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Wikimedia Foundation v. NSA

Wikimedia Foundation, et al. v. National Security Agency, et al. is a lawsuit filed by the American Civil Liberties Union on behalf of the Wikimedia Foundation and several other organizations against the National Security Agency, the United States Department of Justice, other named individuals, alleging mass surveillance of Wikipedia users carried out by the NSA. The suit claims the surveillance system, which NSA calls "Upstream", breaches the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, which protects freedom of speech, the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures; the suit was filed in the United States District Court for the District of Maryland as the NSA is based in Fort Meade, Maryland. The suit was dismissed in October 2015 by Judge T. S. Ellis III; the Court of Appeals found that the dismissal was valid for all of the plaintiffs except the Foundation, whose allegations the court found "plausible" enough to have legal standing for the case to be remanded to the lower court.

The original plaintiffs besides the Wikimedia Foundation were the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers, Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International USA, the PEN American Center, the Global Fund for Women, The Nation magazine, the Rutherford Institute, the Washington Office on Latin America. Upstream surveillance was first revealed in May 2013 by a former NSA analyst. A previous challenge by the ACLU, Clapper v. Amnesty International USA, failed for lack of standing. In the light of some of the leaks by Snowden, which included an above Top Secret NSA slide that referred to Wikipedia as a target for HTTP surveillance, the Wikimedia Foundation pushed forward with a legal complaint against the NSA for violating its users' First and Fourth Amendment rights. Since Clapper, the government itself has confirmed many of the key facts about NSA's Upstream surveillance, including that it conducts suspicionless searches. ACLU attorney Patrick Toomey noted the lawsuit is relevant as the plaintiffs engage in "hundreds of billions of international communications" annually.

Any program of Upstream surveillance must sweep up a substantial part of these communications. On August 6, 2015, the defendants brought a motion to dismiss, arguing that the plaintiffs have not plausibly shown that they have been injured by Upstream collection of data and thus lack standing to sue. In response, the Electronic Frontier Foundation filed an amicus brief on behalf of a group of libraries and booksellers. Both sides presented oral arguments at a hearing on September 25, 2015. On October 23, 2015, the District Court for the District of Maryland dismissed the suit on grounds of standing. US District Judge T. S. Ellis III ruled that the plaintiffs could not plausibly prove they were subject to Upstream surveillance, echoing the 2013 decision in Clapper v. Amnesty International US; the Wikimedia Foundation said. The Foundation said its complaint had merit, that there was no question that Upstream surveillance captured the communications of both its user community and the Wikimedia Foundation itself.

The Electronic Frontier Foundation, who had filed an amicus brief in support of the plaintiffs, said it was perverse to dismiss a suit for lack of proof when the surveillance program complained of was secret, urged federal courts to tackle the serious constitutional issues that Upstream surveillance presents. The plaintiffs filed an appeal with the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit on February 17, 2016. On May 23, 2017, the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals vacated the dismissal by the lower court of Wikimedia's complaints; the Court of Appeals ruled that the Foundation's allegations of the NSA's Fourth Amendment violations were plausible enough to "survive a facial challenge to standing", finding that the potential harm done by the NSA's collection of private data was not speculative. The court thereby remanded the suit by the Foundation and ordered the District Court of Maryland to continue the proceedings; the court inversely affirmed the dismissal by Ellis of the suits by the other plaintiffs.

On December 16, 2019, the District Court held that the Wikimedia Foundation did not have standing to proceed with its claims. Jewel v. NSA Wikimedia v NSA infopage from ACLU Complaint from ACLU Wikimedia Foundation v. National Security Agency FAQ NSA – Why Are We Interested in HTTP

John L. Martin

John L. Martin is an American politician of the Democratic Party. Martin has been in Maine politics since his first election to the Maine House of Representatives in 1964, is sometimes called "The Earl of Eagle Lake" as a result. With his election in 2014, he is the longest serving legislator in Maine history. Martin was a member of the Maine House of Representatives from 1964 through 1994, serving as Minority Floor Leader from 1971 through 1974. Following that he was elected Speaker of the House from 1975 through 1994. In 1992, one of his aides was convicted in a ballot tampering scandal involving two close House races, it is believed that, combined with his length of service, contributed to Maine voters approving legislative term limits in 1993. In criticizing term limits in 2014, Governor Paul LePage cited Martin as an example of how experienced legislators would benefit the State as opposed to inexperienced legislators with "firm agendas". From 1998 through 2008, Martin represented the 35th district in the Maine Senate.

