Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s
Sam Maguire Cup
The Sam Maguire Cup referred to as Sam or The Sam, is the cup awarded to winners of the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship, the premier "knockout" competition in the game of Gaelic football played in Ireland. The series of games are organised by the Gaelic Athletic Association and are played during the summer months with the All-Ireland Football Final being played on the third or fourth Sunday in September in Croke Park, Dublin; the Sam Maguire Cup was first presented to the Kildare team in 1928 after defeating Cavan. The Cup is named after an influential figure in the London GAA and a former footballer. A group of his friends formed a committee in Dublin under the chairmanship of Dr Pat McCartan from Carrickmore, County Tyrone, to raise funds for a permanent commemoration of his name, they decided on a cup to be presented to the GAA. The Association were proud to accept the Cup. At the time it cost £300. In today's terms that sum is equivalent to €25,392; the cup is modelled on the Ardagh Chalice and the commission to make it was given to Hopkins and Hopkins, a jewellers and watchmakers of O'Connell Bridge, Dublin.
The silver cup was crafted, on behalf of Hopkins and Hopkins, by the silversmith Matthew J. Staunton of D'Olier Street, Dublin. Maitiú Standun, Staunton’s son, confirmed in a letter printed in the Alive! newspaper in October 2003 that his father had indeed made the original Sam Magiure Cup back in 1928. Matthew J. Staunton came from a long line of silversmiths going back to the Huguenots, who brought their skills to Ireland in the 1600s. Matt, as he was known to his friends, served his time in the renowned Dublin silversmiths, Edmond Johnson Ltd, where the Liam MacCarthy Hurling Cup was made in 1921; the 1928 Sam Maguire Cup is a faithful copy of the Ardagh Chalice. The bowl hand-beaten from a single flat piece of silver. Though it is polished, multiple hammer marks are still visible today, indicating the manufacturing process. Kildare was the first county to win the "Sam Maguire Cup" in 1928 after defeating Cavan 2-6 to 2-5; the original trophy was retired in 1988. The GAA commissioned a replica from Kilkenny-based silversmith Desmond A. Byrne and the replica is the trophy, used since.
The original Sam Maguire Cup is permanently on display in the GAA's museum at Croke Park. In 2010 the GAA asked the same silversmith to produce another replica of the trophy although this was to be used only for marketing purposes. Meath's Joe Cassells was the first recipient of "Sam Óg". Meath have the distinction of being the last team to lift the old Sam Maguire and the first team to lift the new one following their back-to-back victories in 1987 & 1988. Since the cup was first played for in the All Ireland final of 1928 Kerry have won it 30 times, Dublin are next with 13 wins, Galway have won it 8 times, Meath have won it 7 times and Cork 5 times. Only nine men have won the trophy twice as captain, they are. The Sam Maguire Cup was first presented to the winning team in 1928. 2018: Dublin 2-17 Tyrone 1-14 2017: Dublin 1-17 Mayo 1-16 2016: Dublin 1-15 Mayo 1-14 2015: Dublin 0-12 Kerry 0-9 2014: Kerry 2-09 Donegal 0-12 2013: Dublin 2-12 Mayo 1-14 2012: Donegal 2-11 Mayo 0-13 2011: Dublin 1-12 Kerry 1-11 2010: Cork 0-16 Down 0-15 2009: Kerry 0-16 Cork 1-09 2008: Tyrone 1-15 Kerry 0-14 2007: Kerry 3-13 Cork 1-9 2006: Kerry 4-15 Mayo 3-5 2005: Tyrone 1-16 Kerry 2-10 2004: Kerry 1-20 Mayo 2-9 2003: Tyrone 0-12 Armagh 0-9 2002: Armagh 1-12 Kerry 0-14 2001: Galway 0-17 Meath 0-8 2000: Kerry 0-17 Galway 1-10 1999: Meath 1-11 Cork 1-8 1998: Galway 1-14 Kildare 1-10 1997: Kerry 0-13 Mayo 1-7 1996: Meath 2-9 Mayo 1-11 1995: Dublin 1-10 Tyrone 0-12 1994: Down 1-12 Dublin 0-13 1993: Derry 1-14 Cork 2-8 1992: