Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation
The private foundation focuses on creating positive outcomes for future generations to make a large and measurable difference. As outlined in the Statement of Founders Intent, the mission is to tackle large, important issues at a scale where it can achieve significant. The foundation has four areas of grantmaking, Environmental Conservation. Establishing models for collaboration that can be replicated around the globe, patient Care, improving the experience and outcomes of patient care. San Francisco Bay Area, fostering and enhancing the special character of the Bay Area, event Horizon Telescope Thirty Meter Telescope South Pole Telescope W. M
Freebase was a large collaborative knowledge base consisting of data composed mainly by its community members. It was a collection of structured data harvested from many sources, including individual. Freebase aimed to create a resource that allowed people to access common information more effectively. It was developed by the American software company Metaweb and ran publicly since March 2007, Metaweb was acquired by Google in a private sale announced 16 July 2010. Googles Knowledge Graph was powered in part by Freebase, Freebase data was available for commercial and non-commercial use under a Creative Commons Attribution License, and an open API, RDF endpoint, and a database dump was provided for programmers. On 16 December 2014, Knowledge Graph announced that it would shut down Freebase over the six months. On 16 December 2015, Google officially announced the Knowledge Graph API, Freebase. com was officially shut down on 2 May 2016. On 3 March 2007 Metaweb announced Freebase, describing it as a shared database of the worlds knowledge.
Described by Tim OReilly upon the launch, Freebase is the bridge between the bottom up vision of Web 2.0 collective intelligence and the structured world of the semantic web. Freebase contained data harvested from such as Wikipedia, NNDB, Fashion Model Directory and MusicBrainz. The source code for the Metaweb application itself was proprietary, queries to the database were made in Metaweb Query Language and served by a triplestore called graphd. Robert Cook, in computing and database design, was Metawebs executive vice president for product development. John Giannandrea, formerly chief technologist at Tellme Networks and chief technologist of the Web browser group at Netscape/AOL, was chief technology officer. Originally accessible by only, Freebase opened full anonymous read access to the public in its alpha stage of development. Freebases subjects were called topics, and the data stored about them depended on their type, as of January 2014, Freebase had approximately 44 million topics and 2.4 billion facts.
Each type had a number of defined predicates, called properties, in this manner, Freebase differed from the wiki model in many ways. Users could create their own types, but these types were not adopted in the public commons until promoted by a Metaweb employee, as well, users could not modify each others types. On 16 December 2014, the Freebase team officially announced that the website, Google provided an update on 16 December 2015 that they would discontinue the Freebase API and widget 3 months after a Suggest widget replacement was launched in early 2016
Google is an American multinational technology company specializing in Internet-related services and products. These include online advertising technologies, cloud computing, Google was founded in 1996 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were Ph. D. students at Stanford University, in California. Together, they own about 14 percent of its shares, and they incorporated Google as a privately held company on September 4,1998. An initial public offering took place on August 19,2004, in August 2015, Google announced plans to reorganize its various interests as a conglomerate called Alphabet Inc. Google, Alphabets leading subsidiary, will continue to be the company for Alphabets Internet interests. Upon completion of the restructure, Sundar Pichai became CEO of Google, replacing Larry Page, rapid growth since incorporation has triggered a chain of products and partnerships beyond Googles core search engine. The company leads the development of the Android mobile operating system, the Google Chrome web browser, and Chrome OS, the new hardware chief, Rick Osterloh, stated, a lot of the innovation that we want to do now ends up requiring controlling the end-to-end user experience.
Google has experimented with becoming an Internet carrier, alexa, a company that monitors commercial web traffic, lists Google. com as the most visited website in the world. Several other Google services figure in the top 100 most visited websites, including YouTube, Googles mission statement, from the outset, was to organize the worlds information and make it universally accessible and useful, and its unofficial slogan was Dont be evil. In October 2015, the motto was replaced in the Alphabet corporate code of conduct by the phrase Do the right thing, Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford University in Stanford, California. They called this new technology PageRank, it determined a websites relevance by the number of pages, and the importance of those pages and Brin originally nicknamed their new search engine BackRub, because the system checked backlinks to estimate the importance of a site. Originally, Google ran under Stanford Universitys website, with the domains google. stanford.
