Wide Area Telephone Service was a flat-rate long distance service offering for customer dial-type telecommunications in some of the countries that adhere to the North American Numbering Plan. The service was between a given customer phone and stations within specified geographic rate areas, employing a single telephone line between the customer location and the serving central office; each access line could be arranged for both. WATS was introduced by the Bell System in 1961 as a primitive long-distance flat-rate plan by which a business could obtain a special line with an included number of hours of long-distance calling to a specified area; these lines were most connected to private branch exchanges in large businesses. WATS lines were the basis for the first direct-dial toll-free +1-800 numbers. For outbound calls, the 1984 AT&T divestiture brought multiple competitors offering similar services using standard business telephone lines; the requirement that an inbound toll-free number terminate at a special WATS line or fixed-rate service was rendered obsolete by the 1980s due to intelligent network capability and technological improvement in the +1‑800 service.
A toll-free number may now terminate at a T-carrier line, at any standard local telephone number or at one of multiple destinations based on time of day, call origin, cost or other factors. For Outbound WATS, the United States was divided into geographical Bands 0 through 5. Band zero was intrastate calling and bands 1 through 5 were interstate calls that were progressively further from the originating number; the higher band number carried a higher price per month or per minute. These lines could be used for outbound long-distance only. In the U. S. interstate WATS lines could not be used for intrastate calls, vice versa. With wider availability of inexpensive long distance using regular business lines, OutWATS service became obsolete late in the 20th century; the original North American toll-free number was the Zenith number, published in one distant city only. Published as "Zenith" and a five-digit number, these collect; the called party was charged for the operator-assisted call. With "inward WATS", introduced for interstate calls by AT&T in 1967, subscribers were issued a toll-free telephone number in a designated toll-free area code.
Unlike a standard collect call or a call to a Zenith number, +1‑800- may be dialed directly with no live operator. Callers within a designated area could call without incurring a toll charge as the recipient paid for the calls at a fixed rate; the introduction of InWATS fortuitously fell around the same time as the early centralized, automated national airline and hotel reservation systems, including Sabre and Reservatron. Hundreds of local reservation numbers for a major chain could be replaced with one central number, backed by a national computerized reservation system. InWATS exchanges were assigned to Canada and other North American Numbering Plan countries, but the original InWATS in each country accepted domestic calls only. +1‑800‑NN2‑XXXX numbers were U. S. intrastate and specific prefixes were assigned to Canada. In the 1970s, AT&T's internal routing guides included separate U. S. and Canadian 1-800 exchange maps which looked much like area code maps as each geographic area code had one or more specific freephone exchange prefixes.
Sheraton's 800‑325‑3535, one of the notable early adopters in late 1969, was hard-wired into St. Louis area code 314. S. number if the 1‑800‑465 prefix was hard-wired to Thunder Bay's area code 807. Any attempt to call a foreign +1‑800 gave a pre-recorded error, "the number you have dialed is not available from your calling area." Like the OutWATS service, AT&T's InWATS was divided into intrastate and interstate, with interstate calls priced into five or six "bands" of calling. This favored placement of US national call centers in low-population Midwestern states such as Nebraska, whose central location meant a situated "band 3" number reaching halfway across the US in every direction could reach 47 states. A San Diego call center would be less fortunate; the original InWATS system was supplanted by "Advanced 800 Service" in the 1980s. Modern systems eliminated requirements tying toll-free numbers to dedicated flat-rate inbound WATS lines. Direct inward dial, introduced in 1983, allowed one trunk to carry calls for multiple numbers.
AT&T's monopoly on U. S. toll-free number routing ended in 1986, encouraging flexibility in order to match rivals Sprint and MCI. By 1989, fixed "bands" of coverage area had been replaced by distance-based billing, a growing number of 1‑800 numbers were being terminated at standard local business or residence lines and one number could be sent to multiple locations based on call origin, least-cost routing or time of day routing. RespOrgs were established in the U. S. in 1993 and Canada in 1994 to provide toll free number portability using the Service Management System database. Calls from Canada and the U. S. intrastate and interstate, could terminate at the same 1‑800 number via different carriers. Vanity nu
The Utu Utu Gwaitu Paiute Tribe of the Benton Paiute Reservation known as the Benton Paiute Tribe, is a federally recognized Great Basin tribe in Mono County, California. The Utu Utu Gwaitu Paiute Tribe has a federal reservation in Mono County, ten miles from the Nevada border called the Benton Paiute Reservation in Benton, California; the reservation is 400 acres large, held in Trustee status and another 67 acres held in fee simple status. 50 tribal members on the reservation. The reservation was established on July 22, 1915; the nearest incorporated city is Bishop. About the same distance to the west is Mammoth Lakes, although there is no direct road leading there; the tribe's headquarters is located in California. The tribe is governed by a democratically elected, five-person tribal council; the tribe identifies as being Owens Valley Paiute. Tribal enrollment is open to people with one-quarter Paiute blood quantum, either from the Benton area or descended from original enrollees. Other Owens Valley Paiute can be adopted into the tribe, as approved by a five-person enrollment committee.