Donegal 0-18 Dublin 0-14 1991: Down 1-16 Meath 1-14 1990: Cork 0-11 Meath 0-9 1989: Cork 0-17 Mayo 1-11 1988: Meath 0-13 Cork 0-12 1987: Meath 1-14 Cork 0-11 1986: Kerry 2-15 Tyrone 1-10 1985: Kerry 2-12 Dublin 2-8 1984: Kerry 0-14 Dublin 1-6 1983: Dublin 1-10 Galway 1-8 1982: Offaly 1-15 Kerry 0-17 1981: Kerry 1-12 Offaly 0-8 1980: Kerry 1-9 Roscommon 1-6 1979: Kerry 3-13 Dublin 1-8 1978: Kerry 5-11 Dublin 0-9 1977: Dublin 5-12 Armagh 3-6 1976: Dublin 3-8 Kerry 0-10 1975: Kerry 2-12 Dublin 0-11 1974: Dublin 0-14 Galway 1-6 1973: Cork 3-17 Galway 2-13 1972: Offaly 1-19 Kerry 0-13 1971: Offaly 1-14 Galway 2-8 1970: Kerry 2-19 Meath 0-18 1969: Kerry 0-10 Offaly 0-7 1968: Down 2-12 Kerry 1-13 1967: Meath 1-9 Cork 0-9 1966: Galway 1-10 Meath 0-7 1965: Galway 0-12 Kerry 0-9 1964: Galway 0-15 Kerry 0-10 1963: Dublin 1-9 Galway 0-10 1962: Kerry 1-12 Roscommon 1-6 1961: Down 3-6 Offaly 2-8 1960: Down 2-10 Kerry 0-8 1959: Kerry 3-7 Galway 1-4 1958: Dublin 2-12 Derry 1-9 1957: Louth 1-9 Cork 1-7 1956: Galway 2-13 Cork 3-7 1955: Kerry 0-12 Dublin 1-6 1954: Meath 1-13 Kerry 1-7 1953: Kerry 0-13 Armagh 1-6 1952: Cavan 0-9 Meath 0-5 1951: Mayo 2-8 Meath 0-9 1950: Mayo 2-5 Louth 1-6 1949: Meath 1-10 Cavan 1-6 1948: Cavan 4-5 Mayo 4-4 1947: Cavan 2-11 Kerry 2-7 1946: Kerry 2-8 Roscommon 0-10 1945: Cork 2-5 Cavan 0-7 1944: Roscommon 1-9 Kerry 2-4 1943: Roscommon 2-7 Cavan 2-2 1942: Dublin 1-10 Galway 1-8 1941: Kerry 1-8 Galway 0-7 1940: Kerry 0-7 Galway 1-3 1939: Kerry 2-5 Meath 2-3 1938: Galway 2-4 Kerry 0-7 1937: Kerry 4-4 Cavan 1-7 1936: Mayo 4-11 Laois 0-5 1935: Cavan 3-6 Kil
The Louth County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association or Louth GAA is one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland, is responsible for Gaelic games in County Louth. The county board is responsible for the Louth inter-county championship; the earliest recorded inter-county football match took place in 1712 when Louth faced Meath at Slane. A fragment of a poem from 1806 records a football match between Louth and Fermanagh at Inniskeen, Co Monaghan; when Louth GAA sent the team into training in Dundalk for the 1913 Croke Memorial replay under a soccer trainer from Belfast, the move caused more than a ripple through the Association. For thirty years full-time training in bursts of a week or so before a big match were common. After that the two or three times a week gatherings became more popular. Between 1945 and 1953 Louth and Meath met 13 times; the crowds got bigger each time as they played draw after draw in the Championship. The attendance of 42,858 at a thrilling 1951 replay remained a record for a provincial match other than a final for forty years the four match series between Meath and Dublin in 1991.
The rivalry with Meath has never fizzled out, as witnessed by a stirring Leinster semi-final in 1998. Nor has controversy, as witnessed by Graham Geraghty's "wide" 45th minute point. In 1957 showband star Dermot O'Brien was late for the All-Ireland final and joined the team when the parade was completed. Prior to the game O'Brien had captained the side in the semi final success, when the regular captain Patsy Coleman had been injured. Both Ardee men tossed a coin to see. O'Brien won the toss. Coleman today still has the match ball. O'Brien played a key role as Louth beat Cork with the help of a goal from Sean Cunningham with five minutes to go. Dermot O'Brien died on 21 May 2007; as both Cork and Louth wear Red and White, on that day Louth wore the green of Leinster, while Cork wore the blue of Munster. Eamonn McEneaney was manager from 2006 to 2009 and guided them to their most recent success, the O'Byrne Cup when they defeated DCU in the 2009 final played in the Gaelic Grounds in Drogheda. On 27 June 2010, Louth reached their first Leinster Senior Championship Final in 50 years.