edu, the domain name for Google was registered on September 15,1997, and the company was incorporated on September 4,1998. It was based in the garage of a friend in Menlo Park, craig Silverstein, a fellow PhD student at Stanford, was hired as the first employee. The first funding for Google was an August 1998 contribution of $100,000 from Andy Bechtolsheim, co-founder of Sun Microsystems, given before Google was incorporated. At least three other investors invested in 1998, Amazon. com founder Jeff Bezos, Stanford University computer science professor David Cheriton. Author Ken Auletta claims that each invested $250,000, early in 1999, Brin and Page decided they wanted to sell Google to Excite. They went to Excite CEO George Bell and offered to sell it to him for $1 million, vinod Khosla, one of Excites venture capitalists, talked the duo down to $750,000, but Bell still rejected it. Googles initial public offering took place five years later, on August 19,2004, at that time Larry Page, Sergey Brin, and Eric Schmidt agreed to work together at Google for 20 years, until the year 2024
The Hebrew Wikipedia is the Hebrew language edition of Wikipedia. This edition was started on 11 May 2001 and contains more than 204,000 articles as of April 2017, July 8,2003, The Hebrew edition of Wikipedia was launched. October 25,2003, The 1, 000th article was written, July 22,2004, The first meeting of Hebrew Wikipedians took place in Tel Aviv, Israel. September 10,2004, The 10, 000th article was written, september 20,2004, The Hebrew version of the Flag of Kazakhstan article became the one millionth article created in all Wikipedias. December 24,2006, The 50, 000th article was written, january 10,2010, The 100, 000th article was written. August 29,2013, The 150, 000th article was written, december 28,2016, The 200, 000th article was written. Another major area of work is Jewish history and the History of Israel, such articles often include original photos taken by the writers. In 2006 the Elef Millim project was created, its purpose is to enrich Wikipedia with free images. As a part of project, groups of Israeli Wikipedians meet for field trips in various places in Israel in order to take pictures.
Hebrew spelling is a matter of debate, when technically possible, spelling decisions are periodically enforced using automatic replacement by a bot. Over the years, Hebrew Wikipedia has become one of the most popular sources of information for Israelis, Hebrew Wikipedias requirements for notability standards are relatively very strict. Hebrew Wikipedia conducts yearly competitions, sometimes with the assistance of the Wikimedia foundation, Hebrew Wikipedia users have turned the website into a more socially connected place. Sometimes, users meet up for a picnic, or edit alongside their family members, currently, 76% of the editors are men, and 23% are women. In July 2006, Hebrew Wikipedia had one of the highest amounts of bytes per article, whereas the English Wikipedia requires a general consensus for deleting articles, the Hebrew Wikipedia has adopted a policy of deletion upon a 55% majority, with no minimum number of votes. In these votes, only registered users with one month seniority and at least 100 edits in the article, the inclusion criteria are detailed under the principles and guidelines page.
Some examples, Articles on porn movies will be deleted unless they became cultural symbols, Articles on porn stars will be deleted unless they have other notable aspects in their lives. A book has to meet one of four criteria, published by a known publisher, sold 10,000 copies, won a prize. Writers have to write at least two books to be notable as writers and bands have to release an album before they get an article
Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that aims to allow anyone to edit articles. Wikipedia is the largest and most popular reference work on the Internet and is ranked among the ten most popular websites. Wikipedia is owned by the nonprofit Wikimedia Foundation, Wikipedia was launched on January 15,2001, by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger. Sanger coined its name, a portmanteau of wiki and encyclopedia, There was only the English language version initially, but it quickly developed similar versions in other languages, which differ in content and in editing practices. With 5,377,348 articles, the English Wikipedia is the largest of the more than 290 Wikipedia encyclopedias, in 2005, Nature published a peer review comparing 42 science articles from Encyclopædia Britannica and Wikipedia, and found that Wikipedias level of accuracy approached Encyclopædia Britannicas. Other collaborative online encyclopedias were attempted before Wikipedia, but none were so successful, Wikipedia began as a complementary project for Nupedia, a free online English-language encyclopedia project whose articles were written by experts and reviewed under a formal process.
