August "Gus" Vollmer was the first police chief of Berkeley, California and a leading figure in the development of the field of criminal justice in the United States in the early 20th century. Vollmer was born in New Orleans to German immigrant parents and Philopine Vollmer, his father saw to it both of which he excelled at. Upon his father's death, his mother returned to Germany with her children for two years, after which she returned to New Orleans in 1886, but soon thereafter decided to move her family to San Francisco. In July 1890, the Vollmer family moved across the bay to Berkeley. Before he was 20, August helped organize the North Berkeley Volunteer Fire Department, in 1897, was awarded the Berkeley Fireman medal, he supported his mother and the rest of his family as a partner in Patterson and Vollmer, a hay, grain and coal supply store, at the corner of Shattuck Avenue and Vine Street near a fire station north of downtown Berkeley. In 1898, August enlisted in the United States Marines, fighting in 25 battles in the Spanish–American War in the Philippines.
Vollmer returned to Berkeley. In March 1900, he began working for the local post office. In 1904, Vollmer became a local hero when he leapt onto a runaway railroad freight car on Shattuck Avenue in downtown Berkeley and applied its brakes, preventing a disastrous collision with a passenger coach loaded with commuters at the Berkeley station; this event led to his election as town marshal on April 10, 1905. In 1907, Vollmer was re-elected town marshal, he was elected president of the California Association of Police Chiefs though, by title, he was not yet a police chief himself. In 1909, Berkeley created the office of police chief, Vollmer became the first to hold that office. Drawing on his military experience, his own research, Vollmer reorganized the Berkeley police force. Vollmer had discovered that little literature existed in the United States on the subject of police work, so he located and read a number of European works on the subject, in particular, Criminal Psychology, by Hans Gross, an Austrian criminologist, Memoirs of Vidocq, by Eugène François Vidocq, head of the detective division of the French police in Paris.
He set out on a program of modernization. He established a bicycle patrol and created the first centralized police records system, designed to streamline and organize criminal investigations, he established a call box network. And he trained his deputies in marksmanship. In the ensuing years, Vollmer's reputation as the "father of modern law enforcement" grew, he was the first chief to require that police officers attain college degrees, persuaded the University of California to teach criminal justice. In 1916, UC Berkeley established a criminal justice program, headed by Vollmer. At Berkeley, he taught O. W. Wilson, who went on to become a professor and continued efforts to professionalize policing, by being the first to establish the first police science degree at Municipal University of Wichita; this is seen as the start of criminal justice as an academic field. Vollmer was the first police chief to create a motorized force, placing officers on motorcycles and in cars so that they could patrol a broader area with greater efficiency.
Radios were included in patrol cars. He was the first to use the lie detector, developed at the University of California, in police work. Vollmer supported programs to assist disadvantaged children, was criticized for his leniency towards petty offenders such as drunks and loiterers, he encouraged the employment and training of African American and female police officers. This included the hiring of Walter A. Gordon, who became the recipient of the Benjamin Ide Wheeler Medal in 1955. In 1921, Vollmer was elected president of the International Association of Chiefs of Police. Vollmer left the Berkeley Police Department for a brief stint as police chief of the Los Angeles Police Department from 1923 to 1924, but returned upon being disillusioned by the extent of corruption and hostility towards leadership coming from outside the department. Vollmer married Millicent Gardner in 1924, they had no children. In 1926, Vollmer played himself in the silent serial Officer 444, filmed in Berkeley under the direction of John Ford's brother Francis Ford.
Vollmer contributed to sections of the Wickersham Commission national criminal justice report of 1931, namely to the fourteenth and final volume, The Police, which advocated for a well-selected, well-educated, well-funded professionalized police force. Other portions of the Wickersham report were critical of current police practice. Vollmer was the 1931 recipient of the Benjamin Ide Wheeler Medal, he retired from the Berkeley Police in 1932. He was appointed as a professor of police administration in the Political Science Department at the University of California, went on to found its School of Criminology, he was among the five people elected as the first directors of the East Bay Regional Parks District in 1934. The same year Vollmer was awarded the Public Welfare Medal from the National Academy of Sciences. In 1941, he was instrumental in the establishment of what would become the American Society of Criminology, the leading professional criminological association in the world. Vollmer was against police involvement with the problem of drug addiction.