The current tribal administration is as follows: At the beginning of 2010, the tribe was awarded a $200,000 grant from the US Department of Energy for a study of the feasibility of geothermal energy development on tribal lands. The tribe unanimously voted on their constitution on November 22, 1975 and ratified it on January 20, 1976; the name Utuʼutuwi·tu, a subgroup of Owens Valley Paiute, was Anglicized to Utu Utu Gwaiti, or Gwaitu. Liljeblad and Fowler, Catherine S. "Owens Valley Paiute." Handbook of North American Indians: Great Basin, Volume 11. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1986. ISBN 978-0-16-004581-3. Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. Rusco, Elmer R. and Mary K. Rusco. "Tribal Politics." Handbook of North American Indians: Great Basin, Volume 11. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1986. ISBN 978-0-16-004581-3. Benton Paiute Tribe, official website
Football Club Internazionale Milano is an Italian professional association football club based in Milan that plays in the Italian Serie A. It was one of the founding members of Serie A in 1929, is the only club never to have been relegated from the league, they have been involved in European football, winning UEFA Champions League and UEFA Cup three times. Inter become the first Italian club to win back-to-back European Cups, achieving the feat in 1964 and 1965; this list encompasses the major honours won by Inter Milan and records set by the club, their managers and their players. The player records section includes details of the club's leading goalscorers and those who have made most appearances in first-team competitions, it records notable achievements by Inter Milan players on the international stage, the highest transfer fees paid and received by the club. Inter has set various records since its founding. In 2010, Inter became the first Italian club to win the treble consisting of Serie A, the Coppa Italia and the UEFA Champions League.
Between 2005 and 2010, Inter won 5 consecutive national championships, a record, broken by Juventus in 2016–17 season. Inter has signed several high-profile players, setting the world record in transfer fees on two occasions with the purchase of Ronaldo in 1997 and Christian Vieri in 1999; the statistics listed below are updated to 20 May 2018. Inter Milan have won 30 domestic trophies, including the league eighteen times, the Coppa Italia seven and the Supercoppa Italiana five. From 2006 to 2010, the club won five successive league titles, equalling the all-time record in that period. Inter has won the Champions League three times; the last completed an unprecedented Italian treble with the Scudetto. The club has won three UEFA Cups, two Intercontinental Cups and one FIFA Club World Cup. Serie A: Winners: 1909–10, 1919–20, 1929–30, 1937–38, 1939–40, 1952–53, 1953–54, 1962–63, 1964–65, 1965–66, 1970–71, 1979–80, 1988–89, 2005–06, 2006–07, 2007–08, 2008–09, 2009–10 Runners-up: 1932–33, 1933–34, 1934–35, 1940–41, 1948–49, 1950–51, 1961–62, 1963–64, 1966–67, 1969–70, 1992–93, 2002–03, 2010–11Coppa Italia: Winners: 1938–39, 1977–78, 1981–82, 2004–05, 2005–06, 2009–10, 2010–11 Runners-up: 1958–59, 1964–65, 1976–77, 1999–00, 2006–07, 2007–08Supercoppa Italiana: Winners: 1989, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2010 Runners-up: 2000, 2007, 2009, 2011 The following titles include only those which are recognised by UEFA and FIFA.
Intercontinental Cup: Winners: 1964, 1965Intercontinental Supercup: Runners-up: 1968FIFA Club World Cup: Winners: 2010 European Cup/Champions League: Winners: 1963–64, 1964–65, 2009–10 Runners-up: 1966–67, 1971–72UEFA Cup: Winners: 1990–91, 1993–94, 1997–98 Runners-up: 1996–97UEFA Super Cup: Runners-up: 2010 Trofeo Giacinto Facchetti: Champions: 1964. Record win: 16–0 against ACIVI Vicenza, Prima Categoria, 10 January 1915 Record Serie A win: 9–0 against Casale, 10 September 1933 Record Coppa Italia win: 7–0 against Mantova, 14 September 1958 Record win in European competitions: 7–0 against Lyon, Inter-Cities Fairs Cup, 10 December 1958 Most wins in a Serie A season: 30, during the 2006–07 season Record Serie A defeat: 1–9 against Juventus, 10 June 1961. Record Coppa Italia defeat:0–5 against Milan, 8 January 1998 11–1 against Pisa, 18 November 1930 Record defeat in European competitions:1–5 against Arsenal, UEFA Champions League, 25 November 2003 Most defeats in a Serie A season: 19, during the 1947–48 season Fewest defeats in a Serie A season: 1, during the 2006–07 season Most points in a Serie A season:Two points for a win: 58 in 34 games, during the 1988–89 season Three points for a win: 97 in 38 games, during the 2006–07 season Fewest points in a Serie A season:Two points for a win: 26 in 30 games, during the 1941–42 season Three points for a win: 46 in 38 games, during the 1998–99 season Most appearances made in official competitions: 858 – Javier Zanetti, 1995–2014 Most goals scored in official competitions: 284 – Giuseppe Meazza, 1927–1940 & 1946–1947 This is the list of Inter’s top league goalscorers in a single season.
