Johns Hopkins Hospital
The Johns Hopkins Hospital is the teaching hospital and biomedical research facility of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, located in Baltimore, Maryland, U. S, it was founded in 1889 using money from a bequest of over $7 million by city merchant, banker/financier, civic leader and philanthropist Johns Hopkins. Johns Hopkins Hospital and its school of medicine are considered to be the founding institutions of modern American medicine and the birthplace of numerous famous medical traditions including rounds and house staff. Many medical specialties were formed by Dr. Harvey Cushing. Johns Hopkins Hospital is regarded as one of the world's greatest hospitals and medical institutions, it was ranked by U. S. News & World Report news magazine as the best overall hospital in America for 21 consecutive years. In 2017-2018, the hospital ranked in 15 adult and 10 children's specialties, coming in 1st in Maryland and 3rd nationally behind the Mayo Clinic in Rochester and the Cleveland Clinic in Cleveland, Ohio.
Johns Hopkins, a Baltimore merchant and banker, left an estate of $7 million when he died on Christmas Eve, December 24, 1873, in his city mansion on West Saratoga Street, just west of North Charles Street, at the age of 78. In his will, he asked that his fortune be used to found two institutions that would bear his name: "Johns Hopkins University" and "The Johns Hopkins Hospital." At the time that it was made, Hopkins's gift was the largest philanthropic bequest in the history of the United States. Toward the end of his life, Hopkins selected 12 prominent Baltimoreans to be the trustees for the project and a year before his death, sent a letter telling them that he was giving "thirteen acres of land, situated in the city of Baltimore, bounded by Broadway, Wolfe and Jefferson streets upon which I desire you to erect a hospital." He wished for a hospital "which shall, in construction and arrangement, compare favorably with any other institution of like character in this country or in Europe" and directed his trustees to "secure for the service of the Hospital and surgeons of the highest character and greatest skill."Most Hopkins told the trustees to "bear in mind that it is my wish and purpose that the hospital shall form a part of the Medical School of that university for which I have made ample provision in my will."
By calling for this integral relationship between patient care, as embodied in the hospital, teaching and research, as embodied in the university, Hopkins laid the groundwork for a revolution in American medicine. Johns Hopkins' vision, of two institutions in which the practice of medicine would be wedded to medical research and medical education was nothing short of revolutionary. Initial plans for the hospital were drafted by surgeon John Shaw Billings, the architecture designed by John Rudolph Niernsee and completed by Edward Clarke Cabot of the Boston firm of Cabot and Chandler in a Queen Anne style; when completed in 1889 at a cost of $2,050,000, the hospital included what was state-of-the art concepts in heating and ventilation to check the spread of disease. The trustees obtained the services of four outstanding physicians, known as the "Big Four," to serve as the founding staff of the hospital when it opened on May 7, 1889, they were pathologist William Henry Welch, surgeon William Stewart Halsted, internist William Osler, gynecologist Howard Atwood Kelly.
In 1893, Johns Hopkins University was one of the first medical schools to admit women. The decision to begin coeducation was a result of a shortage of funds, as the B&O Railroad stock, supposed to cover cost was used up in building the hospital in 1889 and the medical school had not yet been built. Four of the original trustees’ daughters offered to raise the money needed to open the school, but only if the school agreed to admit qualified women to the university. After several discussions the trustees agreed to their terms and accepted the financial help of these four women, with only one of the doctors, William Henry Welch resisting. Welch changed his views on coeducation, "The necessity for coeducation in some form," he wrote "becomes more evident the higher the character of the education. In no form of education is this more evident than in that of medicine... we regard coeducation a success. He introduced the idea of bringing medical students into actual patient care early in their training.
Osler's contribution to practical education extends to the creation of "grand rounds", the practice of leading physicians discussing the most difficult cases in front of assembled medical students, for the benefit of patients and students. He once said he hoped his tombstone would say only, "He brought medical students into the wards for bedside teaching."Halsted, the first chief of the Department of Surgery, established many other medical and surgical achievements at Johns Hopkins including modern surgical principles of control of bleeding, accurate anatomical dissection, complete sterility, the first radical mastectomy for breast cancer (before
Henry Ross Perot is an American business magnate and former politician. As the founder of the successful Electronic Data Systems corporation, he became a billionaire, he ran an independent presidential campaign in 1992 and a third party campaign in 1996, establishing the Reform Party in the latter election. Both campaigns were among the strongest presidential showings by a third party or independent candidate in U. S. history. Born in Texarkana, Texas, he became a salesman for IBM after serving in the United States Navy. In 1962, he founded a data processing service company. In 1984, General Motors bought a controlling interest in the company for $2.4 billion. Perot established Perot Systems in 1988 and was an angel investor for NeXT, a computer company founded by Steve Jobs after he left Apple. Perot became involved in the Vietnam War POW/MIA issue, arguing that hundreds of American servicemen were left behind in Southeast Asia after the Vietnam War. During President George H. W. Bush's tenure, Perot became active in politics and opposed the Gulf War and ratification of the North American Free Trade Agreement.