Vollmer wrote that enforcement of moralistic vice laws leads to police corruption and "engenders disrespect both for law and for the agents of law enforcement." Vollmer supported the es
Newton D. Baker
Newton Diehl Baker Jr. was an American lawyer, Georgist and government official. He served as the 37th mayor of Cleveland, Ohio from 1912 to 1915; as U. S. Secretary of War from 1916 to 1921, Baker presided over the United States Army during World War I. Born in Martinsburg, West Virginia, Baker established a legal practice in Cleveland after graduating from Washington and Lee University School of Law, he became progressive Democratic ally of Mayor Tom L. Johnson. Baker served as city solicitor of Cleveland from 1901 to 1909 before taking office as mayor in 1912; as mayor, he sought public transit reform, hospital improvement, city beautification. Baker supported Woodrow Wilson at the 1912 Democratic National Convention, helping Wilson win the votes of the Ohio delegation. After leaving office, Baker accepted appointment as Secretary of War under President Wilson, he was one of several prominent Georgists appointed to positions in the Wilson Cabinet. Baker presided over the U. S. military's participation in World War I.
He selected General John J. Pershing to command the American Expeditionary Forces, which he insisted act as an independent unit, he returned to BakerHostetler, the legal practice he co-founded. He served as an attorney in Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co. a landmark case that established the constitutionality of zoning laws. He was a strong supporter of the League of Nations and continued to advocate American participation in the League during the 1920s. Beginning in 1928, he served as a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration, he was a candidate for the presidential nomination at the 1932 Democratic National Convention, but the convention chose Franklin D. Roosevelt. Newton Diehl Baker was born on December 3, 1871, in Martinsburg, West Virginia, the son of Newton Diehl Baker Sr. and Mary Ann Baker. Baker's grandfather, Elias Baker, was a staunch unionist, his father, on the contrary, joined the Confederate Army, served as a cavalryman, was wounded and became a northern prisoner of war.
After returning home in 1865, he obtained a medical degree from the University of Maryland Medical School and worked as a physician in Martinsburg until his death in 1906. Baker attended the village schools in Martinsburg through his second year in high school and finished his preparatory training at Episcopal High School in Alexandria, Virginia. In 1892, Baker graduated with bachelor's degree from Johns Hopkins University, where he was a member of Phi Gamma Delta fraternity, he attended lectures of Woodrow Wilson, a visiting professor at the time. After receiving his law degree from Washington and Lee University School of Law in 1894, he tried for a year to establish law practice in Martinsburg, became private secretary to Postmaster General William L. Wilson, who served in the Confederate cavalry with Baker's father, he stayed in Washington, D. C. until June 1897 took a vacation in Europe, returned to Martinsburg. In January 1899, he became a junior partner at McTigne and Baker in Cleveland.
Baker was thin. He was rejected for military service in the Spanish–American War because of poor eyesight; when Baker moved to Cleveland, his political sympathies belonged to the Democratic Party. He became involved in local politics, he helped the Democratic candidate Tom L. Johnson to become the mayor of Cleveland, under his mentorship started his own public career. Johnson was a passionate advocate of Georgist political progressivism. Baker became exposed to Johnson's politics and became a Georgist, he assisted Johnson in his fights against city's utility monopolies, e.g. Cleveland Electric Railway Company owned by Mark Hanna, which made Baker popular among Clevelanders. After serving as city solicitor from 1901 to 1909, he became mayor of the city in 1911; as a city official, Baker's main interests were providing Cleveland with electricity, public transit reform, hospital improvement, city beautification. He was a strong backer of Cleveland College, now a part of Case Western Reserve University.
His crowning achievement as a mayor was the passage of the home rule amendment to the Ohio's constitution, approved by voters in 1912. It granted Cleveland a right to draw its own charter and conduct the city business without state interference; when Baker worked on Wilson's behalf at the Democratic National Convention in Baltimore in 1912, he was considered as a possible vice-presidential contender. He and Wilson had been acquaintances since they were both at Johns Hopkins in the 1890s, Baker played a vital role during Wilson's Democratic nomination for president at the convention by securing votes from Ohio delegates. Wilson wanted to bring him to Washington D. C. Though offered the post twice, Baker declined to serve as United States Secretary of the Interior during President Wilson's first term. In 1916, following his tenure as mayor of Cleveland and two other partners founded the law firm of Baker Hostetler; as the United States considered whether to enter World War I, President Woodrow Wilson named Baker Secretary of War, because Baker was acceptable to advocates and opponents of American participation in the conflict.