Nupedia was founded on March 9,2000, under the ownership of Bomis and its main figures were Jimmy Wales, the CEO of Bomis, and Larry Sanger, editor-in-chief for Nupedia and Wikipedia. Nupedia was licensed initially under its own Nupedia Open Content License, while Wales is credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable encyclopedia, Sanger is credited with the strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal. On January 10,2001, Sanger proposed on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a project for Nupedia. Wikipedia was launched on January 15,2001, as a single English-language edition at www. wikipedia. com, Wikipedias policy of neutral point-of-view was codified in its first months. Otherwise, there were few rules initially and Wikipedia operated independently of Nupedia. Originally, Bomis intended to make Wikipedia a business for profit, Wikipedia gained early contributors from Nupedia, Slashdot postings, and web search engine indexing. By August 8,2001, Wikipedia had over 8,000 articles, on September 25,2001, Wikipedia had over 13,000 articles.
By the end of 2001, it had grown to approximately 20,000 articles and 18 language editions and it had reached 26 language editions by late 2002,46 by the end of 2003, and 161 by the final days of 2004. Nupedia and Wikipedia coexisted until the servers were taken down permanently in 2003. Citing fears of commercial advertising and lack of control in Wikipedia and these moves encouraged Wales to announce that Wikipedia would not display advertisements, and to change Wikipedias domain from wikipedia. com to wikipedia. org. Around 1,800 articles were added daily to the encyclopedia in 2006, a team at the Palo Alto Research Center attributed this slowing of growth to the projects increasing exclusivity and resistance to change. Others suggest that the growth is flattening naturally because articles that could be called low-hanging fruit—topics that clearly merit an article—have already been created, the Wall Street Journal cited the array of rules applied to editing and disputes related to such content among the reasons for this trend
Outside of Europe, a number of overseas territories of EU members use the euro as their currency. Additionally,210 million people worldwide as of 2013 use currencies pegged to the euro, the euro is the second largest reserve currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. The name euro was adopted on 16 December 1995 in Madrid. The euro was introduced to world markets as an accounting currency on 1 January 1999. While the euro dropped subsequently to US$0.8252 within two years, it has traded above the U. S. dollar since the end of 2002, peaking at US$1.6038 on 18 July 2008. In July 2012, the euro fell below US$1.21 for the first time in two years, following concerns raised over Greek debt and Spains troubled banking sector, as of 26 March 2017, the euro–dollar exchange rate stands at ~ US$1.07. The euro is managed and administered by the Frankfurt-based European Central Bank, as an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy.
The Eurosystem participates in the printing and distribution of notes and coins in all states. The 1992 Maastricht Treaty obliges most EU member states to adopt the euro upon meeting certain monetary and budgetary convergence criteria, all nations that have joined the EU since 1993 have pledged to adopt the euro in due course. Since 5 January 2002, the central banks and the ECB have issued euro banknotes on a joint basis. Euro banknotes do not show which central bank issued them, Eurosystem NCBs are required to accept euro banknotes put into circulation by other Eurosystem members and these banknotes are not repatriated. The ECB issues 8% of the value of banknotes issued by the Eurosystem. In practice, the ECBs banknotes are put into circulation by the NCBs and these liabilities carry interest at the main refinancing rate of the ECB. The euro is divided into 100 cents, in Community legislative acts the plural forms of euro and cent are spelled without the s, notwithstanding normal English usage.
Otherwise, normal English plurals are used, with many local variations such as centime in France. All circulating coins have a side showing the denomination or value. Due to the plurality in the European Union, the Latin alphabet version of euro is used. For the denominations except the 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, beginning in 2007 or 2008 the old map is being replaced by a map of Europe showing countries outside the Union like Norway
The term public domain has two senses of meaning. Anything published is out in the domain in the sense that it is available to the public. Once published and information in books is in the public domain, in the sense of intellectual property, works in the public domain are those whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, or are inapplicable. Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes. Examples for works actively dedicated into public domain by their authors are reference implementations of algorithms, NIHs ImageJ. The term is not normally applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, as rights are country-based and vary, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another. Some rights depend on registrations on a basis, and the absence of registration in a particular country, if required. Although the term public domain did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined many things that cannot be privately owned as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis.
The term res nullius was defined as not yet appropriated. The term res communes was defined as things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air, sunlight. The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, when the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by British and French jurists in the eighteenth century, instead of public domain they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law. The phrase fall in the domain can be traced to mid-nineteenth century France to describe the end of copyright term. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain. Because copyright law is different from country to country, Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being different sizes at different times in different countries.