During that time he served as Assistant Majority Leader. In 2008, Martin was again elected to the House, he was defeated for re-election in 2012 by Republican Michael Nadeau. Martin stated it was due to money and negative campaigning, stating that "If you throw enough mud around, some of it’s going to stick." Financial problems, including failing to pay back loans from two government agencies for his Tamarack Inn, as well as a bankruptcy, may have played a role in his defeat. He did not rule out running in the future, said he would remain involved in politics. Martin filed to enter the 2014 race for his old seat, re-numbered District 151. State records erroneously listed him as a Republican despite his still being a Democrat. Maine Secretary of State Matthew Dunlap stated. Martin defeated Nadeau in the November 2014 election. Martin is single. In 1963, Martin received his BA in History/Government from the University of Maine Orono. From 1964 to 1994, 2008–2012, again from 2014 to present, Martin has been a representative for the Maine State House of Representatives In 2008 was an assistant majority leader for the Maine State Senate From 2000 to 2008 was a senator for Maine State Senate From 1975 to 1994 was a Speaker of the House for the Maine State House From 1971 to 1974 was a House minority floor leader for the Maine State House Member of the Democratic National Committee Is an assistant professor in political science and government at the University of Maine Fort Kent.

Takes part in graduate work in political science at the University of Maine Orono. Maine Senate Democrats - Senator John L. Martin official government website Project Vote Smart - Representative-elect John L. Martin profile Follow the Money – John L. Martin 2006 2004 2002 2000 State Senate campaign contributions 2008 1998 1996 State House campaign contributions

Miss PerĂº 2003

The Miss Perú 2003 pageant was held on April 29, 2003. That year, 38 candidates were competing for the national crown; the chosen winner represented Peru at the Miss World 2003. The Miss Universo Perú was chosen midway through the Miss Peru contest in a Gala de Belleza show, would enter in Miss Universe 2003; the Miss Earth Perú would enter in Miss Earth 2003. The first runner up would enter in Miss Intercontinental 2003; the rest of the finalists would enter in different pageants. Best Regional Costume - Cuzco - Aldana García Miss Hair - Cuzco - Aldana García Jahnsen Miss Fitness - San Martin - Ivette Santa María Miss Congeniality - Surco - María Paz González-Vigil Miss Internet - Piura - Claudia Hernández Most Beautiful Face - Amazonas - Diana Goytizolo Miss Peru 2003 video Miss Peru 2003


Polymedia is an anthropological notion, introduced by Daniel Miller and Mirca Madianou in recognition of the way most people today use a wide variety of communication media. They claim that as individual communication acts are no longer dictated by access and cost, people are to be judged on why they selected one particular media rather than others, for example in breaking up a relationship. Through ethnographic research on transnational familial communication between mothers and their children and Miller found mediated communication does not take place over a single technology but by choosing among and commingling a variety of media technologies. According to Mirca Madianou and Daniel Miller, rather than relying on technological determinism “the situation of polymedia is one in which the media are mediated by the relationship as well as the other way around.”Expanding on the idea of polymedia, communication scholars Herbig and Tyma extended the concept, not only as a social and technological practice, but as an important entry point for discussion in a “polymediated age.”

As they note, “The ‘poly’ in polymediation not only signifies the many forms that media take, but the many different interactions we can have with them.”They suggest that polymediation “is both the process and product resulting from media producers—who can be everyone and anyone with access—existing within a converged media state” that “moves beyond media convergence alone, by examining the simultaneous processes and outcomes of convergence and fragmentation" and "Since individuals can act as producers and critics, the term polymediation can be utilized as a noun, verb and adverb.”Similarly, according to Calka, polymediation has definitive characteristics: ubiquity, shape-shifting authorship, simultaneous fragmenting and merging of identity, division/communality. The UK Govt Foresight report recognizes polymedia as the way individuals configure a particular combination of media in their communication as an aspect of contemporary identity

Richmond High School (Victoria)

Richmond High School is a high school located in the Melbourne, Australia suburb of Richmond. Its predecessor, Richmond Secondary College, was the centre of a public protest and occupation of the site after it was listed for closure by the Liberal Kennett Government in 1993; the school commenced in 1967 in portable classrooms at the back of Brighton Street Primary School, before moving to the purpose built premises on the banks of the Yarra River near Bridge Road in 1970. Its name was changed to Richmond Secondary College, in 1992 it was listed for closure by the Kennett Government. Community protests against the closure were endorsed by the Victorian Trades Hall Council and lasted 360 days before protesters were evicted by Victoria Police Special Operations Group. Methods of crowd dispersal used by police on Monday 13 December 1993, including'pressure holds' and a baton charge were subject to a Parliamentary Inquiry, with 30 demonstrators receiving $300,000 in a settlement with the Bracks Government in 2000.