The post required legal expertise because of the War Department's role in administering the Philippines, the Panama Canal, Puerto Rico. The New York Times called him a "warm supporter" of the President. At 44, he was the youngest member of the Cabinet. One historian described his relationship to the military: A civilian's civilian, Baker saw the military as a necessity, but he had no awe of people in uniform, no romantic f
Franklin P. Adams
Franklin Pierce Adams was an American columnist known as Franklin P. Adams and by his initials F. P. A.. Famed for his wit, he is best known for his newspaper column, "The Conning Tower", his appearances as a regular panelist on radio's Information Please. A prolific writer of light verse, he was a member of the Algonquin Round Table of the 1920s and 1930s. Adams was born Franklin Leopold Adams to Moses and Clara Schlossberg Adams in Chicago on November 15, 1881, he changed his middle name to "Pierce" when he had a Jewish confirmation ceremony at age 13. Adams graduated from the Armour Scientific Academy in 1899, attended the University of Michigan for one year and worked in insurance for three years. Signing on with the Chicago Journal in 1903, he wrote a sports column and a humor column, "A Little about Everything"; the following year he moved to the New York Evening Mail, where he worked from 1904 to 1913 and began his column called "Always in Good Humor", which used reader contributions. During his time on the Evening Mail, Adams wrote what remains his best known work, the poem "Baseball's Sad Lexicon", a tribute to the Chicago Cubs double play combination of "Tinker to Evers to Chance".
In 1911, he added a second column, a parody of Samuel Pepys's Diary, with notes drawn from F. P. A.'s personal experiences. In 1914, he moved his column to the New-York Tribune, where it was famously retitled The Conning Tower and was considered to be "the pinnacle of verbal wit". During World War I, Adams was in the U. S. Army, serving in military intelligence and writing a column, "The Listening Post", for Stars and Stripes editor Harold Ross. After the war, the so-called "comma-hunter of Park Row" returned to the Tribune, he moved to the New York World in 1922, his column appeared there until the paper merged with the inferior New York Telegram in 1931. He returned to his old paper, by called the New York Herald Tribune, until 1937, moved to the New York Post, where he ended his column in September 1941. During its long run, "The Conning Tower" featured contributions from such writers as Robert Benchley, Edna Ferber, Moss Hart, George S. Kaufman, Edna St. Vincent Millay, John O'Hara, Dorothy Parker and Deems Taylor.
Having one's work published in "The Conning Tower" was enough to launch a career, as in the case of Dorothy Parker and James Thurber. Parker quipped, "He raised me from a couplet." Parker dedicated her 1936 publication of collected poems, Not So Deep as a Well, to F. P. A. Many of the poems in that collection were published in "The Conning Tower". Much the writer E. B. White admitted his sense of awe: "I used to walk past the house in West 13th Street between Sixth and Seventh where F. P. A. Lived, the block seemed to tremble under my feet—the way Park Avenue trembles when a train leaves Grand Central."Adams is credited with coining the term "aptronym" for last names that fit a person's career or job title, although it was refined to "aptonym" by Frank Nuessel in 1992. No Sirree!, staged for one night only in April 1922, was a take-off of a then-popular European touring revue called La Chauve-Souris directed by Nikita Balieff. Robert Benchley is credited as the first person to suggest the parody of Balieff's group.
No Sirree! had its genesis at the studio of Neysa McMein, which served as something of a salon for Round Tablers away from the Algonquin. Acts included: "Opening Chorus" featuring Woollcott, Kaufman, Marc Connelly and Benchley with violinist Jascha Heifetz providing offstage, off-key accompaniment. P. A. Included parodies in his column, his satire of Edgar Allan Poe's poem "Annabel Lee" was collected in his book Something Else Again:Soul Bride Oddly Dead in Queer Death Pact High-Born Kinsman Abducts Girl from Poet-Lover—Flu Said to Be Cause of Death—Grand Jury to Probe Annabel L. Poe of 1834½ 3rd Ave. the beautiful young fiancee of Edmund Allyn Poe, a magazine writer from the South, was found dead early this morning on the beach off E. 8th Street. Poe seemed prostrated and, questioned by the police, said that one of her aristocratic relatives had taken her to the "seashore," but that the cold winds had given her "flu," from which she never "rallied." Detectives at work on the case believe, they say, that there was a suicide compact between the Poes and that Poe intended to do away with himself.
