Ukraine, sometimes called the Ukraine, is a country in Eastern Europe. Excluding Crimea, Ukraine has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. Its capital and largest city is Kiev. Ukrainian is the official language and its alphabet is Cyrillic; the dominant religions in the country are Greek Catholicism. Ukraine is in a territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula, which Russia annexed in 2014. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2, making it the largest country within Europe and the 46th largest country in the world; the territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC. During the Middle Ages, the area was a key centre of East Slavic culture, with the powerful state of Kievan Rus' forming the basis of Ukrainian identity. Following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested and divided by a variety of powers, including Lithuania, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Russia. A Cossack republic emerged and prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries, but its territory was split between Poland and the Russian Empire, merged into the Russian-dominated Soviet Union in the late 1940s as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.
In 1991 Ukraine gained its independence from the Soviet Union in the aftermath of its dissolution at the end of the Cold War. Before its independence, Ukraine was referred to in English as "The Ukraine", but most sources have since moved to drop "the" from the name of Ukraine in all uses. Following its independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state. In 2013, after the government of President Viktor Yanukovych had decided to suspend the Ukraine-European Union Association Agreement and seek closer economic ties with Russia, a several-months-long wave of demonstrations and protests known as the Euromaidan began, which escalated into the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that led to the overthrow of Yanukovych and the establishment of a new government; these events formed the background for the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014, the War in Donbass in April 2014. On 1 January 2016, Ukraine applied the economic component of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with the European Union.
Ukraine is ranks 88th on the Human Development Index. As of 2018, Ukraine has the second lowest GDP per capita in Europe. At US$40, it has the lowest median wealth per adult in the world, it suffers from a high poverty rate and severe corruption. However, because of its extensive fertile farmlands, Ukraine is one of the world's largest grain exporters. Ukraine maintains the second-largest military in Europe after that of Russia; the country is home to a multi-ethnic population, 77.8 percent of whom are Ukrainians, followed by a large Russian minority, as well as Georgians, Belarusians, Crimean Tatars, Jews and Hungarians. Ukraine is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers: legislative and judicial branches; the country is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, the GUAM organization, one of the founding states of the Commonwealth of Independent States. There are different hypotheses as to the etymology of the name Ukraine. According to the older widespread hypothesis, it means "borderland", while some more recent linguistic studies claim a different meaning: "homeland" or "region, country"."The Ukraine" used to be the usual form in English, but since the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine, "the Ukraine" has become less common in the English-speaking world, style-guides recommend not using the definite article.
"The Ukraine" now implies disregard for the country's sovereignty, according to U. S. ambassador William Taylor. The Ukrainian position is that the usage of "'The Ukraine' is incorrect both grammatically and politically." Neanderthal settlement in Ukraine is seen in the Molodova archaeological sites which include a mammoth bone dwelling. The territory is considered to be the location for the human domestication of the horse. Modern human settlement in Ukraine and its vicinity dates back to 32,000 BC, with evidence of the Gravettian culture in the Crimean Mountains. By 4,500 BC, the Neolithic Cucuteni–Trypillia culture flourished in wide areas of modern Ukraine including Trypillia and the entire Dnieper-Dniester region. During the Iron Age, the land was inhabited by Cimmerians and Sarmatians. Between 700 BC and 200 BC it was Scythia. Beginning in the sixth century BC, colonies of Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome and the Byzantine Empire, such as Tyras and Chersonesus, were founded on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea.
