Wikimedia Commons is an online repository of free-use images, other media, JSON files. It is a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. Files from Wikimedia Commons can be used across all Wikimedia projects in all languages, including Wikipedia, Wikibooks, Wikispecies and Wikinews, or downloaded for offsite use; as of 2019, the repository contains over 55 million free media files and editable by registered volunteers. In July 2013, the number of edits on Commons reached 100,000,000; the project was proposed by Erik Möller in March 2004 and launched on September 7, 2004. A key motivation behind the setup of a central repository was the desire to reduce duplication of effort across the Wikimedia projects and languages, as the same file had to be uploaded to many different wikis separately before Commons was created; the aim of Wikimedia Commons is to provide a media file repository "that makes available public domain and freely-licensed educational media content to all, that acts as a common repository for the various projects of the Wikimedia Foundation."
The expression "educational" is to be understood according to its broad meaning of "providing knowledge. Most Wikimedia projects still allow local uploads which are not visible to other projects or languages, but this option is meant to be used for material which local project policies allow, but which would not be permitted according to the copyright policy of Commons. Wikimedia Commons itself does not allow fair use or uploads under non-free licenses, including licenses which restrict commercial use of materials or disallow derivative works. For this reason, Wikimedia Commons always hosts licensed media and deletes copyright violations. Licenses that are acceptable include the Creative Commons Attribution and Attribution/ShareAlike licenses, other free content and free software licenses, the public domain; the default language for Commons is English, but registered users can customize their interface to use any other available user interface translations. Many content pages, in particular policy pages and portals, have been translated into various languages.
Files on Wikimedia Commons are categorized using MediaWiki's category system. In addition, they are collected on individual topical gallery pages. While the project was proposed to contain free text files, these continue to be hosted on a sister project, Wikisource; the site has been criticized for hosting large amounts of amateur pornography uploaded by exhibitionists who exploit the site for personal gratification, who are enabled by sympathetic administrators. In 2012, BuzzFeed described Wikimedia Commons as "littered with dicks". In 2010, Wikipedia co-founder Larry Sanger reported Wikimedia Commons to the FBI for hosting sexualized images of children known as "lolicon". After this was reported in the media, Jimmy Wales, founder of the Wikimedia Foundation which hosts Commons, used his administrator status to delete several images without discussion from the Commons community. Wales responded to the backlash from the Commons community by voluntarily relinquishing some site privileges, including the ability to delete files.
Over time, additional functionality has been developed to interface Wikimedia Commons with the other Wikimedia projects. Daniel Kinzler wrote applications for finding appropriate categories for uploaded files, determining the usage of files across the Wikimedia projects, locating images with missing copyright information, relaying information about administrative actions such as deletions to the relevant wikis. Specialized uploading tools and scripts such as "Commonist" have been created to simplify the process of uploading large numbers of files. At one time, in order to review free content photos uploaded to Flickr, users could participate in a now-defunct collaborative external review process, which resulted in more than 10,000 uploads to Commons. Structured Data on Commons is a three-year software development project funded by the Sloan Foundation to provide the infrastructure for Wikimedia Commons volunteers to organize data about media files in a consistent; this data is structured more, is made machine-readable.
The goals of the functionality are to make contributing to Commons easier by providing new ways to edit and write software for Commons, to make general use of Commons easier by expanding capabilities in search and reuse. The site has three mechanisms for recognizing quality works. One is known as "Featured pictures", where works are nominated and other community members vote to accept or reject the nomination; this process began in November 2004. Another process known as "Quality images" began in June 2006, has a simpler nomination process comparable to "Featured pictures". "Quality images" only accepts works created by Wikimedia users, whereas "Featured pictures" additionally accepts nominations of works by third parties such as NASA. A third image assessment project, known as "Valued images", began on June 1, 2008 with the purpose of recognizing "the most valued illustration of its kind", in contrast to the other two processes which assess images on technical quality; the three mentioned processes select a slight part from the total number of files.