He refused to leave the spot. As a panelist on radio's Information Please, Franklin P. Adams was the designated expert on poetry, old barroom songs and Gilbert and Sullivan, which he always referred to as Sullivan and Gilbert. A running joke on the show was that his stock answer for quotes that he didn't know was that Shakespeare was the author. John Kieran could quote from his works at length. A translator of Horace and other classical authors, F. P. A. collaborated with O. Henry on Lo, a musical comedy. Adams was portrayed by the actor Chi
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
Solicitor General of the United States
The Solicitor General of the United States is the fourth-highest-ranking official in the United States Department of Justice. The current Solicitor General, Noel Francisco, took office on September 19, 2017; the United States Solicitor General represents the federal government of the United States before the Supreme Court of the United States. The Solicitor General determines the legal position that the United States will take in the Supreme Court. In addition to supervising and conducting cases in which the government is a party, the office of the Solicitor General files amicus curiae briefs in cases in which the federal government has a significant interest in the legal issue; the office of the Solicitor General argues on behalf of the government in every case in which the United States is a party, argues in most of the cases in which the government has filed an amicus brief. In the federal courts of appeal, the Office of the Solicitor General reviews cases decided against the United States and determines whether the government will seek review in the Supreme Court.
The Solicitor General's office reviews cases decided against the United States in the federal district courts and approves every case in which the government files an appeal. The Solicitor General is assisted by four Deputy Solicitors General and seventeen Assistants to the Solicitor General. Three of the deputies are career attorneys in the Department of Justice; the remaining deputy is known as the "Principal Deputy," sometimes called the "political deputy" and, like the Solicitor General leaves at the end of an administration. The current Principal Deputy is Jeffrey B. Wall, who succeeded Noel J. Francisco after Francisco was nominated to be Solicitor General in March 2017; the other deputies are Michael Dreeben, Edwin Kneedler, Malcolm Stewart. The Solicitor General or one of the deputies argues the most important cases in the Supreme Court. Other cases may be argued by one of another government attorney; the Solicitors General tend to argue 6–9 cases per Supreme Court term, while deputies argue 4–5 cases and assistants each argue 2–3 cases.
The Solicitor General, who has offices in the Supreme Court Building as well as the Department of Justice Headquarters, has been called the "tenth justice" as a result of the close relationship between the justices and the Solicitor General. As the most frequent advocate before the Court, the Office of the Solicitor General argues dozens of times each term; as a result, the Solicitor General tends to remain comfortable during oral arguments that other advocates would find intimidating. Furthermore, when the office of the Solicitor General endorses a petition for certiorari, review is granted, remarkable given that only 75–125 of the over 7,500 petitions submitted each term are granted review by the Court. Other than the justices themselves, the Solicitor General is among the most influential and knowledgeable members of the legal community with regard to Supreme Court litigation. Six Solicitors General have served on the Supreme Court: William Howard Taft, Stanley Forman Reed, Robert H. Jackson, Thurgood Marshall, Elena Kagan.
Some who have had other positions in the office of the Solicitor General have later been appointed to the Supreme Court. For example, Chief Justice John Roberts was the Principal Deputy Solicitor General during the George H. W. Bush administration and Associate Justice Samuel Alito was an Assistant to the Solicitor General; the last former Solicitor General to be nominated to the court was Justice Elena Kagan. Only one former Solicitor General has been nominated to the Supreme Court unsuccessfully, that being Robert Bork. Eight other Solicitors General have served on the United States Courts of Appeals. Within the Justice Department, the Solicitor General exerts significant influence on all appeals brought by the department; the Solicitor General is the only U. S. officer, statutorily required to be "learned in law." Whenever the DOJ wins at the trial stage and the losing party appeals, the concerned division of the DOJ responds automatically and proceeds to defend the ruling in the appellate process.
However, if the DOJ is the losing party at the trial stage, an appeal can only be brought with the permission of the Solicitor General. For example, should the tort division lose a jury trial in federal district court, that ruling cannot be appealed by the Appellate Office without the approval of the Solicitor General; when determining whether to grant certiorari in a case where the federal government is not a party, the Court will sometimes request the Solicitor General to weigh in, a procedure referred to as a "Call for the Views of the Solicitor General". In response to a CVSG, the Solicitor General will file a brief opining on whether the petition should be granted and which party should prevail. Although the CVSG is technically an invitation, the Solicitor General's office treats it as tantamount to a command. Philip Elman, who served as an attorney in the Solicitor General's office and, primary author of the federal government's brief in Brown v. Board of Education, wrote, "When the Supreme Court invites you, that's the equivalent of a royal command.