These colonies thrived well into the 6th century AD. The Goths stayed in the area but came under the sway of the Huns from the 370s AD. In the 7th century AD, the territory of eastern Ukraine was the centre of Old Great Bulgaria. At the end of the century, the majority of Bulgar tribes migrated in different directions, the Khazars took over much of the land. In the 5th and 6th centuries, the Antes were located in the territory of; the Antes were the ancestors of Ukrainians: White Croats, Polans, Dulebes and Tiverians. Migrations from Ukraine throughout the Balkans established many Southern Slavic nations. Northern migrations, reaching to the Ilmen l
Østfold is a county in southeastern Norway, bordering Akershus and southwestern Sweden, while Buskerud and Vestfold are on the other side of Oslofjord. The county's administrative seat is Sarpsborg. Many manufacturing facilities are situated here, such as the world's most advanced biorefinery, Borregaard in Sarpsborg. Fredrikstad has shipyards. There are granite mines in Østfold and stone from these were used by Gustav Vigeland; the county slogan is "The heartland of Scandinavia". The local dialect is characterized by its geographical proximity to Sweden; the old name of the Oslofjord was Fold. The name was first recorded in 1543; when Norway was under Danish rule, the Danish king divided the area into many baronies. These were merged into one county in 1662 - and it was named Smaalenenes Amt'the amt consisting of small len'; the name was changed back to Østfold in 1919. Østfold is among the nation's oldest inhabited regions, with petroglyphs and burial mounds throughout the area. In the Viking Age, the area was part of Vingulmark, which in turn was part of Viken and included Båhuslen.
It was under Danish rule until the time of Harald Fairhair. When Norway was under Danish rule, the Danish king divided the area into many baronies; the barony of Heggen og Frøland, consisting of the municipalities Askim, Eidsberg and Trøgstad belonged to Akershus - but it was transferred to Østfold in 1768. Østfold sits between Sweden. It is dominated by flat landscape with a lot of woodland in the north and along the Swedish border, a major lake system in the central part, densely populated lowland area along the coast, with a large archipelago. Norway’s longest river, the Glomma, flows through the county and out into the Oslo Fjord in Fredrikstad. Most of the county's population is located in the coastal area; the cities of Moss, Sarpsborg and Halden are situated here, along with some highly populated rural municipalities. Including these coastal cities, Østfold has another two cities and Mysen. Østfold is located strategically between Sweden. The main highway E6 between Oslo and Gothenburg runs as a motorway through the county from the southern border with Sweden and the border with Akershus county.
The main highway E18 between Oslo and Stockholm goes through the county from the Swedish border in a southeast-northwest direction. The railway from Oslo to Gothenburg is running more or less parallelly with E6, there is a railway between Ski and Sarpsborg that covers the inner part. There is no public airport in the county. Moss Airport is now closed; the main airport for Østfold is the Oslo Airport, with a population of more than 2 million people within two hours distance. Østfold has 18 municipalities
Napalm Records is an Austrian independent record label focused on heavy metal and hard rock. Napalm focused on black metal bands such as Abigor and Summoning and folk metal bands such as Falkenbach and Vintersorg. On, the label expanded its roster by adding gothic metal, symphonic metal, power metal, doom metal, metalcore and nu metal bands, as well as stoner rock acts Monster Magnet, Karma to Burn, Brant Bjork. Napalm has its own publishing house named Iron Avantgarde Publishing. Universal Music Group Alternative Distribution Alliance The Orchard Homepage
Junior Eurovision Song Contest
The Junior Eurovision Song Contest shortened to JESC, Junior Eurovision or Junior EuroSong, is a song competition, organised by the European Broadcasting Union annually since 2003 and is open to broadcasters that are members of the EBU. It is held in a different European city each year, however the same city can host the contest more than once; the competition has many similarities to the Eurovision Song Contest. Each participating broadcaster sends an act, the members of which are aged 9 to 14 on the day of the contest, an original song lasting between 2 minutes 45 seconds and 3 minutes to compete against the other entries; each entry represents the country served by the participating broadcaster. Viewers from the participating countries are invited to vote for their favourite performances by televote and a national jury from each participating country vote; the overall winner of the contest is the entry that has received the most points after the scores from every country have been collected and totalled.