In 1992, Perot announced his intention to run for president and advocated a balanced budget, an end to the outsourcing of jobs, the enactment of electronic direct democracy. A June 1992 Gallup poll showed Perot leading a three-way race against President Bush and presumptive Democratic nominee Bill Clinton. Perot withdrew from the race in July, but re-entered the race in early October after he qualified for all 50 state ballots, he chose Admiral James Stockdale as his running mate and appeared in the 1992 CPD debates with Bush and Clinton. In the election, Perot did not win any electoral votes, he won support from across the ideological and partisan spectrum, but performed best among self-described moderates. Perot ran for president again in 1996, he won 8.4 % of the popular vote against Republican nominee Bob Dole. Perot did not seek public office again after 1996 and did not enter the 2000 Reform Party presidential primaries, he endorsed Republican George W. Bush over Reform nominee Pat Buchanan in the 2000 election and supported Republican Mitt Romney in 2008 and 2012.
In 2009, Dell acquired Perot Systems for $3.9 billion. According to Forbes, Perot was the 167th richest person in the United States in 2016. Perot was born in Texarkana, the son of Lula May Perot and Gabriel Ross Perot, a commodity broker specializing in cotton contracts, his patrilineal line traces back to an immigrant to French Louisiana in the 1740s. He attended, he graduated from Texas High School in Texarkana in 1947. One of Perot's childhood friends was Hayes McClerkin, who became the Speaker of the Arkansas House of Representatives and a prominent lawyer in Texarkana, Arkansas. Perot made Eagle Scout in 1942, after 13 months in the program, he is a recipient of the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award. From 1947 to 1949, he attended Texarkana Junior College entered the U. S. Naval helped establish its honor system. Perot said his appointment notice to the academy—sent by telegram—was sent by W. Lee "Pappy" O'Daniel, Texas's 34th governor and former senator. Perot married Margot Birmingham of Greensburg, Pennsylvania, in 1956.
After he left the Navy in 1957, Perot became a salesman for IBM. He became a top employee and tried to pitch his ideas to supervisors, who ignored him, he left IBM in 1962 to found Electronic Data Systems in Dallas and courted large corporations for his data processing services. Perot was refused. EDS received lucrative contracts from the U. S. government in the 1960s, computerizing Medicare records. EDS went public in 1968 and the stock price rose from $16 a share to $160 within days. Fortune called Perot the "richest Texan" in a 1968 cover story. In 1984 General Motors bought controlling interest in EDS for $2.4 billion. In 1974, Perot gained some press attention for being "the biggest individual loser on the New York Stock Exchange" when his EDS shares dropped $450 million in value in a single day in April 1970. Just prior to the 1979 Iranian Revolution, the government of Iran imprisoned two EDS employees in a contract dispute. Perot sponsored their rescue; the rescue team was led by retired U.
S. Army Special Forces Colonel Arthur D. "Bull" Simons. When the team was unable to find a way to extract the two prisoners, they decided to wait for a mob of pro-Ayatollah revolutionaries to storm the jail and free all 10,000 inmates, many of whom were political prisoners; the two prisoners connected with the rescue team, the team spirited them out of Iran via a risky border crossing into Turkey. The exploit was recounted in On Wings of Eagles by Ken Follett, which became a best-seller. In the 1986 mini-series, Perot was portrayed by Richard Crenna. In 1984, Perot bought a early copy of Magna Carta, one of only a few to leave the United Kingdom, it was lent to the National Archives in Washington, D. C. where it was displayed alongside the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution. In 2007, it was sold by the Perot Foundation "for medical research, for improving public education and for assisting wounded soldiers and their families." The document sold for US$21.3 million on Dec. 18, 2007, to David Rubenstein, managing director of the Carlyle Group, is kept on display at the National Archives.
