The Lusatian culture existed in the Bronze Age and early Iron Age in most of today's Poland and parts of the Czech Republic, eastern Germany, western Ukraine. It covers the Periods Montelius III to V of the Northern-European chronological scheme. There were close contacts with the Nordic Bronze Age. Hallstatt and La Tène influences can be seen in ornaments and weapons; the Lusatian culture developed as the preceding Trzciniec culture experienced influences from the middle Bronze Age Tumulus Bronze Age incorporating the local communities into the socio-political network of Iron Age Europe. It forms part of the Urnfield systems found from eastern France, southern Germany and Austria to Hungary and the Nordic Bronze Age in northwestern Germany and Scandinavia, it is followed by the early Iron Age Billendorf culture in the West. In Poland, the Lusatian culture is taken to span part of the Iron Age as well and is succeeded in Montelius VIIbc in northern ranges around the mouth of Vistula by the Pomeranian culture spreading south.'Lusatian-type' burials were first described by the German pathologist and archaeologist Rudolf Virchow.
The name refers to the Lusatia area in eastern Poland. Virchow identified the pottery artifacts as'pre-Germanic' but refused to speculate on the ethnic identity of their makers; the Polish archeologist Józef Kostrzewski, who starting in 1934 conducted extensive excavations of a Lusatian settlement of Biskupin, hypothesized that the Lusatian culture was a predecessor of cultures which belonged to the early Slavs. Modern archeologists, such as Kazimierz Godłowski and Piotr Kaczanowski, hold the view that at that time, the ethnic geography of Bronze Age central-Europe included peoples whose languages and ethnic identity we do not know. Burial was by cremation; the urn is accompanied by numerous—up to 40—secondary vessels. Metal grave gifts are sparse, but there are numerous hoards that contain rich metalwork, both bronze and gold. Graves containing moulds, like at Bataune, Saxony or tuyeres attest to the production of bronze tools and weapons at the village level. The'royal' tomb of Seddin, Germany, covered by a large earthen barrow, contained Mediterranean imports like bronze-vessels and glass beads.
Cemeteries can contain thousands of graves. Well known settlements include Biskupin in Poland, Buch near Berlin. There fortified settlements on hilltops or in swampy areas; the ramparts were constructed of wooden boxes filled with soil or stones. The economy was based on arable agriculture, as is attested by numerous storage pits. Wheat and six-row barley formed the basic crops, together with millet and oats, broad beans and gold of pleasure. Flax was grown, remains of domesticated apples and plums have been found. Cattle and pigs were the most important domestic animals, followed by sheep, goats and dogs. Pictures on Iron Age urns from Silesia attest horse riding, but horses were used to draw chariots as well. Hunting was practiced, as bones of red and roe deer, bison, hare and wolf attest, but did not provide much of the meat consumed; the numerous frog bones found at Biskupin may indicate. Hoards in swampy areas are considered by some archaeologists as'gifts for the Gods'. Human bones in 5 m deep sacrificial pits in Lossow might point to human sacrifice and possible ritual cannibalism.
Lusatia Urnfield culture Nordic Bronze Age Hallstatt culture J. M. Coles and A. F. Harding, The Bronze Age in Europe. Dabrowski, J. Nordische Kreis und Kulturen Polnischer Gebiete. Die Bronzezeit im Ostseegebiet. Ein Rapport der Kgl. Schwedischen Akademie der Literatur-Geschichte und Altertumsforschung über das Julita-Symposium 1986. Ed Ambrosiani, B. Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien. Konferenser 22. Stockholm. Hypothetical reconstruction of a Lusatian culture settlement, raised using only bronze age tools - Wola Radziszowska - Poland
Kraków spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków was the official capital of Poland until 1596 and has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, economic and artistic life. Cited as one of Europe's most beautiful cities, its Old Town was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the city has grown from a Stone Age settlement to Poland's second most important city. It began as a hamlet on Wawel Hill and was being reported as a busy trading centre of Central Europe in 965. With the establishment of new universities and cultural venues at the emergence of the Second Polish Republic in 1918 and throughout the 20th century, Kraków reaffirmed its role as a major national academic and artistic centre; the city has a population of about 770,000, with 8 million additional people living within a 100 km radius of its main square. After the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany at the start of World War II, the newly defined Distrikt Krakau became the capital of Germany's General Government.