During the Leinster Final on 11 July that year and controversy erupted when, during the 74th minute of the match against Meath, a goal was awarded by the referee after brief consultation with only one of the match umpires. However, Meath received the cup. Louth have been represented by two players in the International Rules versus Australia in recent years, Paddy Keenan and Ciaran Byrne. On 11 July 2010, Louth reached the Leinster Senior Football Championship Final where they took on neighbours Meath. Meath won what was a controversial match. Deep into injury time in the 74th minute of the match, the referee awarded a contentious goal to Meath, he did so after a brief consultation with only one of the match umpires, although television coverage of the game showed that the ball had been carried over the line by Meath player Joe Sherdian. Prior to the referee's decision, Meath were trailing Louth by one point; the referee blew his whistle shortly afterwards. The "goal" proved to be the decisive score.
Irate Louth fans stormed the pitch and commenced a process of chasing and physically assaulting the referee, who had to be led away by a Garda escort in scenes broadcast to a live television audience. Other scenes of violence saw bottles being hurled from a stand, one striking a steward who fell to the ground and Meath substitute Mark Ward was hit by a Louth fan; the situation led to much media debate in the days that followed, the violence was condemned and there were many calls in the national media for the game to be replayed. GAA President Christy Cooney said the events were a "watershed" and one where the "circumstances were bizarre. I have never seen circumstances like it as long as I have been a member of this Association", he promised life bans for those. The day after the match the GAA released a statement confirming that Sludden admitted he had made an error; the GAA stated that the rules left it powerless to offer a replay and that this would be decided by Meath. Following a Meath County Board meeting it emerged that, in his match report, the referee had blown for a penalty for Meath but when the ball ended up in the net he decided to award the "goal" instead.
The county board decided not to offer a replay and judged that that would be "the end of the matter". This decision was met in some quarters with mixed feelings and commented upon in one national newspaper, the Evening Herald, by three times All-Ireland winning manager Mickey Harte who said the Meath county board was more culpable because their officers had time to form a considered opinion. In the statement, the Louth County Board spoke of the enormous sense of injustice, being felt in Louth GAA, they questioned the referee's official report saying it was contrary to Playing Rules where he indicated in his report that he blew the whistle for a penalty, but changed his mind and awarded a goal instead. The referee wrote that "he made a terrible mistake". Louth County board referred to Rule 6.41 Award //facts of game: The award of the game rests with the committee / council in charge acting on the referees report. In doing so the Louth County Board intimated that the committee/council in charge erred in leaving the matter to Meath County Board to offer a replay without seeking clarification from the re
Gaelic Athletic Association
The Gaelic Athletic Association is an Irish international amateur sporting and cultural organisation, focused on promoting indigenous Gaelic games and pastimes, which include the traditional Irish sports of hurling, Gaelic football, Gaelic handball and rounders. The association promotes Irish music and dance, the Irish language; as of 2014, the organisation had over 500,000 members worldwide, declared total revenues of €65.6 million in 2017. Gaelic football and hurling are the most popular activities promoted by the organisation, the most popular sports in the Republic of Ireland in terms of attendances. Gaelic football is the second most popular participation sport in Northern Ireland; the women's version of these games, ladies' Gaelic football and camogie, are organised by the independent but linked Ladies' Gaelic Football Association and the Camogie Association of Ireland respectively. GAA Handball is the Irish governing body for the sport of handball, while the other Gaelic sport, rounders, is managed by the GAA Rounders National Council.
Since its foundation in 1884, the association has grown to become a major influence in Irish sporting and cultural life with considerable reach into communities throughout Ireland and among the Irish diaspora. On 1 November 1884, a group of Irishmen gathered in the Hayes' Hotel billiard room to formulate a plan and establish an organisation to foster and preserve Ireland's unique games and athletic pastimes, and so, the Gaelic Athletic Association was founded. The architects and founding members were Michael Cusack of County Clare, Maurice Davin, Joseph K. Bracken, Thomas St George McCarthy, a District Inspector in the Royal Irish Constabulary, P. J. Ryan of Tipperary, John Wise-Power, John McKay. Maurice Davin was elected President, Wyse-Power and McKay were elected Secretaries and it was agreed that Archbishop Croke, Charles Stewart Parnell and Michael Davitt would be asked to become Patrons. In 1922 it passed over the job of promoting athletics to the National Athletic and Cycling Association.
