will be presente
John Howard Davies
John Howard Davies was an English child actor who became a television director and producer. Davies was born in Paddington, the son of Jack Davies, a film critic and prolific scriptwriter for Gainsborough and Elstree studios, the novelist Dorothy Davies. Known to his friends as JHD, his credits as a child actor include the title role at the age of nine in David Lean's production Oliver Twist, followed by The Rocking Horse Winner, Tom Brown's Schooldays and a few episodes of the TV series William Tell. After a basic education at Haileybury School, he gained further education in Grenoble, followed by national service in the Navy. On de-mob, Davies worked in the City of London financial sector, as a carpet salesman. Ending up in Melbourne, Australia, he returned to acting and met his first wife Leonie when they both appeared in The Sound of Music, he was stage manager for The Sound of Music for two years touring New Zealand. Back in Britain he tried selling oil to industry in Wembley, he is best known for his adult career as a director and producer of several successful British sitcoms.
Returning to the UK, Davies became a BBC production assistant during 1966, was promoted to producer in 1968. During this early period Davies worked on sketch shows such as The World of Beachcomber, the earliest episodes of Monty Python's Flying Circus and The Goodies, he directed the young Anthony Hopkins in the first episode of the Biography series in "Danton", written by Arden Winch. He worked on All Gas and Gaiters and the seventh series of Steptoe and Son in 1972, he left the BBC to become managing director of EMI Television Productions in 1973, but soon returned to the corporation. From this time came Fawlty Towers; the actress the writers wished to cast as Sybil was uninterested, casting Prunella Scales was Davies's idea. Davies was producer for all four series of The Good Life, he was the BBC's Head of Comedy from 1977–82 Head of Light Entertainment, before joining Thames Television in 1985. Thames was an ITV contractor, for which Davies was head of light entertainment from 1988. During the last role he was cited by the popular press as the man who sacked comedian Benny Hill when the company decided not to renew his contract after a connection lasting 20 years.
He told Hill's biographer Mark Lewisohn, "It's dangerous to have a show on ITV that doesn't appeal to women, because they hold the purse strings, in a sense." He was appointed a controller of BBC. During this period he worked on No Job for a Lady and Mr. Bean, returning to the BBC in the 1990s. Davies died from cancer on 22 August 2011 at his home in Oxfordshire, he married his third wife, Linda, in 2005. John Holmstrom, The Moving Picture Boy: An International Encyclopaedia from 1895 to 1995, Michael Russell, 1996, p. 211. John Howard Davies on IMDb The TV IV - John Howard Davies
Derek Francis was an English comedy and character actor. He was a regular in the Carry On film players, appearing in six of the films in the 1970s, he appeared in The Tomb of the last film in Roger Corman's Edgar Allan Poe series. He took roles in several BBC adaptations of Charles Dickens novels, his last role was in the 1984 version of A Christmas Carol. Other roles included parts in television series of the period such as Rising Damp, Bless Me, The Professionals, The Sweeney, Sherlock Holmes, The New Avengers, Danger Man, Jason King, Up Pompeii!, Wild Women, Coronation Street, Z-Cars. He appeared as the Emperor Nero, a comic turn in the early Doctor Who story entitled The Romans opposite William Hartnell, his most prominent role was as the sub-prior in charge of novices in Oh Brother!. Among his stage roles was the title character in Cymbeline for the Old Vic in 1957, he died of a heart attack in London. Derek Francis on IMDb
Ba'athist Iraq, formally the Iraqi Republic, covers the history of Iraq between 1968 and 2003, during the period of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party's rule. This period began with high economic growth and soaring prosperity, but ended with Iraq facing social and economic stagnation; the average annual income decreased because of several external factors, several internal policies of the government. Iraqi President Abdul Rahman Arif, Iraqi Prime Minister Tahir Yahya, were ousted during the 17 July coup d'état led by Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr of the Ba'ath Party, which had held power in 1963 and was led by al-Bakr, its leader, Saddam Hussein. Saddam through his post as de facto chief of the party's intelligence services, became the country's de facto leader by the mid-1970s, became de jure leader in 1979 when he succeeded al-Bakr in office as President. During al-Bakr's de jure rule, the country's economy grew, Iraq's standing within the Arab world increased. However, several internal factors were threatening the country's stability, among them the country's conflict with Iran and factions within Iraq's own Shia Muslim community.
An external problem was the border conflict with Iran. Saddam became the President of Iraq, Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council, Prime Minister and General Secretary of the Regional Command of the Ba'ath Party in 1979, during a wave of anti-government protests in Iraq led by Shias; the Ba'ath Party, secular in nature, harshly repressed the protests. Another policy change was Iraq's foreign policy towards a Shia Muslim country. Deteriorating relations led to the Iran–Iraq War, which started in 1980 when Iraq launched a full-scale invasion of Iran. Following the 1979 Iranian revolution, the Iraqis believed the Iranians to be weak, thus an easy target for their military; this notion proved to be incorrect, the war lasted for eight years. Iraq's economy deteriorated during the war, the country became dependent on foreign donations to fund their war effort; the war ended in a stalemate when a ceasefire was reached in 1988, which resulted in a status quo ante bellum. When the war ended, Iraq found itself in the midst of an economic depression, owed millions of dollars to foreign countries, was unable to repay its creditors.
Kuwait, which had deliberately increased oil output following the war, reducing international oil prices, further weakened the Iraqi economy. In response to this, Saddam threatened Kuwait that, unless it reduced its oil output, Iraq would invade. Negotiations broke down, on 2 August 1990, Iraq launched an invasion of Kuwait; the resulting international response led to the Persian Gulf War. The United Nations initiated economic sanctions in the war's aftermath to weaken the Ba'athist Iraqi regime; the country's economic conditions worsened during the 1990s, at the turn of the 21st century, Iraq's economy started to grow again as several states ignored the UN's sanctions. In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks of 2001, the United States initiated a Global War on Terrorism, labelled Iraq as a part of an "Axis of Evil". In 2003, U. S. and coalition forces invaded Iraq, the Ba'athist Iraqi regime was deposed less than a month later. In contrast to previous coups d'état in Iraq's history, the 1968 coup, referred to as the 17 July Revolution, according to Con Coughlin, "a civil affair".
The coup started in the early hours of 17 July, when a number of military units and civilian ba'athists seized several key government and military buildings. All telephone lines were cut at 03:00, by which time several tanks had been commanded to halt in front of the Presidential Palace. Abdul Rahman Arif, the then-President of Iraq, first knew of the coup when jubilant members of the Republican Guard started shooting into the air in "a premature triumph". Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, the leader of the operation, told Arif about his situation through military communication hardware at the base of operations. Arif asked for more time; as he soon found out, the odds were against him, he surrendered. Arif told him that he was willing to resign. Al-Bakr's deputies, Hardan al-Tikriti and Saleh Omar al-Ali, were ordered to give Arif this message in person. Arif and his wife and son were sent on the first available flight to London, UK; that morning, a ba'athist broadcast announced that a new government had been established.
The coup was carried out with such ease. The coup succeeded because of contributions made by the military; the Ba'ath Party managed to make a deal with Abd ar-Razzaq an-Naif, the deputy head of military intelligence, Ibrahim Daud, the head of the Republican Guard. Both Naif and Daud knew that the long-term survival of Arif's and Tahir Yahya's government looked bleak, but knew that the ba'athists needed them if the coup was to be successful. For his participation in the coup, Naif demanded to be given the post of Prime Minister after the coup as a reward, a symbol for his strength. Daud was "rewarded" with a post. However, not everything was going according to Daud's plan.