After Steve Jobs lost the original power struggle at Apple an
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County and part of the Boston metropolitan area. Situated directly north of Boston, across the Charles River, it was named in honor of the University of Cambridge in England, an important center of the Puritan theology embraced by the town's founders. Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are in Cambridge, as was Radcliffe College, a college for women until it merged with Harvard on October 1, 1999. According to the 2010 Census, the city's population was 105,162; as of July 2014, it was the fifth most populous city in the state, behind Boston, Worcester and Lowell. Cambridge was one of two seats of Middlesex County until the county government was abolished in Massachusetts in 1997. In December 1630, the site of what would become Cambridge was chosen because it was safely upriver from Boston Harbor, making it defensible from attacks by enemy ships. Thomas Dudley, his daughter Anne Bradstreet, her husband Simon were among the town's first settlers.
The first houses were built in the spring of 1631. The settlement was referred to as "the newe towne". Official Massachusetts records show the name rendered as Newe Towne by 1632, as Newtowne by 1638. Located at the first convenient Charles River crossing west of Boston, Newe Towne was one of a number of towns founded by the 700 original Puritan colonists of the Massachusetts Bay Colony under Governor John Winthrop, its first preacher was Thomas Hooker, who led many of its original inhabitants west in 1636 to found Hartford and the Connecticut Colony. The original village site is now within Harvard Square; the marketplace where farmers sold crops from surrounding towns at the edge of a salt marsh remains within a small park at the corner of John F. Kennedy and Winthrop Streets; the town comprised a much larger area than the present city, with various outlying parts becoming independent towns over the years: Cambridge Village in 1688, Cambridge Farms in 1712 or 1713, Little or South Cambridge and Menotomy or West Cambridge in 1807.
In the late 19th century, various schemes for annexing Cambridge to Boston were pursued and rejected. In 1636, the Newe College was founded by the colony to train ministers. According to Cotton Mather, Newe Towne was chosen for the site of the college by the Great and General Court for its proximity to the popular and respected Puritan preacher Thomas Shepard. In May 1638, The settlement's name was changed to Cambridge in honor of the university in Cambridge, England. Newtowne's ministers and Shepard, the college's first president, major benefactor, the first schoolmaster Nathaniel Eaton were Cambridge alumni, as was the colony's governor John Winthrop. In 1629, Winthrop had led the signing of the founding document of the city of Boston, known as the Cambridge Agreement, after the university. In 1650, Governor Thomas Dudley signed the charter creating the corporation that still governs Harvard College. Cambridge grew as an agricultural village eight miles by road from Boston, the colony's capital.
By the American Revolution, most residents lived near the Common and Harvard College, with most of the town comprising farms and estates. Most inhabitants were descendants of the original Puritan colonists, but there was a small elite of Anglican "worthies" who were not involved in village life, made their livings from estates and trade, lived in mansions along "the Road to Watertown". Coming north from Virginia, George Washington took command of the volunteer American soldiers camped on Cambridge Common on July 3, 1775, now reckoned the birthplace of the U. S. Army. Most of the Tory estates were confiscated after the Revolution. On January 24, 1776, Henry Knox arrived with artillery captured from Fort Ticonderoga, which enabled Washington to drive the British army out of Boston. Between 1790 and 1840, Cambridge grew with the construction of the West Boston Bridge in 1792 connecting Cambridge directly to Boston, so that it was no longer necessary to travel eight miles through the Boston Neck and Brookline to cross the Charles River.
A second bridge, the Canal Bridge, opened in 1809 alongside the new Middlesex Canal. The new bridges and roads made what were estates and marshland into prime industrial and residential districts. In the mid-19th century, Cambridge was the center of a literary revolution, it was home to some of the famous Fireside Poets—so called because their poems would be read aloud by families in front of their evening fires. The Fireside Poets—Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, James Russell Lowell, Oliver Wendell Holmes—were popular and influential in their day. Soon after, turnpikes were built: the Cambridge and Concord Turnpike, the Middlesex Turnpike, what are today's Cambridge and Harvard Streets connected various areas of Cambridge to the bridges. In addition, the town was connected to the Boston & Maine Railroad, leading to the development of Porter Square as well as the creation of neighboring Somerville from the rural parts of Charlestown. Cambridge was incorporated as a city in 1846 despite persistent tensions between East Cambridge and Old Cambridge stemming from differences in culture, sources of income, the national origins of the resident
Dow Jones & Company
Dow Jones & Company is an American publishing and financial information firm, owned by News Corp. since 2007. The company was best known for the publication of the Dow Jones Industrial Average and related market statistics, Dow Jones Newswire and a number of financial publications. In 2010 the Dow Jones Indexes subsidiary was sold to the CME Group and the company focused on financial news publications, including its flagship publication The Wall Street Journal and providing financial news and information tools to financial companies; the company was led by the Bancroft family, which held 64% of voting stock, from the 1920s until 2007 when an extended takeover battle saw News Corp take control of the company. The company was founded in 1882 by three reporters: Charles Dow, Edward Jones, Charles Bergstresser. Dow Jones was acquired in 1902 by Clarence Barron, the leading financial journalist of the day, after the death of co-founder Charles Dow. Upon Barron's death in 1928, control of the company passed to his stepdaughters Jane and Martha Bancroft.