The Jewish population of the city was forced into a walled zone known as the Kraków Ghetto, from which they were sent to German extermination camps such as the nearby Auschwitz never to return, the Nazi concentration camps like Płaszów. In 1978, Karol Wojtyła, archbishop of Kraków, was elevated to the papacy as Pope John Paul II—the first Slavic pope and the first non-Italian pope in 455 years; that year, UNESCO approved the first sites for its new World Heritage List, including the entire Old Town in inscribing Kraków's Historic Centre. Kraków is classified as a global city with the ranking of high sufficiency by GaWC, its extensive cultural heritage across the epochs of Gothic and Baroque architecture includes the Wawel Cathedral and the Royal Castle on the banks of the Vistula, the St. Mary's Basilica, Saints Peter and Paul Church and the largest medieval market square in Europe, the Rynek Główny. Kraków is home to Jagiellonian University, one of the oldest universities in the world and traditionally Poland's most reputable institution of higher learning.
In 2000, Kraków was named European Capital of Culture. In 2013 Kraków was approved as a UNESCO City of Literature; the city hosted the World Youth Day in July 2016. The name of Kraków is traditionally derived from Krakus, the legendary founder of Kraków and a ruler of the tribe of Lechitians. In Polish, Kraków is an archaic possessive form of Krak and means "Krak's". Krakus's name may derive from "krakula", a Proto-Slavic word meaning a judge's staff, or a Proto-Slavic word "krak" meaning an oak, once a sacred tree most associated with the concept of genealogy; the first mention of Prince Krakus dates back to 1190, although the town existed as early as the 7th century, inhabited by the tribe of Vistulans. The city's full official name is Stołeczne Królewskie Miasto Kraków, which can be translated as "Royal Capital City of Kraków". In English, a person born or living in Kraków is a Cracovian. While in the 1990s the English version of the name was written Cracow, the most widespread modern English version is Krakow.
Kraków's early history begins with evidence of a Stone Age settlement on the present site of the Wawel Hill. A legend attributes Kraków's founding to the mythical ruler Krakus, who built it above a cave occupied by a dragon, Smok Wawelski; the first written record of the city's name dates back to 965, when Kraków was described as a notable commercial centre controlled first by Moravia, but captured by a Bohemian duke Boleslaus I in 955. The first acclaimed ruler of Poland, Mieszko I, took Kraków from the Bohemians and incorporated it into the holdings of the Piast dynasty towards the end of his reign. In 1038, Kraków became the seat of the Polish government. By the end of the 10th century, the city was a leading centre of trade. Brick buildings were constructed, including the Royal Wawel Castle with St. Felix and Adaukt Rotunda, Romanesque churches such as St. Adalbert's, a cathedral, a basilica; the city was sacked and burned during the Mongol invasion of 1241. It was rebuilt identical, based on new location act and incorporated in 1257 by the high duke Bolesław V the Chaste who following the example of Wrocław, introduced city rights modelled on the Magdeburg law allowing for tax benefits and new trade privileges for the citizens.
In 1259, the city was again ravaged by the Mongols. A third attack in 1287 was repelled thanks in part to the new built fortifications. In 1335, King Casimir III of Poland declared the two western suburbs to be a new city named after him, Kazimierz; the defensive walls were erected around the central section of Kazimierz in 1362, a plot was set aside for the Augustinian order next to Skałka. The city rose to prominence in 1364, when Casimir III of Poland founded the University of Kraków, the second oldest university in central Europe after the Charles University in Prague. King Casimir began work on a campus for the Academy in Kazimierz, but he died in 1370 and the campus was never completed; the city continued to grow under the joint Lithuanian-Polish Jagiellon dynasty. As the capital of the Kingdom of Poland and a member of the Hanseatic League, the city attracted many craftsmen and guilds as science and the arts began to flourish; the royal chancery and the University ensured a first flourishing of Polish literary culture in the city.