The association has had a long history of promoting Irish culture. Through a division of the association known as Scór, the association promotes Irish cultural activities, running competitions in music, singing and storytelling. Rule 4 of the GAA's official guide states: The Association shall support the Irish language, traditional Irish dancing, music and other aspects of Irish culture, it shall foster an awareness and love of the national ideals in the people of Ireland, assist in promoting a community spirit through its clubs. The group was formally founded in 1969, is promoted through various Association clubs throughout Ireland; the association has many stadiums scattered throughout Ireland and beyond. Every county, nearly all clubs, have grounds on which to play their home games, with varying capacities and utilities; the hierarchical structure of the GAA is applied to the use of grounds. Clubs play at their own grounds for the early rounds of the club championship, while the latter rounds from quarter-finals to finals are held at a county ground, i.e. the ground where inter-county games take place or where the county board is based.
The provincial championship finals are played at the same venue every year. However, there have been exceptions, such as in Ulster, where in 2004 and 2005 the Ulster Football Finals were played in Croke Park, as the anticipated attendance was to far exceed the capacity of the traditional venue of St Tiernach's Park, Clones. Croke Park is the association's flagship venue and is known colloquially as Croker or Headquarters, since the venue doubles as the association's base. With a capacity of 82,300, it ranks among the top five stadiums in Europe by capacity, having undergone extensive renovations for most of the 1990s and early 21st century; every September, Croke Park hosts the All-Ireland inter-county Hurling and Football Finals as the conclusion to the summer championships. Croke Park holds the All-Ireland club football and hurling finals on every St. Patrick's Day. Croke Park is named after Archbishop Thomas Croke, elected as a patron of the GAA during the formation of the GAA in 1884; the next three biggest grounds are all in Munster: Semple Stadium in Thurles, County Tipperary, with a capacity of 53,000, the Gaelic Grounds in Limerick, which holds 50,000, Páirc Uí Chaoimh, County Cork, which can accommodate 45,000.
Other grounds with capacities above 25,000 include: Fitzgerald Stadium, in Killarney, a capacity of 43,180 MacHale Park in Castlebar, the largest stadium in Connacht, a capacity of 42,000 St Tiernach's Park in Clones, County Monaghan, hosts most Ulster finals, a capacity of 36,000 Kingspan Breffni Park, in Cavan Town, County Cavan, which hosted International rules football series games in 2013, a capacity of 32,000 Casement Park, in Belfast, a capacity of 32,600 O'Moore Park, in Portlaoise, County Laois, a capacity of 27,000 Healy Park, in Omagh, County Tyrone, a capacity of 26,500 Pearse Stadium in Galway, which has hosted International rules football series games, a capacity of 26,197Research by former Fermanagh county footballer Niall Cunningham led to the publication in 2016 by his website, gaapitchlocator.net, of a map of 1,748 GAA grounds in Ireland, ranging from 24 grounds in his own county to 171 in Cork. The association has, since its inception, been associated with Irish nationalism, this has continued to the present in relation to Northern Ireland, where the sports are played exclusively by members of the ma
For more details on Antrim GAA see Antrim Senior Football Championship or Antrim Senior Hurling Championship. The Antrim County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association or Antrim GAA is one of the 32 county boards of the GAA in Ireland, is responsible for Gaelic games in County Antrim; the county board is responsible for the Antrim inter-county teams. Antrim are the only Ulster county to appear in an All-Ireland hurling final, the first of, in 1943 losing to Cork and the second was in 1989 losing to Tipperary. In 1943 Antrim defeated both Galway and Kilkenny in the old Corrigan Park, but disappointed in the All Ireland against Cork. Two years Antrim had been graded Junior a year before, had been beaten by Down in the Ulster final, they were only competing in the Senior Championship. Antrim hurlers featured in Ulster Railway cup final appearances in 1945, 1993 and 1995. In hurling, the progression that began with Loughgiel's success at club hurling level in 1983 culminated in an All Ireland final appearance in 1989.