The company was led by the Bancroft family, which controlled 64% of all voting stock, until 2007 when an extended takeover battle saw News Corporation acquire the business. The company became a subsidiary of News Corporation, it was reported on August 1, 2007, that the bid had been successful after an extended period of uncertainty about shareholder agreement. The transaction was completed on December 13, 2007, it was worth US$5 billion or $60 a share, giving News Corp control of The Wall Street Journal and ending the Bancroft family's 105 years of ownership. In 2010, the company sold 90% of Dow Jones Indexes to the CME Group, including the Dow Jones Industrial Average, its flagship publication, The Wall Street Journal, is a daily newspaper in print and online covering business, financial national and international news and issues around the globe. It began publishing on July 8, 1889. There are 12 versions of the Journal in nine languages, including English, Japanese, Spanish, Bahasa and Korean.
The Journal holds 35 Pulitzer Prizes for outstanding journalism. Other consumer-oriented publications of Dow Jones include Barron's Magazine, a weekly overview of the world economy and markets and MarketWatch, the online financial news site. Financial News provides news on investment banking and asset management. BigCharts, provided by MarketWatch's Virtual Stock Exchange Games, includes stock charts, interactive charting, research tools. Professor Journal, is a "Journal" in education program for professors to integrate into curriculum. In 2017, Dow Jones launched Moneyish, a lifestyle and personal finance website aimed at millennial readers. Dow Jones published Heat Street, an online news and opinion website launched in February 2016, folded into MarketWatch; the monthly journal Far Eastern Economic Review closed in September 2009. Dow Jones serves corporate markets and financial markets clients with financial news and information products and services, its products combine technology tools to help drive decisions.
Dow Jones owns more than 20 products that combine content and technology to help drive decisions which include. Dow Jones FX Select, delivers real-time, breaking global FX news, expert trend analysis and in-depth policy commentary in 13 languages, it provides data on venture-backed companies, including their investors and executives, in every region and stage of development throughout the world. Private Equity Analyst, timely news and critical analysis of private equity and venture capital activity. Offers exclusive insight and breaking news on developments in fund-raising, deal finance, returns, executive moves and more. Dow Jones Risk & Compliance, on risk management, regulatory compliance or corporate governance content for Anti-Corruption, Anti-Money Laundering, Payments & Sanctions and more. Dow Jones Newswires is the real-time financial news organization founded in 1882, its primary competitors are Bloomberg L. P. and Thomson Reuters. The company reports more than 600,000 subscribers — including brokers, analysts, world leaders, finance officials and fund managers — as of July 2011.