The 15th and 16th centuries were known as Poland's Złoty Golden Age. Many works of Pol
Podlachia or Podlasie, is a historical region in the eastern part of Poland. Between 1513 and 1795 it was a voivodeship with the capital in Drohiczyn. Now the part north of the Bug River is included in the modern Podlaskie Voivodeship with the capital in Białystok; the region is called Podlasie, Podlasko or Podlasze in Polish, Palenkė in Lithuanian, Padliašša in Belarusian, Pidljasije, Pidljaššja or Pidljaxija in Ukrainian, Podljas’e in Russian, "Podlyashe" in Yiddish, Podlachia in Latin. There are two opinions regarding the origin of the name of the region. People derive it from the Slavic word les or las meaning "forest", i.e. it is an "by the wood" or "area of forests", making Podlachia close in meaning to adjacent Polesia. The theory has been questioned, as it does not properly take into consideration the vowel shifts "a" > "e" > "i" in various Slavic languages. The second opinion holds that the term comes from the expression pod Lachem, which may be translated as "under the Poles"; some claim it to mean "under Polish rule", though in the Middle Ages Podlachia was only under Polish rule, since 1446 until 1569 the area belonged to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
A better variant of this theory holds that the name originates from the period when the territory was within the Trakai Voivodeship of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, along the borderline with the Mazovia province a fief of the Poland of the Piasts and on part of the Kingdom of Poland of the Jagiellons. Hence pod Lachem would mean "near the Poles", "along the border with Poland"; the historical Lithuanian name of the region, Palenkė, has this meaning. Podlachia is divided along the Bug River, at which the traditional capital Drohiczyn lies, into northern and southern parts; the former is included in the modern-day Podlaskie Voivodeship with its capital at Białystok. Sometimes, Siedlce has been considered the capital of the region. Throughout its early history, Podlachia was inhabited by various tribes of different ethnic roots. In the 9th and 10th centuries, the area was inhabited by Lechitic tribes in the south, Baltic tribes in the north, Ruthenian tribes in the east. Between the 10th and 14th centuries, the area was part of the Ruthenian principalities and Polish and Mazovian Piast states.
The area became a part of the Medieval Slavic territory of Cherven Cities. In the 14th century the area was annexed by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, though on it still fell under Mazovian Piast rule. In 1446, Podlachia became part of the Grand Duchy, but since 1496 southwestern parts of Podlachia and since 1501 the northern part used Polish law instead of Lithuanian. In 1513 King Sigismund I the Old formed the Podlaskie Voivodeship. In 1566, the southeastern part of Podlachia became part of the newly formed Brest Litovsk Voivodeship as the Brest Litovsk County. In 1569, after the Union of Lublin, Podlasie was ceded to the Kingdom of Poland, it was the northernmost part of the Lesser Poland Province of the Polish Crown. The voivodeship was divided in three lands: the Drohiczyn and Bielsk Land. In the 18th and 19th century the private town of Białystok became the main center of the region, thanks to the patronage of the Branicki family and the textile industry development. After the Third Partition of Poland in 1795, Podlachia was divided between the Kingdom of Prussia, the Habsburg Monarchy and the Russian Empire.
In 1807, the western part of Podlachia became part of the Duchy of Warsaw, a semi-independent Polish entity, while the eastern part including Białystok fell under Russian rule. In the 19th century the region was a stronghold of Polish resistance against Russian rule; the last partisan of the January Uprising Stanisław Brzóska operated here until 1865. He was hanged publicly by the Russians in Sokołów Podlaski in May 1865. Poland regained Podlachia after restoring independence in 1918. Podlachia is the land of the confluence of cultures – Polish and Belarusian – and is indicative of the ethnic territories limits. East of Podlachia lie ethnically non-Polish lands. Today, Polish is spoken in western and southern Podlachia, while Belarusian in eastern areas; until the 19th century, Podlachia was populated by the Polish-speaking yeomanry and Ruthenian Greek-Catholics speaking a dialect related to modern Ukrainian – the so-called Khakhlak dialect, which derived its name from a derogatory term for Ukrainians.