However, Commons collects files of all quality levels, from the most professional level across simple documental and amateur files up to files of poor quality. Commons is not a competition but a collection.
This is a list of prominent Saint Thomas Christians of Kerala. P. J. Thomas, Parakunnel, an economist who served as first economic advisor of independent India, member of Indian delegation that signed the UN Charter, Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha and founder-principal of St. Thomas College, Palai. John Mathai, an economist who served as India's first Railway Minister, as Finance Minister, first Chairman of State Bank of India, Vice Chancellor of University of Mumbai and of University of Kerala. A. K. Antony, politician who served as Defence Minister of India, Chief Minister of Kerala and Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha. Madathilparampil Mammen Thomas,Governor of Nagaland T. M. Varghese – Minister for Education, Travancore, of Travancore-Cochin.. Anna Chandy, first woman judge of an Indian High Court Barrister George Joseph, a lawyer and Indian independence activist. Remembered for his role in Home Rule agitation and Vaikom Satyagraha, for his editorship of Motilal Nehru's The Independent and Mahatma Gandhi's Young India.
Advocate V. J Mathai, a lawyer and Indian independence activist, Best known for being the first Indian to defeat a European in an election. Gheevarghese Mar Gregorios of Parumala, Malankara Church Geevarghese Mar Dionysius of Vattasseril, Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church Paulose Mar Athanasius - Methropolitian of Jacobite Syrian Church Mor Koorilos Paulose - Malankara Metropolitan Saint Alphonsa, born Anna Muttathupadathu Kuriakose Elias Chavara Euphrasia Eluvathingal Baselios Mar Thoma Paulose II, Supreme Head, Catholicos of the East and the Malankara Metropolitan Joseph Mar Thoma, Supreme Head & Marthoma XXI of Malankara See of Saint Thomas Baselios Thomas I,Catholicos of India George Alencherry Varkey Vithayathil Antony Padiyara Baselios Cleemis George Menachery, editor of the St. Thomas Christian Encyclopedia of India Acharya K K Chandy, Founder Member- Christavashram, Kottayam. Joshua Mar Ignathios, Bishop of the Eparchy of Mavelikara. Geevarghese Mar Ivanios, Servant of God, OIC. V. C.
Samuel Syrian Orthodox Theologian and Church Historian Sebastian Kappen, liberation theologian Varghese Payyappilly Palakkappilly and the founder of the Congregation of the Sisters of the Destitute. Mar Joseph Powathil, Archbishop of Syro-Malabar Catholic Archdiocese of Changanassery K. V. Simon, poet
The Laboratory of study of microstructures and material sciences known as the LEM3, is a French laboratory of research located in Metz. It is under the authority of Arts et Métiers ParisTech, University of Lorraine and ENIM, it is part of the Carnot Institute ARTS and employs more than 150 persons. It was created in 2011 from the merge of 2 CNRS laboratories, the LPMM and the LETAM; the LEM3 plays an important role in the competitiveness organization "Materialia" and in the new research institute M2P. The main part of the research is focused on the following lines: Multi-scale material characterization Material behavior of high-yield steels Study of smart materials: composite material, SMA, piezoelectric material The laboratory is divided in seven research teams, which have their own field of research: TMP: Texture and process MeNu: computational mechanics APLI: Auto-organization and intern lengths 3TAM: transformation, textures and metal anisotropy SMART: Multi-phased systems, rheology and applications SIP: surface and process CeDyn: extreme conditions and dynamics The LEM3 is behind the creation of the Labex DAMAS which get a financial support of 7.5 million euros over 8 years.
In 2013, a microscope with the electron backscatter detector technology was funded by the Lorraine Region. The laboratory has a high-strength multi-axial tensile test machine with a capacity of 72 tons per axis. CIRAM, center of research in Metz Science Park Metz campus of Arts et Métiers ParisTech