The current winner is Roksana Węgiel of Poland, who won the 2018 contest in Minsk, Belarus with "Anyone I Want to Be". In addition to the countries taking part, the contest has been screened in Australia every year. Estonia and Germany broadcast the inaugural contest in 2003, followed by Andorra in 2006 and Bosnia and Herzegovina, however these countries have yet to participate. Since 2006, the contest has been streamed live on the Internet through the official website of the contest. Australia has participated every year since; the origins of the contest date back to 2000 when Danmarks Radio held a song contest for Danish children that year and the following year. The idea was extended to a Scandinavian song festival in 2002, MGP Nordic, with Denmark and Sweden as participants; the EBU picked up the idea for a song contest featuring children and opened the competition to all EBU member broadcasters making it a pan-European event. The working title of the programme was "Eurovision Song Contest for Children", branded with the name of the EBU's popular song competition, the Eurovision Song Contest.
Denmark was asked to host the first programme after their experience with their own contests and the MGP Nordic. After a successful first contest, the second faced several location problems; the event should have been organised by British broadcaster ITV in Manchester. ITV announced that due to financial and scheduling reasons, the contest would not take place in the United Kingdom after all, it is thought that another factor to their decision was the previous years' audience ratings for ITV which were below the expected amount. The EBU approached Croatian broadcaster HRT, who had won the previous contest, to stage the event in Zagreb, it was at this point, with five months remaining until the event would be held, that Norwegian broadcaster NRK stepped in to host the contest in Lillehammer. Broadcasters have had to bid for the rights to host the contest since 2004 to avoid such problems from happening again. Belgium was therefore the first country to bid for the rights to host the contest in 2005.
All contests have been broadcast in high definition. All have had a CD produced with the songs from the show. Between 2003 and 2006, DVDs of the contest were produced though this ended due to lack of interest; as of 2008, the winner of the contest is decided by 50 % national jury vote. The winners of all previous contests had been decided by televoting. Between 2003 and 2005 viewers had around 10 minutes to vote. Between 2006 and 2010 the televoting lines were open throughout the programme. Since 2011 viewers vote. Profits made from the televoting during the 2007 and 2008 contests were donated to UNICEF. Prior to 2007, a participating broadcaster's failure in not broadcasting the contest live would incur a fine. Now broadcasters are no longer required to broadcast the contest live, but may transmit it with some delay at a time, more appropriate for children's television broadcast; the 2007 contest was the subject of the 2008 documentary Sounds Like Teen Spirit: A Popumentary. The film followed several contestants as they made their way through the national finals and onto the show itself.
It was shown at the Toronto International Film Festival 2008 and was premiered in Ghent and Limassol, Cyprus where the 2008 contest was held. The format of the contest has remained unchanged over the course of its history in that the format consists of successive live musical performances by the artists entered by the participating broadcasters; the EBU claims that the aim of the programme is "to promote young talent in the field of popular music, by encouraging competition among the performers". The programme was always screened on a Saturday night in late November/early December and lasts two hours fifteen minutes. Since 2016, the contest is screened on an early Sunday evening. Traditionally the contest will consist of an opening ceremony in which the performers are welcomed to the event, the performances of the entries, a recap of the songs to help televoting viewers decide which entries to vote for, an interval act performed after the televoting has closed, the results of the televoting or back-up jury voting, followed by the declaration of the winner and a reprise of the winning song.
At various points throughout the show, networks may opt out for a f
Melodi Grand Prix
Melodi Grand Prix, sometimes as Norwegian Melodi Grand Prix known as Grand Prix and MGP, is an annual music competition organised by Norwegian public broadcaster Norsk Rikskringkasting. It determines the country's representative for the Eurovision Song Contest, has been staged every year since 1960; the festival has produced three Eurovision winners and nine top-five placings for Norway at the contest. However, Norway holds the record for the number of entries who have come last since entering Eurovision. Despite this, the competition still makes considerable impact on music charts in Norway, in other Nordic countries, with the 2008 winner topping the Norwegian charts; the Eurovision Song Contest began on 24 May 1956, when the Grand Prix Eurovision de la Chanson Européenne was held in Lugano, Switzerland. Norway's first contest was the 1960 Contest; the first Melodi Grand Prix was held on 20 February at the NRK Television Centre in Oslo. Ten songs competed in the radio semi-final, held on 2 February, where the top 5 songs would progress to the televised contest.