In the 19th century, the inhabitants of Podlachia were under the rule of the Russian Empire, with southern Podlachia constituting a part of Russian-controlled Congress Poland. After 1831, Russian authorities forbade the Greek-Catholic faith in northern Podlachia and it disappeared from the area. In 1875, Russians forbade this rite in the southern portion as well, all Greek-Catholic inhabitants were forced to accept the Eastern Orthodox faith. However, the resistance of the local people was strong and Ruthenian speakers from this area rejected the separation from the Pope. In 1874, blessed Wincenty Lewoniuk and 12 companions were killed by Russian soldiers in Pratulin. In reaction to these measures, the Ruthenians of southern Podlachia began to identify themselves with the national movement of the Roman Catholic Poles. To preserve the full communion with
A spur is a metal tool designed to be worn in pairs on the heels of riding boots for the purpose of directing a horse or other animal to move forward or laterally while riding. It is used to refine the riding aids and to back up the natural aids; the spur is used in many equestrian disciplines. Most equestrian organizations have rules in about spur design and use and penalties for using spurs in any manner that constitutes animal abuse; this old word derives from Anglo-Saxon spura, related to spornan, spurnan, to kick, spurn. The generalized sense of "anything that urges on, stimulus" is recorded in English from circa 1390; the parts of a spur include: The "yoke", "branch", or "heel band", which wraps around the heel of the boot. The "shank" or "neck", which extends from the back of the yoke and is the area that touches the horse; the rowel, seen on some spurs, a revolving wheel or disk with radiating "points" at the end attached to the shank. Spurs are held on by a leather or leather-like spur strap that goes over the arch of the foot and under the sole in front of the boot heel.
Some western designs have a leather strap that goes only over the top, with a heel chain or a rubber "tiedown" instead of a strap under the boot. Some styles have no straps, where the heel band is very tight and slips on wedged between the sole and heel of the boot; some spur designs have a slot for running the spur strap through, others have "buttons", sometimes on the heel band itself and sometimes attached to the heel band by hinges that allow a strap with buttonholes to be attached. When used in military ranks, senior officers, officers of all ranks in cavalry and other mounted units of some armies, wear a form of spur in certain orders of dress, known as the box spur, having no spur strap, but a long metal prong opposite the neck, extending between the arms of the heel band, inserted into a specially fitted recess or "box" in the base of the boot heel. Due to the prong, such spurs can only be worn with appropriately equipped boots; this construction is shown in the photos of the swan neck and Waterford spurs below.
Spurs seen in western riding may have small curved-up hooks on the shank in front of the rowel, called "chap guards", that were used to prevent the rider's chaps from interfering with the rowels of the spur. The shank angle from the yoke can vary from "full" to "one half" to "one quarter" to "straight"; some cowboys added small metal pajados known as jingo bobs or jingle bobs, near the rowel, to create a jingling sound whenever the foot moved. Rowels can vary in number of points. In the history of veterinary science, the word "rowel" described a small disk of leather or other material, used as a seton stitch; the spur was used by the Celts during the La Tène period, is mentioned by Xenophon Iron or bronze spurs were used throughout the Roman Empire. The spur existed in the medieval Arab world. Early spurs had a neck that ended in a point, riveted to the heel band. Prick spurs had straight necks in bent ones in the 12th; the earliest form of the spur armed the heel with a single prick. In England, the rowel spur is shown upon the first seal of Henry III and on monuments of the 13th century, but it did not come into general use until the 14th century.
The earliest rowels did not revolve, but were fixed. The spurs of medieval knights were gilt and those of squires were silvered. To "win his spurs" meant to gain knighthood, as gilded spurs were reckoned the badge of knighthood. In the rare cases of ceremonious degradation, the spurs were hacked from the disgraced knight's heels with the cook's chopper. After the battle of the Golden Spurs in 1302, where the French chivalry suffered a humbling defeat, the victors hung up bushels of knights' gilt spurs in the churches of Kortrijk as trophies of what is still remembered by the Flemings as the Guldensporenslag; the English named the French rout from Thérouanne as the Battle of the Spurs, due to the rapidity of the French cavalry's flight. Prick spurs were the standard form until the 14th century, when the rowel began to become more common; the prick design never died out but instead became a thicker, shorter neck with a dulled end, such as the modern "Prince of Wales" design seen in English riding.
Though decorated throughout history, in the 15th century, spurs became an art form in both decoration and design, with elaborate engraving long shanks, large rowels. Though sometimes it has been claimed that the design changes were used because of barding, the use of barding had fallen out of fashion by the time the most elaborate spur designs were created. More the elaborate designs reflected the increased abundance of precious metals silver, that followed the European exploration of the Americas that began in 1492. Spur designs in Spain and colonial Mexico were elaborate. For example, the spurs of the Spanish conquistadores were sometimes called espuela grande, the "grand spur", could have rowels as large as 6 inches around. In northern Europe, the spur became less elaborate after the 16th century following the Stuart Restoration, but elaborate spur designs persisted in the Americas, descendants of which are still seen today in Mexico and the western United States, where the spur has become an integral part of the vaquero and cowboy traditions.