Antrim's first All-Star, Ciaran Barr, helped Belfast club Rossa to reach the 1989 club hurling final and after a great show against Buffer's Alley, Barr starred in a 4-15 to 1-15 All Ireland semi-final win over Offaly. The final was one of the poorest on record, it was no flash in the pan: Antrim failed by just two points against Kilkenny in the 1991 All Ireland semi-final. Dunloy were back in the All Ireland club final in 1995, when they lost in a replay, 1996 and 2003 when they were beaten. Antrim were the first Ulster county to appear in an All Ireland final, in 1911 and repeated the feat again in 1912, losing on both occasions. Antrim's surprise football semi-final success came out of the blue in 1911; the Ulster secretary never organised a provincial Championship. So Antrim arrived with no practice to play Kilkenny and won by 3-1 to 1-1; the following year they beat Kerry. Heavy rain on the day, over-indulgence at a wedding the day before were blamed for the shock 3-5 to 0-2 defeat. Antrim's County Board decision to introduce a City League in 1908, one of the first in Gaelic history, was a more legitimate explanation.
The 1946 Antrim football team was regarded as one of the most exciting of the era, taking advantage of the newly reintroduced handpass. Joe McCallin's two goals helped beat Cavan in the Ulster final but Kerry roughed them out of the All Ireland semi-final; the opening of Casement Park boosted the games in Belfast, but from the late 1960s the troubles hampered sporting life in the football heartlands of Belfast Ardoyne. Political violence meant that the county could not build on the under-21 team of 1969, one of the finest in Ulster history; the countys Vocational Schools team has made it to 2 All Ireland Finals in 1968 where they beat Galway and in 1971 where they were beaten by Mayo. A drawn Ulster semi-final with Derry in 2000 was one of the highlights of Antrim's recent football career alongside winning the Tommy Murphy Cup in 2008, beating Wicklow in the final and gaining revenge for losing the 2007 final to the same opponents; the current senior manager is Lenny Harbinson. Antrim made history in 2009 by getting to the Ulster Championship final, the first Antrim team to reach it in 31 years.
They were runners-up to All-Ireland champions Tyrone. Andy McCallin - 1971 Issac Gerrad Curran - 1980 Dual Star and a former Fermanagh Footballer Antrim have won the All-Ireland Senior Camogie Championship six times and been runners-up ten times. Camogie arrived in 1908 with the foundation of Banba club, but the movement joined by clubs such as Crowley's, Mitchel's and Ardoyne was short-lived. A 1927 revival was more successful and in 1934 there were three adult leagues in Belfast and north Antrim. Antrim's successes include a three-in-a-row in 1945-7, with the benefit of dispute that removed their main rivals Dublin and the arrival of a Dublin coach, Chalrie MacMahon, the fact four of their semi-finals and two of the finals were played at Corrigan Park and Antrim was described as the “home of camogie.” Players from the Belfast league clubs such as Deirdre, St Malachy’s and St Theresa’s and Glens villages such as Dunloy and Loughgiel Shamrocks to win all but a handful of the Ulster camogie championships played.
They defeated Dublin in a 1956 semi-final that prevented Dublin winning 19 All Ireland titles in a row. O’Donovan Rossa won the All Ireland senior club championship in 2008. Antrim are the 2010 All Ireland junior champions. Notable players include team of the century member Mairéad McAtamney, player of the year winners Sue Cashman and Maeve Gilroy, All Star award winner Jane Adams and Gradam Tailte winner Josephine McClements, All Ireland final stars Marjorie Griffin and Theresa Kearns. Marie O’Gorman. Celia Quinn and Madge Rainey. Rosina MacManus, Nancy Murray and Lily Spence served as presidents of the Camogie Association. Under Camogie's National Development Plan 2010-2015, Our Game, Our Passion, five new camogie clubs are to be established in the county by 2015. Antrim compete in the All-Ireland Junior Ladies' Football Championship. All-Ireland Junior Ladies' Football Championships: 2 2009, 2012 All-Ireland Senior Club Hurling Championships: 2 1983, 2012 All-Ireland Junior Club Hurling Championships: 2014 Kickhams Creggan All-Ireland Intermediate Club Hurling Championships: 2015 O Donovan Rossa Belfast All-Ireland Senior Club Football Championship 2010 Official Antrim
Camogie is an Irish stick-and-ball team sport played by women. Camogie is played by 100,000 women in Ireland and worldwide among Irish communities, it is organised by An Cumann Camógaíochta. UNESCO lists Camogie as an element of Intangible Cultural Heritage; the game consists of 2 thirty-minute halves. There is a half time interval of 10 minutes. In event of extra time halves must consist of 10 minutes each; each team has 15 players on the field. Within the 15 players the team must consist of 1 goal keeper, 3 full back players, 3 half back players, 2 centre-field players, 3 half forward players and 3 full forward players. There is a minimum requirement of 12 players on the pitch at all times; the field is not of a fixed size, but must be between 130m long by 80m wide, 145m long by 90m wide. H-shaped goals are used. A team achieves a score by making the ball go between the posts. If the ball goes over the bar for a "point", the team earns 1-point. If the ball goes under the bar for a "goal", the team earns a 3-points.