In 2009 Dow Jones Ventures launched FINS.com, a standalone resource for financial professionals with information about finance careers and the finance industry. In broadcasting, Dow Jones provides news content to CNBC in the U. S, it produced two shows for commercial radio, The Wall Street Journal Report on the Wall Street Journal Radio Network and The Dow Jones Report. The network was shut down in 2014. Dow Jones launched WSJ Live an interactive video website that provides live and on demand videos from The Wall Street Journal Video Network. Programs include "News Hub", "MoneyBeat", "Lunch Break" among others. WSJ Live was shut down in 2017. Dow Jones sold a 90% stake in its Index business for $607.5M to Chicago-based CME Group, which owns the Chicago Mercantile Exchange, in February 2010. A few of the most used include: Dow Jones Industrial Average Dow Jones Transportation Average Dow Jones Utility Average Dow Jones Composite Average The Global Dow Dow Jones Global Titans 50 Index Dow Jones Total Stock Market Index Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes Dow Jones-UBS Commodity Indexes Dow Jones Target Date Indexes In March 2017, Dow Jones and NewsPicks Inc. a Ja
NeXT, Inc. was an American computer and software company founded in 1985 by Apple Computer co-founder Steve Jobs. Its name was pronounced as "Next". Based in Redwood City, the company developed and manufactured a series of computer workstations intended for the higher education and business markets. NeXT was founded by Jobs. NeXT introduced the first NeXT Computer in 1988, the smaller NeXTstation in 1990; the NeXT computers experienced limited sales, with estimates of about 50,000 units shipped in total. Their innovative object-oriented NeXTSTEP operating system and development environment were influential; the first major outside investment was from Ross Perot, who invested after seeing a segment about NeXT on The Entrepreneurs. In 1987, he invested $20 million in exchange for 16 percent of NeXT's stock and subsequently joined the board of directors in 1988. NeXT released much of the NeXTSTEP system as a programming environment standard called OpenStep. NeXT withdrew from the hardware business in 1993 to concentrate on marketing OPENSTEP for Mach, its own OpenStep implementation, for several original equipment manufacturers.
NeXT developed WebObjects, one of the first enterprise web application frameworks. WebObjects never became popular because of its initial high price of $50,000, but it remains a prominent early example of a Web server based on dynamic page generation rather than on static content. Apple purchased NeXT in 1997 for $429 million, 1.5 million shares of Apple stock. As part of the agreement, Steve Jobs, Chairman and CEO of NeXT Software, returned to Apple, the company he co-founded in 1976; the founder promised to merge software from NeXT with Apple's hardware platforms resulting in macOS, iOS, watchOS, tvOS. These operating systems are based upon the NeXTSTEP and OPENSTEP foundation. In 1985, Apple co-founder Steve Jobs led Apple's SuperMicro division, responsible for the development of the Macintosh and Lisa personal computers; the Macintosh had been successful on university campuses because of the Apple University Consortium, which allowed students and institutions to buy the computers at a discount.
The consortium had earned more than $50 million on computers by February 1984. While chairman, Jobs visited university departments and faculty members to sell Macintosh. Jobs met Paul Berg, a Nobel Laureate in chemistry, at a luncheon held in Silicon Valley to honor François Mitterrand President of France. Berg was frustrated by the expense of teaching students about recombinant DNA from textbooks instead of in wet laboratories, used for the testing and analysis of chemicals and other materials or biological matter. Wet labs were prohibitively expensive for lower-level courses and were too complex to be simulated on personal computers of the time. Berg suggested to Jobs to use his influence at Apple to create a "3M computer" workstation for higher education, featuring at least one megabyte of random-access memory, a megapixel display and megaFLOPs performance, hence the name "3M". Jobs was intrigued by Berg's concept of a workstation and contemplated starting a higher education computer company in the fall of 1985, amidst increasing turmoil at Apple.
Jobs' division did not release upgraded versions of the Macintosh and much of the Macintosh Office system. As a result, sales plummeted, Apple was forced to write off millions of dollars in unsold inventory. Apple's chief executive officer John Sculley ousted Jobs from his day-to-day role at Apple, replacing him with Jean-Louis Gassée in 1985; that year, Jobs began a power struggle to regain control of the company. The board of directors sided with Sculley while Jobs took a business visit to Western Europe and the Soviet Union on behalf of Apple. After several months of being sidelined, Jobs resigned from Apple on September 13, 1985, he told the board he was leaving to set up a new computer company, that he would be taking several Apple employees from the SuperMicro division with him. He told the board that his new company would not compete with Apple and might consider licensing its designs back to them to market under the Macintosh brand. Jobs named his new company Next, Inc. A number of former Apple employees followed him to Next, including Joanna Hoffman, Bud Tribble, George Crow, Rich Page, Susan Barnes, Susan Kare, Dan'l Lewin.
After consulting with major educational buyers from around the country, including a follow-up meeting with Paul Berg, a tentative specification for the workstation was drawn up. It was designed to be powerful enough to run wet lab simulations and cheap enough for college students to use in their dormitory rooms. Before the specifications were finished, Apple sued Next for "nefarious schemes" to take advantage of the cofounders' insider information. Jobs remarked, "It is hard to think that a $2 billion company with 4,300-plus people couldn't compete with six people in blue jeans." The suit was dismissed before trial. In 1986, Jobs recruited the famous graphic designer Paul Rand to create a brand identity costing $100,000. Jobs recalled, "I asked him if he would come up with a few options, he said,'No, I will solve your problem for you and you will pay me. You don’t have to use the solution. If you want options go talk to other people.'" Rand created a 20-page brochure detailing the brand, including the precise angle used for the logo and a new company name spelling, NeXT.