The spur as an art form, as well as a tool, is still seen in western riding, where spurs wi
The Przeworsk culture is part of an Iron Age archaeological complex that dates from the 3rd century BC to the 5th century AD. It was located in what is now central and southern Poland - the upper Oder to the Vistula basin spreading to parts of eastern Slovakia and Subcarpathia ranging between the Oder and the middle and upper Vistula Rivers and extending south towards the middle Danube into the headwaters of the Dniester and Tisza Rivers, it takes its name from the village near the town Przeworsk. The Przeworsk culture people lived in small, unprotected villages, populated each by a few dozen residents at most, made up of several houses set below the ground level, each covering an area of 8–22 square meters, they knew how to dig and build wells, so the settlements didn't have to be located near bodies of water. Thirteen 2nd century wells with variously constructed timber lined walls were found at a settlement in Stanisławice, Bochnia County. Fields were being used for crop cultivation for a while and as pastures, when animal excrement helped the soil regain fertility.
Once iron share plows were introduced the fields were alternated between tillage and grazing. Several or more settlements made up a micro-region, within which the residents cooperated economically and buried their dead in a common cemetery, but, separated from other micro-regions by undeveloped areas. A number of such micro-regions made up a tribe, with these separated by empty space, zones "of mutual fear", as Tacitus put it; the tribes in turn if they were culturally related, would at times form larger structures, such as temporary alliances for waging wars, or early statehood forms. A Przeworsk culture turn of the millennium industrial complex for the extraction of salt from salt springs was discovered in Chabsk near Mogilno. Examinations of the burial grounds, of which the largest used continuously over periods of up to several centuries, contains no more than several hundreds graves, shows that the overall population density was low; the dead were cremated and the ashes sometimes placed in urns, which had the mid-part in the form of an engraved bulge.
In the 1st century AD this was replaced with a sharp-profiled shape. In Siemiechów a grave of a warrior who must have taken part in the Ariovistus expedition during the 70–50 BC period was found; the burial gifts were for unknown reasons, bent or broken, burned with the body. The burials range from "poor" to "rich", the latter ones supplied with fancy Celtic and Roman imports, reflecting a by this time developed social stratification. Scholars view the Przeworsk culture as an amalgam of a series of localized cultures. Continuity with the preceding Pomeranian culture is observed, albeit modified by significant influences from the La Tene and Jastorf cultures; the Przeworsk culture is associated with the Vandals, however the culture has been linked to the early Slavs, most was of mixed Slavic and Germanic nature. To the east, the Przeworsk culture is connected with the Zarubintsy culture in what is now northern Ukraine and southern Belarus. In the 3rd and 4th centuries AD, much of this area was subsequently absorbed by the Wielbark culture and Chernyakhov culture.
The main characteristic feature of the Przeworsk culture are burials. These were cremations, with occasional inhumation. Warrior burials are notable, which include horse-gear and spurs; some burials are exceptionally rich, overshadowing the graves of Germanic groups further west after 400 AD. Pottery and metalwork are rich and show a great variety The culture's decline in the late 5th century coincides with the invasion of the Huns. Other factors may have included the social crisis that occurred as a result of the collapse of the Roman world and the trade contacts it maintained with peoples beyond its borders. In the late 5/6th century, the Prague-Korchak culture appears in the Vistula basin. Przeworsk culture settlements and burial sites Early Slavs Vandals Amber Road Mallory, James P.. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 1-884964-98-2 Todd, The Early Germans, Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 0-631-19904-7 Heather, The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-515954-3 Cunliffe, Barry.
Lesser Poland known by its Polish name Małopolska, is a historical region of Poland. It should not be confused with the modern Lesser Poland Voivodeship, which covers only the south-western part of Lesser Poland. Historical Lesser Poland was much bigger than the current voivodeship, it reached from Bielsko-Biała in the south-west as far as to Siedlce in the north-east. It consisted of the three voivodeships of Sandomierz and Lublin, it comprised 60,000 km2 in area. Its landscape is hilly, with the Carpathian Mountains in the south, it has been noted for rich nobility. In the wider sense, Lesser Poland from the 14th century encompassed Red Ruthenia. From the 16th century it included Podlachia and parts of modern Ukraine. In the era of partitions, the southern part, known as Galicia, was sometimes called Lesser Poland; as a result of this long-lasting division, many inhabitants of the northern part of the pre-partition region of Poland do not recognize their Lesser Polish identity. However, while Lublin was declared an independent Voivodeship as early as 1474, it still has speakers of the Lesser Polish dialect.