An invitation from the Supreme Court just can't be rejected."The Court issues a CVSG where the justices believe that the petition is important, may be considering granting it, but would like a legal opinion before making that decision. Examples include where there is a federal in
Herbert Clark Hoover was an American engineer and politician who served as the 31st president of the United States from 1929 to 1933. A member of the Republican Party, he held office during the onset of the Great Depression. Prior to serving as president, Hoover led the Commission for Relief in Belgium, served as the director of the U. S. Food Administration, served as the 3rd U. S. Secretary of Commerce. Born to a Quaker family in West Branch, Hoover took a position with a London-based mining company after graduating from Stanford University in 1895. After the outbreak of World War I, he became the head of the Commission for Relief in Belgium, an international relief organization that provided food to occupied Belgium; when the U. S. entered the war, President Woodrow Wilson appointed Hoover to lead the Food Administration, Hoover became known as the country's "food czar". After the war, Hoover led the American Relief Administration, which provided food to the inhabitants of Central Europe and Eastern Europe.
Hoover's war-time service made him a favorite of many progressives, he unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination in the 1920 presidential election. After the 1920 election, newly-elected Republican President Warren G. Harding appointed Hoover as Secretary of Commerce. Hoover was an unusually active and visible cabinet member, becoming known as "Secretary of Commerce and Under-Secretary of all other departments", he was influential in the development of radio and air travel and led the federal response to the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927. Hoover won the Republican nomination in the 1928 presidential election, decisively defeated the Democratic candidate, Al Smith; the stock market crashed shortly after Hoover took office, the Great Depression became the central issue of his presidency. Hoover pursued a variety of policies in an attempt to lift the economy, but opposed directly involving the federal government in relief efforts. In the midst of an ongoing economic crisis, Hoover was decisively defeated by Democratic nominee Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1932 presidential election.
Hoover enjoyed one of the longest retirements of any former president, he authored numerous works. After leaving office, Hoover became conservative, he criticized Roosevelt's foreign policy and New Deal domestic agenda. In the 1940s and 1950s, Hoover's public reputation was rehabilitated as he served for Presidents Harry S. Truman and Dwight D. Eisenhower in various assignments, including as chairman of the Hoover Commission. Hoover is not ranked in historical rankings of presidents of the United States. Herbert Hoover was born on August 1874 in West Branch, Iowa, his father, Jesse Hoover, was a blacksmith and farm implement store owner of German and English ancestry. Hoover's mother, Hulda Randall Minthorn, was raised in Norwich, Canada, before moving to Iowa in 1859. Like most other citizens of West Branch and Hulda were Quakers; as a child, Hoover attended schools, but he did little reading on his own aside from the Bible. Hoover's father, noted by the local paper for his "pleasant, sunshiny disposition", died in 1880 at the age of 34.
Hoover's mother died in 1884, leaving Hoover, his older brother and his younger sister, May, as orphans. In 1885, Hoover was sent to Newberg, Oregon to live with his uncle John Minthorn, a Quaker physician and businessman whose own son had died the year before; the Minthorn household was considered cultured and educational, imparted a strong work ethic. Much like West Branch, Newberg was a frontier town settled by Midwestern Quakers. Minthorn ensured that Hoover received an education, but Hoover disliked the many chores assigned to him and resented Minthorn. One observer described Hoover as "an orphan seemed to be neglected in many ways." Hoover attended Friends Pacific Academy, but dropped out at the age of thirteen to become an office assistant for his uncle's real estate office in Salem, Oregon. Though he did not attend high school, Hoover learned bookkeeping and mathematics at a night school. Hoover entered Stanford University in 1891, its inaugural year, despite failing all the entrance exams except mathematics.
During his freshman year, he switched his major from mechanical engineering to geology after working for John Casper Branner, the chair of Stanford's geology department. Hoover was a mediocre student, he spent much of his time working in various part-time jobs or participating in campus activities. Though he was shy among fellow students, Hoover won election as student treasurer and became known for his distaste for fraternities and sororities, he served as student manager of both the baseball and football teams, helped organize the inaugural Big Game versus the University of California. During the summers before and after his senior year, Hoover interned under economic geologist Waldemar Lindgren of the United States Geological Survey; when Hoover graduated from Stanford in 1895, the country was in the midst of the Panic of 1893, he struggled to find a job. He worked in various low-level mining jobs in the Sierra Nevada mountain range until he convinced prominent mining engineer Louis Janin to hire him.
After working as a mine scout for a year, Hoover was hired by Bewick, Moreing & Co. a London-based company that operated gold mines in Western Australia. Hoover first went to Coolgardie the center of the Eastern Goldfields. Though Hoover received a $5,000 salary, conditions were h
William L. Marbury Jr.