According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the public domain and equates the public domain to public property. However, the usage of the public domain can be more granular. Such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair use rights, the materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival
The Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California. It is mostly known for participating in the Wikimedia movement and it owns the internet domain names of most movement projects and hosts sites like Wikipedia. The foundation was founded in 2003 by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia, as of 2015, the foundation employs over 280 people, with annual revenues in excess of US$75 million. Christophe Henner is chairman of the board, Katherine Maher is the executive director since March 2016. The Wikimedia Foundation has stated its goal is to develop and maintain open content, wiki-based projects, another main objective of the Wikimedia Foundation is political advocacy. The Wikimedia Foundation was granted section 501 status by the U. S, internal Revenue Code as a public charity in 2005. Its National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities code is B60, the foundations by-laws declare a statement of purpose of collecting and developing educational content and to disseminate it effectively and globally.
In 2001, Jimmy Wales, an Internet entrepreneur, and Larry Sanger, the project was originally funded by Bomis, Wales for-profit business. As Wikipedias popularity skyrocketed, revenues to fund the project stalled, since Wikipedia was depleting Bomis resources and Sanger thought of a charity model to fund the project. The Wikimedia Foundation was incorporated in Florida on June 20,2003 and it applied to the United States Patent and Trademark Office to trademark Wikipedia on September 17,2004. The mark was granted status on January 10,2006. Trademark protection was accorded by Japan on December 16,2004, there were plans to license the use of the Wikipedia trademark for some products, such as books or DVDs. In April 2005, the U. S. Accordingly, the by-laws were amended to remove all reference to membership rights, the decision to change the bylaws was passed by the board unanimously. On September 25,2007, the board gave notice that the operations would be moving to the San Francisco Bay Area. Lila Tretikov was appointed director of the Wikimedia Foundation in May 2014.
Former chief communications officer Katherine Maher was appointed the executive director. In addition to Wikipedia, the foundation operates other wikis that follow the free content model with their goal being the dissemination of knowledge. These include, Several additional projects exist to provide infrastructure or coordination of the free knowledge projects, for instance, a wiki helps coordinate work on MediaWiki software and Outreach gives guidelines for best practices on encouraging the use of Wikimedia sites
Open data is the idea that some data should be freely available to everyone to use and republish as they wish, without restrictions from copyright, patents or other mechanisms of control. The goals of the data movement are similar to those of other open movements such as open source, open hardware, open content and open access. gov. Open data may include non-textual material such as maps, connectomes, chemical compounds and scientific formulae, medical data and practice, problems often arise because these are commercially valuable or can be aggregated into works of value. Access to, or re-use of, the data is controlled by organisations, control may be through access restrictions, copyright and charges for access or re-use. Advocates of open data argue that these restrictions are against the communal good, in addition, it is important that the data are re-usable without requiring further permission, though the types of re-use may be controlled by a license. We are busy locking up that data and preventing the use of advanced technologies on knowledge.
Creators of data often do not consider the need to state the conditions of ownership, licensing and re-use, the lack of a license makes it difficult to determine the status of a data set and may restrict the use of data offered in an Open spirit. Because of this uncertainty it is possible for public or private organizations to aggregate said data, protect it with copyright. The issue of indigenous knowledge poses a challenge in terms of capturing, storage. Many societies in third-world countries lack the technicality processes of managing the IK, at his presentation at the XML2005 conference, Connolly displayed these two quotations regarding open data, I want my data back. Ive long believed that customers of any application own the data they enter into it, Open data can come from any source. This section lists some of the fields that publish a large amount of open data, the concept of open access to scientific data was institutionally established with the formation of the World Data Center system, in preparation for the International Geophysical Year of 1957–1958.