In 1994 the campus re-opened as Melbourne Girls College. In 2014 the Labor Party pledged to build a new Richmond High School. In 2016 the Labor Government announced plans to build the school; the new school is located in Griffiths Street. Richmond High School

Tyler Bertuzzi

Tyler Bertuzzi is a Canadian professional ice hockey forward playing for the Detroit Red Wings of the National Hockey League. Bertuzzi was drafted 58th overall by the Red Wings in the 2013 NHL Entry Draft. Bertuzzi was drafted 78th overall in the 2011 OHL Entry Draft by the Guelph Storm. During the 2011–12 season, Bertuzzi played in 61 games for Guelph in his first full year in the OHL. Making his OHL debut on September 22, 2011, he recorded a fight. Bertuzzi finished with six goals, 11 assists, 117 penalty minutes. Bertuzzi played in all six of Guelph's playoff games. During the 2012 -- 13 season, Bertuzzi had nine assists in 43 games. Bertuzzi played in all five playoff games with Guelph, finishing with no points and 14 penalty minutes. At the conclusion of the season, Bertuzzi was selected in the second round, 58th overall by the Detroit Red Wings during the 2013 NHL Entry Draft. During the 2013–14 season, Bertuzzi only played in 29 games, finishing the season with 10 goals and 25 assists, helping the Storm capture the OHL Championship and advance to the Memorial Cup championship game.

Bertuzzi led the Memorial Cup with five goals in four games. Guelph played 18 playoff games, with Bertuzzi playing in all, scoring 10 goals, seven assists, a +24 rating. During the 2014–15 season, Bertuzzi had his best season of his career, leading Guelph Storm in scoring with 98 points while playing in all of the teams 68 games. Bertuzzi led Guelph in goals, penalty minutes, plus/minus +26. Through nine games in the playoffs, Bertuzzi tied the team in scoring with eight points. Bertuzzi was named finishing the season ranked tenth in OHL scoring. On October 17, 2014, the Red Wings signed Bertuzzi to a three-year entry-level contract. After finishing his season with Guelph Storm, Bertuzzi played two regular season games of the 2014–15 season, he made his professional debut for the Grand Rapids Griffins on April 16, 2015, in a game against the Lake Erie Monsters. In his second AHL game against the Lake Erie Monsters, he scored his first professional goal against Calvin Pickard. On November 7, 2016, Bertuzzi was recalled by the Detroit Red Wings, made his NHL debut the next day in a game against the Philadelphia Flyers.

Prior to being recalled Bertuzzi recorded two assists in nine games for the Griffins. On November 15, Bertuzzi was assigned to Grands Rapids. Bertuzzi appeared in three games for the Red Wings, logging five hits and two shots on goal in 9:57 average time on ice. Bertuzzi was again recalled by the Red Wings on November 17. During the 2016–17 season, Bertuzzi recorded 12 goals and 25 assists in 48 games during the regular season. During the 2017 Calder Cup playoffs, he recorded nine goals and 10 assists in 19 games, to help lead the Griffins to the Calder Cup, was awarded the Jack A. Butterfield Trophy as the Most Valuable Player, he set the Griffins' franchise record with 23 career playoff goals. On December 21, 2017 Bertuzzi was recalled by the Red Wings. Prior to being recalled he recorded seven assists in 16 games for the Griffins. Bertuzzi recorded his first career NHL goal against Jeff Glass of the Chicago Blackhawks on January 14, 2018. During the 2017 -- 18 season he recorded 17 assists in 48 games for the Red Wings.

On June 25, 2018, the Red Wings signed Bertuzzi to a two-year contract extension. On January 12, 2019, Bertuzzi recorded his first career hat-trick against Devan Dubnyk of the Minnesota Wild. Bertuzzi was named the NHL Second Star of the week, for the week ending April 1, he shared the league lead with seven assists in four games. He registered three straight three-point performances, posting two goals and one assist, including his first career overtime goal, in a 5–4 victory over the Buffalo Sabres on March 28, one goal and two assists in a 4–0 victory over the New Jersey Devils on March 29 and three assists in a 6–3 victory over the Boston Bruins on March 31. Bertuzzi became the first Detroit player to record three consecutive three-point games since Steve Yzerman in 1992–93. On April 2, Bertuzzi recorded two goals and one assist in a 4–1 victory over the Pittsburgh Penguins, he became the first player in Red Wings franchise history to record four consecutive three-point games. On April 29, 2019, Bertuzzi was selected to make his international debut after he was named to the Team Canada roster for the 2019 IIHF World Championship, held in Slovakia.

He helped Canada progress through to the playoff rounds before losing the final to Finland to finish with the Silver Medal on May 26, 2019. Bertuzzi finished the tournament going scoreless through 5 games. Bertuzzi is the son of Angela Bertuzzi, an educational assistant, Adrian Gedye, a talent agent and business owner, he has two brothers: Matthew Gedye. His cousins and Jaden Bertuzzi play hockey. Tag was selected second overall by Guelph Storm in the 2017 OHL draft. Bertuzzi is the nephew of former NHL player Todd Bertuzzi. Biographical information and career statistics from, or, or, or, or The Internet Hockey Database