The annual All Ireland Camogie Championship has a record attendance of 33,154 while average attendances in recent years are in the region of 15,000 to 18,000. The final is televised; the rules are identical to hurling, with a few exceptions. Goalkeepers wear the same colours as outfield players; this is because no special rules apply to the goalkeeper and so there is no need for officials to differentiate between goalkeeper and outfielders. A camogie player can handpass any score from play Camogie games last 60 minutes, two 30-minute halves. Ties are resolved by multiple 2×10-minute sudden death extra time periods. Dropping the camogie stick to handpass the ball is permitted. A smaller sliotar is used in camogie – known as a size 4 sliotar – whereas hurlers play with a size 5 sliotar. If a defending player hits the sliotar wide, a 45-metre puck is awarded to the opposition After a score, the goalkeeper pucks out from the 13-metre line; the metal band on the camogie stick must be covered with tape.
Side-to-side charges are forbidden. Two points are awarded for a score direct from a sideline cut. Camogie players must wear skorts rather than shorts. Experimental rules were drawn up in 1903 for a female stick-and-ball game by Máire Ní Chinnéide, Seán Ó Ceallaigh, Tadhg Ó Donnchadha and Séamus Ó Braonáin; the Official Launch of Camogie took place with the first public match between Craobh an Chéitinnigh and Cúchulainns on 17 July at a Feis in Navan. The sport's governing body, the Camogie Association or An Cumann Camógaíochta was founded in 1905 and re-constituted in 1911, 1923 and 1939; until June 2010 it was known as Cumann Camógaíochta na nGael. Máire Ní Chinnéide and Cáit Ní Dhonnchadha, two prominent Irish-language enthusiasts and cultural nationalists, were credited with having created the sport, with the assistance of Ní Dhonnchadha's scholarly brother Tadhg Ó Donnchadha, who drew up its rules. Thus, although camogie was founded by women, independently run, there was, from the outset, a small yet powerful male presence within its administrative ranks.
It was no surprise that camogie emanated from the Gaelic League, nor that it would be dependent upon the structures and networks provided by that organisation during the initial expansion of the sport. Of all the cultural nationalist organisations for adults that emerged during the fin de siècle, the Gaelic League was the only one to accept female and male members on an equal footing. Under Séamus Ó Braonáin's original 1903 camogie rules both the match and the field were shorter than their hurling equivalents. Matches were 40 minutes, increased to 50 minutes in 1934, playing fields 125–130 yards long and 65–70 yards wide. From 1929 until 1979 a second crossbar, a "points bar" was used, meaning that a point would not be allowed if it travelled over this bar, a somewhat contentious rule through the 75 years it was in use. Teams were regulated at 12 a side, using an elliptical formation although it was more a "squeezed lemon" formation with the three midfield players grouped more together than their counterpart on the half back and half-forward lines.
In 1999 camogie moved to the GAA field-size and 15-a-side, adopting the standard GAA butterfly formation. The name was invented by Tadhg Ua Donnchadha at meetings in 1903 in advance of the first matches in 1904. Men play using a curved stick called in Irish a camán. Women would use a shorter stick, at one stage described by the diminutive form camóg; the suffix -aíocht was added to both words to give names for the sports: camánaíocht and camógaíocht. When the Gaelic Athletic Association was founded in 1884 the English-origin name "hurling" was given to the men's game; when an organisation for women was set up in 1904, it was decided to anglicise the Irish name camógaíocht to camogie. An Cumann Camógaíochta has a similar structure to the Gaelic Athletic Association, with an Annual Congress every spring which decides on policy and major issues such as rule changes, an executive council, the Árd Chómhairle which deals with short-term issues and governance; the game is administered from a headquarters in Croke Park in Dublin.