FIFA World Player of the Year The following players have won the FIFA World Player of the Year award whilst playing for Inter Milan: 2002 – Ronaldo 1997 – Ronaldo 1991 – Lothar MatthäusBallon d'Or/European Footballer of the Year The following players have won the Ballon d'Or award whilst playing for Inter Milan: 1997 – Ronaldo 1990 – Lothar MatthäusWorld Soccer Player of the Year The following players have won the World Player of the Year award whilst playing for Inter Milan: 2002 – Ronaldo 1997 – Ronaldo 1990 – Lothar MatthäusUEFA Club Footballer of the Year The following players have won the UEFA Club Footbal
A jughandle is a type of ramp or slip road that changes the way traffic turns left at an at-grade intersection. Instead of a standard left turn being made from the left lane, left-turning traffic uses a ramp on the right side of the road. In a standard forward jughandle or near-side jughandle, the ramp leaves before the intersection, left-turning traffic turns left off it rather than the through road. Right turns are made using the jughandle. In a reverse jughandle or far-side jughandle, the ramp leaves after the intersection, left-turning traffic loops around to the right and merges with the crossroad before the intersection; the jughandle is known as a Jersey left due to its association with the U. S. state of New Jersey, though this term is locally used for an abrupt left at the beginning of a green light cycle. A setup is used where traffic on the side road cannot turn left at the intersection but turns left after it, merging with the main road; this is most used for U-turns where a normal jughandle cannot be constructed.
A jughandle is removed if turning traffic is too heavy. In at least one case in New Jersey, the jughandle was kept for left turns, but U-turns are made from a left-turn lane; the New Jersey Department of Transportation defines three types of jughandles. "Type A" is the standard forward jughandle. "Type B" is a variant with no cross-street intersected by the jughandle. "Type C" is the standard reverse jughandle. The first mention of jughandles in the New York Times is on June 14, 1959, referring to jughandles having been built in New Jersey on US 46 in Montville, US 22 between North Plainfield and Bound Brook, Route 35 at Monmouth Park Racetrack. By the beginning of 1960, New Jersey had 160 jughandles, most if not all standard before-intersection jughandles; the 160th one was on U. S. Route 1 between New Brunswick and Trenton. In Markham, Ontario: Warden Avenue at Enterprise Boulevard 43.848694°N 79.332178°W / 43.848694. Jughandles are associated with New Jersey. Jughandles are possible in other locations as they are a valid type of intersection control to consider for intersection design.
On New Jersey State Highways and Pennsylvania State Highways, a white sign is placed before a jughandle or at the beginning of a stretch of jughandles saying "All turns from right lane". Each jughandle is marked with a white sign below the standard green sign, saying "All turns", or "U and left turns" in the case of a reverse jughandle. On locally maintained roads, in other states, jughandle signage can appear to be haphazard and confusing to out of state drivers. On Pennsylvania Route 61, jughandles are common, are signed as "All Turns". Safety Removes left-turning vehicles from travel lanes from higher-speed left lanes. Pedestrian crossing distance is reduced across the mainline. Reduced left-turn conflict points as compared to a standard four-leg intersection. Removes conflicts with right-turning vehicles and pedestrians/bicyclists at the primary intersection. Operations Reduced delay through the intersection. Reduced signal phases due to the elimination of the associated left-turn phase. Increases queuing space for left-turning vehicles.
Shorter pedestrian crossing distance across the mainline may provide for shorter cross street signal phases. May improve U-turns by reducing the need for a tight-radius turning maneuver which conflicts with cross-street right-turns. Reduced need for rights-of-way acquisition. Safety Driver confusion, due to left-turns being made from the right side of the roadway — an uncommon configuration outside of the northeastern United States. Expectancy issues may be compounded due to inconsistency between intersections, where some intersections may be jughandles and others may be standard intersections; these issues can be reduced through advance signing. Pedestrian conflict is increased along the cross street due to the addition of an additional intersecting approach. Creates a higher-speed conflict between vehicles and pedestrians/bicyclists at the divergence point of the jughandle ramp. Operations Increased travel delay for left-turning motorists redirected through jughandle. Increased overall percentage of vehicles stopped at the intersection.