William Luke Marbury Jr. was a prominent 20th-century American lawyer who practiced law from his family's law firm of Marbury, Miller & Evans. He was known to be a childhood friend of alleged Soviet spy Alger Hiss. William L. Marbury, Jr. was born on September 1901, in Baltimore. He grew up in the family home on Baltimore, his father was William Luke Marbury, Sr.. Marbury Sr.'s family were slave-holding plantation owners in Southern Maryland before he came to Baltimore in the 1870s. Marbury Sr. was a eugenicist. In 1915, he argued before the U. S. Supreme Court that states had separate rights to discriminate, he is a descendant of William Marbury, 18th-Century American businessman and one of the "Midnight Judges" appointed by U. S. President John Adams the day before he left office, he was plaintiff in the landmark 1803 Supreme Court case Madison. This ancestor came from Maryland. Marbury Jr. attended the Virginia Military Institute. In 1921, he graduated from the University of Virginia. In 1924, he graduated from Harvard Law School after serving on the school's law review.
While at Harvard, he was a member of Phi Beta Kappa. In November 5, 1923, he gave a speech on the "practical side of the professional and the ideals." In 1925, he passed the Maryland Bar. In 1925, Marbury joined his father's firm called Marbury Miller & Evans, he worked there until his death in 1988 in a career. In 1937, he defended the constitutionality of Baltimore County’s denial of a high school education to a colored child. In 1948, the Board of Overseers of Harvard University elected him as Fellow of the Harvard Corporation; the vote for his election was narrow, as Marbury was "virtually unknown" to Corporation members – except for Harvard University President Conant and fellow Grenville Clark, both of whom supported his election strongly. In 1965, he became a senior fellow. In 1970, he retired from the board. In 1952, he merged the family firm of Marbury, Miller & Evans with Piper, Avirett & Egerton to create Piper & Marbury. In 1999, Piper & Marbury merged with Rudnick & Wolfe of Chicago to form Piper Marbury Rudnick & Wolfe "the largest U.
S. law firm merger in history." In 2002, Piper Marbury Rudnick & Wolfe, LLP, dropped "Marbury" from its name. In 1957, he became general counsel of the Maryland Port Authority and remained so until 1967. In 1964, Marbury was among "fifty of the country's most prominent lawyers" who joined a public statement that rebuked U. S. Senator Barry Goldwater for attacks he made on the U. S. Supreme Court. In 1966, he tried but failed to "censure" key provisions of the Civil Rights Act of 1968. In 1965, he served one year as president of the Maryland State Bar Association, he organized the Maryland Legal Aid Bureau. He was one of the original members of the Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law under U. S. President John F. Kennedy. In 1930, Marbury served for a year as assistant attorney general for the State of Maryland. In 1940, Marbury served under Judge Robert P. Patterson for a year as expert consultant on procurement to U. S. Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson. In 1942, he served three years as chief legal advisor on procurements for the U.
S. Army Air Corps at the U. S. Department of War). In September 1945, he left war-time government service to resume private law practice in Baltimore. In 1948, he served as a U. S. delegate to the second session of signatories of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade in Geneva, Switzerland. On August 8, 1948, he received instructions to attend that meeting and did not return to the States until September 12. In 1971, he became a member of the Maryland Commission on Judicial Disabilities, where he served until 1983; the family of Alger Hiss sat one pew in front of the Marbury family at their Episcopalian church in Baltimore. One of Marbury's sisters worked at the Johns Hopkins University library, his cousin Jesse Slingluff Jr. was a fraternity brother with Hiss in Alpha Delta Phi, as was his wife's brother, Hugh Judge Jewett Jr.. By 1929, they had become "close personal friends" as adults. Both attended each other's weddings. Marbury was involved in the Hiss Case for the rest of his life, with a detailed legal essay coming out in 1981 and a memoir near the time of his death in 1988.
On August 3, 1948, senior Time editor Whittaker Chambers, under subpoena before the House Un-American Activities Committee, mentioned Hiss as a member of the Ware Group, a spy ring Chambers had run in Washington during the 1930s. On August 5, 1948, Marbury took Hiss to the offices of Covington & Burling for a meeting with Hiss classmate Joe Johnson, helped him prepare his statement, "accompanied" Hiss before HUAC. Thereafter, he left the States for three weeks in Europe on government business. In the "three-ring circus" of HUAC hearings in Washington, libel lawsuit in Baltimore, Grand Jury investigation in New York during 1948, M