NeXT changed its business plan in mid-1986. The company decided to develop both computer hardware and software, instead of just a low-end workstation
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
Human Genome Project
The Human Genome Project was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up human DNA, of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint. It remains the world's largest collaborative biological project. After the idea was picked up in 1984 by the US government when the planning started, the project formally launched in 1990 and was declared complete on April 14, 2003. Funding came from the US government through the National Institutes of Health as well as numerous other groups from around the world. A parallel project was conducted outside government by the Celera Corporation, or Celera Genomics, formally launched in 1998. Most of the government-sponsored sequencing was performed in twenty universities and research centers in the United States, the United Kingdom, France and China; the Human Genome Project aimed to map the nucleotides contained in a human haploid reference genome.
The "genome" of any given individual is unique. Therefore, the finished human genome is a mosaic; the Human Genome Project was a 15-year-long, publicly funded project initiated in 1990 with the objective of determining the DNA sequence of the entire euchromatic human genome within 15 years. In May 1985, Robert Sinsheimer organized a workshop to discuss sequencing the human genome, but for a number of reasons the NIH was uninterested in pursuing the proposal; the following March, the Santa Fe Workshop was organized by Charles DeLisi and David Smith of the Department of Energy's Office of Health and Environmental Research. At the same time Renato Dulbecco proposed whole genome sequencing in an essay in Science. James Watson followed two months with a workshop held at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory; the fact that the Santa Fe workshop was motivated and supported by a Federal Agency opened a path, albeit a difficult and tortuous one, for converting the idea into a public policy in the United States.
In a memo to the Assistant Secretary for Energy Research, Charles DeLisi, Director of the OHER, outlined a broad plan for the project. This started a long and complex chain of events which led to approved reprogramming of funds that enabled the OHER to launch the Project in 1986, to recommend the first line item for the HGP, in President Reagan's 1988 budget submission, approved by the Congress. Of particular importance in Congressional approval was the advocacy of Senator Peter Domenici, whom DeLisi had befriended. Domenici chaired the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, as well as the Budget Committee, both of which were key in the DOE budget process. Congress added a comparable amount to the NIH budget, thereby beginning official funding by both agencies. Alvin Trivelpiece sought and obtained the approval of DeLisi's proposal by Deputy Secretary William Flynn Martin; this chart was used in the spring of 1986 by Trivelpiece Director of the Office of Energy Research in the Department of Energy, to brief Martin and Under Secretary Joseph Salgado regarding his intention to reprogram $4 million to initiate the project with the approval of Secretary Herrington.
This reprogramming was followed by a line item budget of $16 million in the Reagan Administration’s 1987 budget submission to Congress. It subsequently passed both Houses; the Project was planned for 15 years. Candidate technologies were being considered for the proposed undertaking at least as early as 1985. In 1990, the two major funding agencies, DOE and NIH, developed a memorandum of understanding in order to coordinate plans and set the clock for the initiation of the Project to 1990. At that time, David Galas was Director of the renamed “Office of Biological and Environmental Research” in the U. S. Department of Energy's Office of Science and James Watson headed the NIH Genome Program. In 1993, Aristides Patrinos succeeded Galas and Francis Collins succeeded James Watson, assuming the role of overall Project Head as Director of the U. S. National Institutes of Health National Center for Human Genome Research. A working draft of the genome was announced in 2000 and the papers describing it were published in February 2001.
A more complete draft was published in 2003, genome "finishing" work continued for more than a decade. The $3-billion project was formally founded in 1990 by the US Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health, was expected to take 15 years. In addition to the United States, the international consortium comprised geneticists in the United Kingdom, Australia and myriad other spontaneous relationships. Considering the inflation, the project costed $5 billion. Due to widespread international cooperation and advances in the field of genomics, as well as major advances in computing technology, a'rough draft' of the genome was finished in 2000; this first available rough draft assembly of the genome was completed by the Genome Bioinformatics Group at the University of California, Santa Cruz led by graduate student Jim Kent. Ongoing sequencing led to the announcement of the complete genome on April 14, 2003, two years earlier than planned. In May 2006, another milestone was passed on the way to completion of the project, when the sequence of