Each of 28 co
All-Ireland Senior Football Championship
The All-Ireland Senior Football Championship, the premier competition in gaelic football, is an annual series of games played in Ireland and organised by the Gaelic Athletic Association. The All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final is played by the "35th Sunday of the year" at Croke Park in Dublin, with the winning team receiving the Sam Maguire Cup. Contested by the top inter-county football teams in Ireland, the tournament has taken place every year since 1887, except in 1888, when the competition was not played due to a tour of the United States by would-be competitors; the first Championship to be held featured club teams who represented their respective counties after their county championship. The 21 a-side final was between Commercials of Young Irelands of Louth; the final was played in Beech Hill, Clonskeagh on 29 April 1888 with Commercials winning by 1–4 to 0–3. Unlike All-Ireland competitions, there were no provincial championships, the result was an open draw; the second Championship was unfinished owing to the American Invasion Tour.
The 1888 provincial championships had been completed but after the Invasion tour returned, the All-Ireland semi-final and final were not played. English team London reached the final four times in the early years of the competition. In 1892, inter-county teams were introduced to the All-Ireland Championship. Congress granted permission for the winning club to use players from other clubs in the county, thus the inter-county teams came into being; the rules of hurling and football were altered: goals were made equal to five points, teams were reduced from 21 to 17 a-side. The 1903 Championship brought Kerry's first All-Ireland title, they went on to become the most successful football team in the history of the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship. The first half of the twentieth century brought the rise of several teams who won two or more All-Ireland titles in that period, such as Kildare, Cavan and Roscommon. In the 1990s, a significant sea change took place, as the All-Ireland was claimed by an Ulster team in four consecutive years.
Since Ulster has produced more All-Ireland winning teams than any other province. The All-Ireland Qualifiers were introduced in 2001; that year, the 2001 final brought victory for Galway who became the first football team to win an All-Ireland by springing through "the back door." In 2013, Hawk-Eye was introduced. It was first used to confirm that Offaly substitute Peter Cunningham's attempted point had gone wide 10 minutes into the second half of a game against Kildare. 2013 brought the first Friday night game in the history of the Championship - a first round qualifier between Carlow and Laois.2018 saw the introduction of the All Ireland Super 8s. The county is a geographical region in Ireland, each of the thirty-two counties in Ireland organise their own gaelic games affairs through a County Board; the county teams play in their respective Provincial Championships in Connacht, Leinster and Ulster. Kilkenny is unique among the 32 Irish county associations in not participating in the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship.
The Provincial Championships operate through a knock-out cup competition format. They take place during the months of June; the winners of each of the four Provincial Championships earn a place in the All-Ireland Super 8s, a round robin group stage new to the 2018 Championship, which takes place in the months of July and August. Each provincial championship match is played as a single leg. If a match is drawn extra time is played. However, if both sides are still level at the end of extra time a replay takes place. In the case of a provincial final if matches end level a replay takes place without extra time; the twenty-nine teams that fail to win their respective Provincial Championships receive a second opportunity to reach the All-Ireland Series via the All Ireland Qualifiers. The qualifiers series takes place in the months of June and July and operates as follows: Qualifiers Round 1: All teams that fail to reach the semi-finals of their respective Provincial Championships compete in round one.
An open draw system is used to divide the teams into eight individual match-ups. The winning eight teams progress to Round 2, while the losing eight teams are eliminated from the All Ireland Championship. Round 2: Each of the eight winning teams of Round 1 are drawn against the eight losing teams from the semi-finals of the four Provincial Championships; the winning eight teams progress to Round 3, while the losing eight teams are eliminated from the All Ireland Championship. Round 3: The eight winning teams from Round 2 are divided into four individual match-ups. An open draw is made to determine the four pairings; the winning four teams progress to Round 4, while the losing four teams are eliminated from the All Ireland Championship. Round 4: Each of the four winning teams of Round 3 are drawn against the four losing teams from the finals of the four Provincial Championships; the winning four teams proceed to the All-Ireland Series, joining the four Provincial Champions, while the losing four teams are eliminated from the All Ireland Championship.
The All-Ireland Championship All-Ireland Super 8s: The four Provincial Champions and the winning four teams from Round 4 of the All-Ireland Qualifiers take part in a group stage that takes place in the months of July and August. The group stage is organised on a league basis with two groups of four