Potential for queues along the cross street to block the exit terminal of the jughandle, increasing stops and travel time of left-turning motorists. With reverse jughandles, motorists travel through the intersection twice: adding to the net movement demand. Motorists wishing to perform a U-turn maneuver at a reverse jughandle must perfo
The 1990 Hawal Massacre was named after the Hawal area of Srinagar, where, on 21 May 1990, the Indian paramilitary troops of the Central Reserve Police Force opened fire on the peaceful funeral procession, carrying the body of Mirwaiz Moulana Muhammad Farooq, assassinated by unidentified gunmen at his Nageen Residence. The funeral procession was taking the body from Soura to Mirwaiz Manzil, Rajouri Kadal. Mirwaiz Moulana Muhammad Farooq, the Mirwaiz of Kashmir had been killed by unknown gunmen and his followers took his body in a funeral procession towards Mirwaiz Manzil when the paramilitary personnel stationed in a camp at Islamia College started indiscriminately firing using their machine guns trained at the peaceful procession. Victims of the attack state how the massacre was unprovoked and they were all unarmed yet the forces fired thousands of bullets. Over 60 were killed and 200 were injured in the massacre and this remains to be one of the deadliest massacres in Kashmir; the Governor had announced a ‘time-bound’ inquiry into the massacre within a period of two months.
However, in reply to an RTI application in 2013, the divisional commissioner Kashmir had stated that a criminal case vide FIR 35/1990 was registered into the incident at Nowhatta police station. “However, there is no information with the department as to whether there was any inquiry, judicial or magisterial, ordered by the government,” he had stated. On a petition by a human rights activist, the State Human Rights Commission in 2014 ordered time bound inquiry into the massacre and sought a report from the government within two months. “Despite various communications addressed to the DGP, divisional commissioner Kashmir and from secretary of the commission, authorities are unmoved. In view of the insensitive approach of the authorities, the commission is left with no option but to entrust the inquiry to the investigating wing of this commission,” the SHRC had stated. In December 2017, the investigation wing of the SHRC found that the CRPF had identified 15 of its officers and personnel for “indiscriminate firing” that killed “35 civilians at Hawal in 1990.
“The SHRC investigation, could not ascertain if any action was taken against these CRPF officers and personnel. Gawkadal massacre Zakoora and Tengpora massacre Sopore massacre Handwara massacre Bijbehara massacre Human rights abuses in Jammu and Kashmir 34.10481°N 74.81°E / 34.10481.
Otto Mahler was a Bohemian-Austrian musician and composer who died by suicide at the age of twenty-one. The twelfth child of Bernard and Marie Mahler, Otto was born in Jihlava and resembled his elder brother Gustav Mahler in displaying a special talent for music at an early age. Gustav Mahler was Director of the Royal Opera in Budapest when Otto Mahler entered the Vienna Conservatory in 1888 at the age of 15. Natalie Bauer-Lechner's memoirs describe Otto as having been "liberated from his father's business" by Gustav—who became head of the family, financially responsible for Otto, upon the deaths of Bernard and Marie in 1889. Commentary on Otto's life tends to assert, he appears to have been less diligent, however. After a few successful terms studying harmony and counterpoint with Anton Bruckner and piano with Ernst Ludwig, his marks declined, the annual report for his first year shows that for some reason he took no final examination in composition. From that point on his academic performance was poor, in April 1892, Otto Mahler left the Conservatory without a diploma.
With the help of his brother, Otto was able to find minor musical posts in provincial towns. He stayed long in any place, however. In the autumn of 1893, he took on a position as choirmaster and second conductor of the Leipzig Opera. After moving to a position in Bremen, he returned to Vienna, it was in Vienna on 6 February 1895, that Otto shot himself with a revolver while in the house of his and Mahler's friend Nina Hoffmann-Matscheko. His motivation remains unknown, though the'Illustrierte Wiener Extrablatt' speculated about a'matter of the heart'. According to Gustav's widow Alma, Otto's suicide-note stated that life no longer pleased him, so he'handed back his ticket'. Otto Mahler's music remains unpublished and is uncatalogued. No recent performances are known. At the time of his death, Otto was in possession of an autograph of the first three movements of Anton Bruckner's Third Symphony; the bulky Bruckner manuscript was one of the few possessions carried in her backpack during her daring 1940 escape over the Pyrenees with her third husband, writer Franz Werfel, avoiding Vichy France border patrols.
According to Bruno Walter, Otto Mahler left two symphonies, parts of, played and "ridiculed" by the public, an almost-complete Third Symphony, in addition to some lieder with orchestra and piano. "I had a brother, like me a musician and a composer. A man of great talent, far more gifted than I, he died young... alas... alas! He killed himself in the prime of life"