The Human Genome Project was an initiative that exemplified the power of open data. More recent initiatives such as the Structural Genomics Consortium have illustrated that the open data approach can be used productively within the context of industrial R&D, linkedscience. org/data – Open scientific datasets encoded as Linked Data. There are a range of different arguments for government data. Some make the case that opening up official information can support technological innovation and economic growth by enabling third parties to develop new kinds of digital applications, several national governments have created web sites to distribute a portion of the data they collect. It is a concept for a project in municipal Government to create. Additionally, other levels of government have established open data websites, there are many government entities pursuing Open Data in Canada
Elvis Aaron Presley was an American singer and actor. Regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century, he is referred to as the King of Rock and Roll. Presley was born in Tupelo and relocated to Memphis and his music career began there in 1954, when he recorded a song with producer Sam Phillips at Sun Records. Accompanied by guitarist Scotty Moore and bassist Bill Black, Presley was a popularizer of rockabilly. RCA Victor acquired his contract in a deal arranged by Colonel Tom Parker, Presleys first RCA single, Heartbreak Hotel, was released in January 1956 and became a number-one hit in the United States. He was regarded as the figure of rock and roll after a series of successful network television appearances. In November 1956, Presley made his debut in Love Me Tender. In 1958, he was drafted into military service, in 1973, Presley featured in the first globally broadcast concert via satellite, Aloha from Hawaii. Several years of drug abuse severely damaged his health.
Presley is one of the most celebrated and influential musicians of the 20th century and he won three Grammys, receiving the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award at age 36, and has been inducted into multiple music halls of fame. Presley was born on January 8,1935, in Tupelo, Mississippi, to Gladys Love and Vernon Elvis Presley, Jesse Garon Presley, his identical twin brother, was delivered stillborn 35 minutes before his own birth. Thus, as a child, Presley became close to both parents and formed an especially close bond with his mother. The family attended an Assembly of God, where he found his musical inspiration. Although he was in conflict with the Pentecostal church in his years, rev. Rex Humbard officiated at his funeral, as Presley had been an admirer of Humbards ministry. Presleys ancestry was primarily a Western European mix, including Scots-Irish, German, gladyss great-great-grandmother, Morning Dove White, was possibly a Cherokee Native American. Gladys was regarded by relatives and friends as the dominant member of the small family, Vernon moved from one odd job to the next, evincing little ambition.
The family often relied on help from neighbors and government food assistance, the Presleys survived the F5 tornado in the 1936 Tupelo–Gainesville tornado outbreak. In 1938, they lost their home after Vernon was found guilty of kiting a check written by the landowner, Orville S. Bean and he was jailed for eight months, and Gladys and Elvis moved in with relatives
A wiki is a website that provides collaborative modification of its content and structure directly from the web browser. In a typical wiki, text is written using a markup language. A wiki is run using wiki software, otherwise known as a wiki engine, there are dozens of different wiki engines in use, both standalone and part of other software, such as bug tracking systems. Some wiki engines are open source, whereas others are proprietary, some permit control over different functions, for example, editing rights may permit changing, adding or removing material. Others may permit access without enforcing access control, other rules may be imposed to organize content. Wikipedia is not a wiki but rather a collection of hundreds of wikis. There are at least tens of thousands of other wikis in use, both public and private, including functioning as knowledge management resources, notetaking tools, community websites. The English-language Wikipedia has the largest collection of articles, as of September 2016, ward Cunningham, the developer of the first wiki software, WikiWikiWeb, originally described it as the simplest online database that could possibly work.
Wiki is a Hawaiian word meaning quick, Wiki promotes meaningful topic associations between different pages by making page link creation intuitively easy and showing whether an intended target page exists or not. A wiki is not a carefully crafted site created by experts and professional writers, instead, it seeks to involve the typical visitor/user in an ongoing process of creation and collaboration that constantly changes the website landscape. A wiki enables communities of editors and contributors to write documents collaboratively, all that people require to contribute is a computer, Internet access, a web browser and a basic understanding of a simple markup language. A single page in a website is referred to as a wiki page, while the entire collection of pages. A wiki is essentially a database for creating, browsing, a wiki allows non-linear, evolving and networked text, while allowing for editor argument and interaction regarding the content and formatting. A defining characteristic of wiki technology is the ease with which pages can be created and updated, there is no review by a moderator or gatekeeper before modifications are accepted and thus lead to changes on the website.
Many wikis are open to alteration by the public without requiring registration of user accounts. Many edits can be made in real-time and appear almost instantly online, this feature facilitates abuse of the system. Private wiki servers require user authentication to edit pages, and sometimes even to read them, maged N. Kamel Boulos, Cito Maramba and Steve Wheeler write that the open wikis produce a process of Social Darwinism. Unfit sentences and sections are ruthlessly culled and replaced if they are not considered fit, while such openness may invite vandalism and the posting of untrue information, this same openness makes it possible to rapidly correct or restore a quality wiki page