However this number was increased to 6 after three songs tied for fourth place. The winner of the televised contest was "Voi Voi", performed by Nora Brockstedt. Brockstedt performed Norway's first Eurovision entry in London on 29 March, placed a respectable fourth. Brockstedt went on to win the following year's contest as well with "Sommer i Palma". Melodi Grand Prix has failed to be staged on three previous occasions. In 1970 Norway was absent from the contest because of a Nordic boycott of the voting system, which had led to a four-way tie for first place at the 1969 contest. In 1991 no Melodi Grand Prix was held as NRK felt that the submitted entries received for the Contest were of too low quality, so commissioned an entry for the Contest in Rome; the final instance of no Melodi Grand Prix was in 2002, when Norway was relegated from competing in the 2002 Contest after coming last the previous year. All winners of MGP have gone on to represent Norway at the Eurovision Song Contest. Norway has won it three times: in 1985, 1995 and 2009.
However Norway has come last 11 times, more than any other nation: in 1963, 1969, 1974, 1976, 1978, 1981, 1990, 1997, 2001, 2004 and 2012. The following table lists those entries which finished fifth or higher at Eurovision: Melodi Grand Prix Junior Dansk Melodi Grand Prix Melodifestivalen Sámi Grand Prix Norway in the Eurovision Song Contest NRK: Melodi Grand Prix
In My Dreams (Wig Wam song)
"In My Dreams" was the Norwegian entry in the Eurovision Song Contest 2005, performed in English by Wig Wam. The song is a glam metal number, in keeping with the band's view that "rock'n'roll is the new schlager". Lead singer "Glam" wonders whether his relationship is "real or just a fantasy", tells his lover that he is "Scared of waking up and you'll be gone/Face the truth and I'll be all alone", a fear that he puts to rest by suggesting that they should "get into the groove" and live for the moment; the performance was as flamboyant as the music suggested, with the band dressed variously in grey spandex and wearing a military hat among other things. Paying tribute to the Orange Revolution which had taken place in host country Ukraine the year before, Glam attached an orange banner to his microphone stand; as Norway had not finished the Eurovision Song Contest 2004 in the top ten, the song was performed in the semi-final. Here, it was performed thirteenth, following Estonia's Suntribe with "Let's Get Loud" and preceding Romania's Luminiţa Anghel & Sistem with "Let Me Try".
At the close of voting, it had received 164 points, placing 6th in the 25-strong semi-final and qualifying for the final. In the final, it was performed fifth, following the Romanian entry and preceding Turkey's Gülseren with "Rimi Rimi Ley". At the close of voting, it had received 125 points, placing 9th in a field of 24, guaranteeing Norway a place in the final at the next Contest. Following its success, "In My Dreams" became something of a favourite among Contest fans. At the Congratulations special in late 2005, the duo Bobbysocks made reference to the fact that it had broken with the joking tradition that Norway won in years ending with a 5; the duo sang part of the chorus, the audience responded in kind. The song was succeeded as Norwegian representative at the 2006 Contest by Christine Guldbrandsen with "Alvedansen". "In My Dreams" was released as the band's third single and second single for their second studio album Hard to Be a Rock'n Roller, reissued after winning Melodi Grand Prix.
The CD single features the single titletrack and "Out of Time" and Crazy Things, additional album tracks. Scandinavian release European release
Latvia the Republic of Latvia, is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. Since its independence, Latvia has been referred to as one of the Baltic states, it is bordered by Estonia to the north, Lithuania to the south, Russia to the east, Belarus to the southeast, shares a maritime border with Sweden to the west. Latvia has 1,957,200 inhabitants and a territory of 64,589 km2; the country has a temperate seasonal climate. After centuries of Swedish and Russian rule, a rule executed by the Baltic German aristocracy, the Republic of Latvia was established on 18 November 1918 when it broke away and declared independence in the aftermath of World War I. However, by the 1930s the country became autocratic after the coup in 1934 establishing an authoritarian regime under Kārlis Ulmanis; the country's de facto independence was interrupted at the outset of World War II, beginning with Latvia's forcible incorporation into the Soviet Union, followed by the invasion and occupation by Nazi Germany in 1941, the re-occupation by the Soviets in 1944 to form the Latvian SSR for the next 45 years.
The peaceful Singing Revolution, starting in 1987, called for Baltic emancipation from Soviet rule and condemning the Communist regime's illegal takeover. It ended with the Declaration on the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia on 4 May 1990, restoring de facto independence on 21 August 1991. Latvia is a democratic sovereign state, parliamentary republic and a highly developed country according to the United Nations Human Development Index, its capital Riga served as the European Capital of Culture in 2014. Latvian is the official language. Latvia is a unitary state, divided into 119 administrative divisions, of which 110 are municipalities and nine are cities. Latvians and Livonians are the indigenous people of Latvia. Latvian and Lithuanian are the only two surviving Baltic languages. Despite foreign rule from the 13th to 20th centuries, the Latvian nation maintained its identity throughout the generations via the language and musical traditions. However, as a consequence of centuries of Russian rule and Soviet occupation, Latvia is home to a large number of ethnic Russians, some of whom have not gained citizenship, leaving them with no citizenship at all.
Until World War II, Latvia had significant minorities of ethnic Germans and Jews. Latvia is predominantly Lutheran Protestant, except for the Latgale region in the southeast, predominantly Roman Catholic; the Russian population are Eastern Orthodox Christians. Latvia is a member of the European Union, Eurozone, NATO, the Council of Europe, the United Nations, CBSS, the IMF, NB8, NIB, OECD, OSCE, WTO. For 2014, the country was listed 46th on the Human Development Index and as a high income country on 1 July 2014. A full member of the Eurozone, it began using the euro as its currency on 1 January 2014, replacing the Latvian lats; the name Latvija is derived from the name of the ancient Latgalians, one of four Indo-European Baltic tribes, which formed the ethnic core of modern Latvians together with the Finnic Livonians. Henry of Latvia coined the latinisations of the country's name, "Lettigallia" and "Lethia", both derived from the Latgalians; the terms inspired the variations on the country's name in Romance languages from "Letonia" and in several Germanic languages from "Lettland".
Around 3000 BC, the proto-Baltic ancestors of the Latvian people settled on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. The Balts established trade routes to Byzantium, trading local amber for precious metals. By 900 AD, four distinct Baltic tribes inhabited Latvia: Curonians, Selonians, Semigallians, as well as the Finnic tribe of Livonians speaking a Finnic language. In the 12th century in the territory of Latvia, there were 14 lands with their rulers: Vanema, Bandava, Duvzare, Megava, Pilsāts, Upmale, Sēlija, Jersika, Tālava and Adzele. Although the local people had contact with the outside world for centuries, they became more integrated into the European socio-political system in the 12th century; the first missionaries, sent by the Pope, sailed up the Daugava River in the late 12th century, seeking converts. The local people, did not convert to Christianity as as the Church had hoped. German crusaders were sent, or more decided to go on their own accord as they were known to do. Saint Meinhard of Segeberg arrived in Ikšķile, in 1184, traveling with merchants to Livonia, on a Catholic mission to convert the population from their original pagan beliefs.
Pope Celestine III had called for a crusade against pagans in Northern Europe in 1193. When peaceful means of conversion failed to produce results, Meinhard plotted to convert Livonians by force of arms. In the beginning of the 13th century, Germans ruled large parts of today's Latvia. Together with Southern Estonia, these conquered areas formed the crusader state that became known as Terra Mariana or Livonia. In 1282, the cities of Cēsis, Limbaži, Koknese and Valmiera, became part of the Hanseatic League. Riga became an important point of east-west trading and formed close cultural links with Western Europe. After the Livonian War, Livonia fell under Lithuanian rule; the southern part of Estonia and the northern part of Latvia were ceded to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and formed into the Duchy of Livonia. Gotthard Kettler, the last Master of