In addition, it has various local traditions as well as cuisine that have been carried forward since the time of Lesser Poland. Lesser Poland lies in the area of the upper confluence of the Vistula river and covers a large upland, including the Świętokrzyskie Mountains with the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland further west, Małopolska Upland, Sandomierz Basin, Lublin Upland. Unlike other historical parts of the country, such as Kujawy, Podlachia, Pomerania, or Greater Poland, Lesser Poland is hilly, with Poland's highest peak, located within the borders of the province. Flat are northern and central areas of the province – around Tarnobrzeg, Stalowa Wola and Siedlce valleys of the main rivers – the Vistula, the Pilica, the San. Apart from Rysy, there are several other peaks located in the province – Pilsko, Babia Góra, Turbacz, as well as Łysica in the Świętokrzyskie Mountains. Southern part of the province is covered by the Carpathian Mountains, which are made of smaller ranges, such as Pieniny and Beskidy.
Whole area is located in the Vistula Basin, with the exception of western and southern parts, belonging to the Odra and Dunaj Basins. Main rivers of the province are the Vistula, upper Warta, Soła, Raba, Wisłok, Wisłoka, Wieprz, Nida, Kamienna and Pilica. Major lakes of the province are: Lake Rożnów, Lake Czchów, Lake Dobczyce, Lake Czorsztyn, Lake Czaniec, Lake Międzybrodzie, Lake Klimkówka and Żywiec Lake. Most of them are man-made reservoirs. Lesser Poland stretches from the Carpathians in the south to Liwiec rivers to the north, it borders Mazovia to the north, Podlaskie to the northeast, Red Ruthenia to the east, Slovakia to the south, Silesia to the west, Greater Poland to the northwest. The region is divided between Polish voivodeships – Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, Silesian Voivodeship, Podkarpackie Voivodeship, Masovian Voivodeship, Łódź Voivodeship, Lublin Voivodeship. In Silesian Voivodeship, the border between Silesia and Lesser Poland is easy to draw, because with few exceptions, it goes along boundaries of local counties.
In the south, it goes along western boundary of ancient Duchy of Teschen, with the borderline along the Biała river, where Zwardoń, Milówka, Rajcza are in Lesser Poland. Bielsko-Biała is a city made of two parts – Lesser Poland's Biala, makes eastern half of the city, only in 1951 it merged with Silesian Bielsko. Further north, the border goes along western boundaries of cities of Jaworzno, Sosnowiec, along the Przemsza and Brynica rivers, it goes northwest, leaving Czeladź, Koziegłowy, Blachownia, Kłobuck and Krzepice within Lesser Poland. From Krzepice, the border goes eastwards, towards Koniecpol, along the Pilica river, with such towns as Przedborz, Drzewica, Białobrzegi, Kozienice within Lesser Poland. East of Białobrzegi, the boundary goes along the Radomka river, to the Vistula. East of the Vistula, the boundary goes north of Łaskarzew and Żelechów, south of Mazovian town of Garwolin, turning northwest. Extreme northern point of the province is marked by the Liwiec river, with both Siedlce, Łuków being part of Lesser Poland.
The line goes south, with Miedzyrzec Podlaski being part of historical Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Radzyń Podlaski as well as Parczew left in Lesser Poland. Between the Vistula and the Bug Rivers, eastern border of Lesser Poland goes west of Leczna, but east of Krasnystaw and Szczebrzeszyn, both of which belong to Red Ruthenia. Further south, Lesser Poland includes Frampol, Biłgoraj, which lies in the southeastern corner on Lesser Poland's historical Lublin Voivodeship, close to the border with Red Ruthenia; the border goes west of Biłgoraj, turning south, towards Leżajsk. Boundary between Lesser Poland and Red Ruthenia was described by Ukrainian historian and geographer Myron Korduba along the line Dukla – Krosno – Domaradz – Czudec – Krzeszów nad Sanem. Lesser Poland border towns were: Rudnik, Ropczyce, Sędziszów Małopolski, Strzyżów, Jasło, Biecz
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo