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1. 7 World Trade Center – 7 World Trade Center refers to two buildings that have existed at the same location in the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The current structure is the building to bear that name. The original structure, part of the old World Trade Center, was completed in 1987 and was destroyed in the September 11 attacks, the current building opened in 2006. Both buildings were developed by Larry Silverstein, who holds a lease for the site from the Port Authority of New York. The original 7 World Trade Center was 47 stories tall, clad in red masonry, an elevated walkway connected the building to the World Trade Center plaza. The building was situated above a Consolidated Edison power substation, which imposed unique structural design constraints, when the building opened in 1987, Silverstein had difficulties attracting tenants. In 1988, Salomon Brothers signed a lease, and became the main tenants of the building. On September 11,2001,7 WTC was damaged by debris when the nearby North Tower of the World Trade Center collapsed, the debris also ignited fires, which continued to burn throughout the afternoon on lower floors of the building. Construction of the new 7 World Trade Center began in 2002 and was completed in 2006, the building is 52 stories tall, making it the 28th-tallest in New York. It is built on a smaller footprint than the original, allowing Greenwich Street to be restored from Tribeca through the World Trade Center site, the new building is bounded by Greenwich, Vesey, Washington, and Barclay streets. A small park across Greenwich Street occupies space that was part of the buildings footprint. The current buildings design emphasizes safety, with a concrete core, wider stairways. It also incorporates numerous green design features and it was also one of the first projects accepted to be part of the Councils pilot program for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design – Core and Shell Development. The original 7 World Trade Center was a 47-story building, designed by Emery Roth & Sons, the building was 610 feet tall, with a trapezoidal footprint that was 330 ft long and 140 ft wide. Tishman Realty & Construction managed construction of the building, which began in 1983, in May 1987, the building opened, becoming the seventh structure of the World Trade Center. The building was constructed above a Con Edison substation that had been on the site since 1967, the substation had a caisson foundation designed to carry the weight of a future building of 25 stories containing 600,000 sq ft. The final design for 7 World Trade Center was for a larger building than originally planned when the substation was built. The structural design of 7 World Trade Center therefore included a system of gravity column transfer trusses and girders, existing caissons installed in 1967 were used, along with new ones, to accommodate the building7 World Trade Center – The new 7 World Trade Center from the southeast (2008)
2. Acra (fortress) – The Acra or Akra was a fortified compound in Jerusalem built by Antiochus Epiphanes, ruler of the Seleucid Empire, following his sack of the city in 168 BCE. The fortress played a significant role in the surrounding the Maccabean Revolt. It was destroyed by Simon Maccabeus during this struggle, the exact location of the Acra, critical to understanding Hellenistic Jerusalem, had been a matter of lengthy discussions. Historians and archaeologists had proposed various sites around Jerusalem, relying mainly on conclusions drawn from literary evidence and this approach began to change in the light of excavations which commenced in the late 1960s. New discoveries had prompted reassessments of the ancient literary sources, Jerusalems geography, yoram Tsafrir had interpreted a masonry joint in the southeastern corner of the Temple Mount platform as a clue to the Acras possible position. In November 2015 the Israel Antiquities Authority announced the discovery of the Acra in a different location, south-west of the Temple Mount. The Ancient Greek term acra was used to other fortified structures during the Hellenistic period. The Acra is often called the Seleucid Acra to distinguish it from references to the Ptolemaic Baris as an acra, following Alexander the Greats death in 323 BCE, Judea was contested between the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt, and the Seleucid Empire based in Syria and Mesopotamia. Seleucid emperor Antiochus IIIs victory over Egypt in the Battle of Panium brought Judea under Seleucid control, the Jewish population of Jerusalem had aided Antiochus during his siege of the Baris, the fortified base of Jerusalems Egyptian garrison. Despite being allowed religious freedom, many Jews were enticed by and adopted elements of the prestigious, the imperial culture offered a route to political and material advancement, and this led to the formation of Hellenistic elites among the Jewish population. Hellenization produced tensions between observant Jews and their brethren who had assimilated Greek culture, Antiochus IV Epiphanes ascended the Seleucid throne in 175 BCE. Shortly afterward, Epiphanes was petitioned by Jason for appointment to the position of High Priest of Israel—an office occupied by his brother Onias III, jasons petition was granted, yet after a 42-month rule he was ousted by Antiochus and forced to flee to Ammon. In the meantime, Antiochus IV had launched two invasions of Egypt, in 170 BCE and again in 169 BCE, and routed the Ptolemaic armies. His intent to unify the Seleucid and Ptolemaic kingdoms alarmed the rapidly expanding Roman state, with Antiochus engaged in Egypt, a false rumor spread in Jerusalem that he had been killed. In the ensuing uncertainty, Jason gathered a force of 1,000 followers, although the attack was repulsed, when word of the fighting reached Antiochus in Egypt, he suspected his Judean subjects of exploiting his setback as an opportunity to revolt. In 168 BCE, Antiochus IV Epiphanes marched on and sacked Jerusalem, looting the temple treasury, reversing his fathers policy, Antiochus IV issued decrees outlawing traditional Jewish rites and persecuting observant Jews. Temple rituals were discontinued, Jewish observance of Sabbath prohibited, and this was a place to lie in wait against the sanctuary, and an evil devil in Israel. The name Acra derived from the Greek acropolis and signified a lofty fortified place overlooking a town, in Jerusalem, the word came to symbolize anti-Jewish paganism, a fortress of the impious and wickedAcra (fortress) – The Givati parking lot dig and proposed remnants of the Acra.
3. Angkor Wat – Angkor Wat is a temple complex in Cambodia and the largest religious monument in the world, with the site measuring 162.6 hectares. It was originally constructed as a Hindu temple of god Vishnu for the Khmer Empire and it was built by the Khmer King Suryavarman II in the early 12th century in Yaśodharapura, the capital of the Khmer Empire, as his state temple and eventual mausoleum. Breaking from the Shaiva tradition of previous kings, Angkor Wat was instead dedicated to Vishnu, as the best-preserved temple at the site, it is the only one to have remained a significant religious centre since its foundation. The temple is at the top of the classical style of Khmer architecture. It has become a symbol of Cambodia, appearing on its national flag, Angkor Wat combines two basic plans of Khmer temple architecture, the temple-mountain and the later galleried temple. It is designed to represent Mount Meru, home of the devas in Hindu mythology, within a moat, at the centre of the temple stands a quincunx of towers. Unlike most Angkorian temples, Angkor Wat is oriented to the west, the temple is admired for the grandeur and harmony of the architecture, its extensive bas-reliefs, and for the numerous devatas adorning its walls. The modern name, Angkor Wat, means Temple City or City of Temples in Khmer, Angkor, meaning city or capital city, is a form of the word nokor. Wat is the Khmer word for temple grounds, also derived from Sanskrit vāṭa, the original name of the temple was Vrah Viṣṇuloka or Brah Bisnulōk which means the sacred dwelling of Vishnu. Angkor Wat lies 5.5 kilometres north of the town of Siem Reap, and a short distance south and slightly east of the previous capital. In an area of Cambodia where there is an important group of ancient structures, according to legend, the construction of Angkor Wat was ordered by Indra to act as a palace for his son Precha Ket Mealea. According to the 13th century Chinese traveller Daguan Zhou, it was believed by some that the temple was constructed in a night by a divine architect. The initial design and construction of the temple took place in the first half of the 12th century, dedicated to Vishnu, it was built as the kings state temple and capital city. Work seems to have ended shortly after the death, leaving some of the bas-relief decoration unfinished. In 1177, approximately 27 years after the death of Suryavarman II, Angkor was sacked by the Chams, thereafter the empire was restored by a new king, Jayavarman VII, who established a new capital and state temple a few kilometres to the north. Towards the end of the 12th century, Angkor Wat gradually transformed from a Hindu centre of worship to Buddhism and it has towers and decoration and all the refinements which the human genius can conceive of. By the 17th century, Angkor Wat was not completely abandoned and functioned as a Buddhist temple, fourteen inscriptions dated from the 17th century discovered in Angkor area testify to Japanese Buddhist pilgrims that had established small settlements alongside Khmer locals. At that time, the temple was thought by the Japanese visitors as the famed Jetavana garden of the Buddha, the best-known inscription tells of Ukondafu Kazufusa, who celebrated the Khmer New Year at Angkor Wat in 1632Angkor Wat – Angkor Wat អង្គរវត្ត
4. Annunciation (Memling) – The Annunciation is an oil-on-oak panel painting attributed to the Early Netherlandish master Hans Memling. 1482, it was transferred to canvas in the 1920s and is today held in the Robert Lehman collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. It shows the Virgin in an interior, two attendant angels, the archangel Gabriel dressed in rich ecclesiastical robes, and a hovering dove. The painting is based and expands upon the Annunciation wing of Rogier van der Weydens c.1455 Saint Columba altarpiece, according to art historian Maryan Ainsworth, the work presents a startlingly original image, rich in connotations for the viewer or worshiper. The simple iconography centers on the Virgins purity, the Incarnation and her swoon foreshadows the Crucifixion of Jesus. In 1847 Gustav Friedrich Waagen described it as one of Memlings finest and most original works, in 1902 it was exhibited in Bruges at the Exposition des primitifs flamands à Bruges, after which it underwent cleaning and restoration. Philip Lehman bought it in 1920 from the Radziwiłł family who may have had it in their family since the 16th century, at that time it had been pierced through with an arrow and required restoration. The Annunciation was a theme in European art, although a difficult scene to paint. In Byzantine art, Annunciation scenes depict the Virgin enthroned and dressed in royal regalia, in later centuries she was shown in enclosed spaces, the temple, the church, the garden. The Annunciation is typically set in interiors in Early Netherlandish art, a style Robert Campin established. Memlings depiction is nearly identical to van der Weydens Columba Altarpiece, the archangel Gabriel appears to Mary to inform her that she shall bear the Son of God. He is shown standing in a three-quarter view wearing a small jeweled diadem and he has a richly embroidered red-and-gold brocade cope, edged with a pattern of gray seraphim and wheels, over a white alb and amice. He holds his staff of office in one hand, and raises the other towards the Virgin and he bends his knees, honoring and acknowledging her as Mother of Christ and Queen of Heaven, and his feet are bare and positioned slightly behind hers. The Virgin is in a view, directly behind her the red-curtained bed acts as a framing device. A purple underdress peeks out at her neck and wrists, indicating her royal status, the Virgin holds an innovative and unusual position. She seems to be rising or swooning as if having lost her balance. Blum believes one may search in vain in other Netherlandish Annunciation panels of the century of a Virgin positioned as she is here. Flanking the Virgin, and holding her, are two attendant angels, the one to the left lifts the Virgins robe while the other gazes at the viewer, soliciting our response, according to AinsworthAnnunciation (Memling) – The Annunciation, 76.5 × 54.6 cm (30 1/8 × 21 1/2 in.), Hans Memling, c. 1480s, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
5. Anthony Roll – The Anthony Roll is a record of ships of the English Tudor navy of the 1540s, named after its creator, Anthony Anthony. It originally consisted of three rolls of vellum, depicting 58 naval vessels along with information on their size, crew, armament, the rolls were presented to King Henry VIII in 1546, and were kept in the royal library. In 1680 Charles II gave two of the rolls to Samuel Pepys, who had cut up and bound as a single volume book. The third roll remained in the collection until it was given by William IV to his daughter, Mary Fox. The Anthony Roll is the only fully illustrated inventory of ships of the English navy in the Tudor period. While the inventories listed in its text have proven to be accurate, most of the ship illustrations are rudimentary. The level of detail of the design, armament and especially rigging has therefore proven to be only approximate. The only known depictions of prominent Tudor era vessels like the Henry Grace à Dieu. Anthonys father was William Anthony a Fleming from Middelburg in Zeeland who migrated to England in 1503, William was a supplier of beer to the army, and Anthony followed in his fathers footsteps. He went into beer exporting no later than 1530 and became a supplier of beer to the navy, in 1533 Anthony was appointed gunner at the Tower of London, a position he retained nominally until his death. He rose to the rank of overseer of the Ordnance Office, the government body responsible for supplying the forces with artillery. In 1549 he was promoted to master surveyor of the ordnance in the Tower, Calais, Boulogne and he continued the work of supplying arms to English forces, and was active in the last month of his life supplying guns for an expedition against Le Havre. In 1939 Dutch historian Nicholas Beets proposed that the Flemish artist, the will of William Anthony did not mention any other sons and Anthonisz. is believed to have been the son of Antonis Egbertson, the daughter of Jacob Corneliszoon van Oostzanen. That Cornelis and Anthony were related is, in the words of Ann Payne, not, presumably, impossible, contemporary maps, or plats, were routinely decorated with detailed pictures of ships, to mark bodies of water as much as to liven up the scenes. Such maps were common at the time, and were embellished by artists if deemed too simple or drab. This painting, recently dated to around 1545, has also suggested as a likely source of inspiration to Anthony for his illustrations. The design of the ships in these paintings, especially that of the Brighton raid and it is not known exactly when work on the rolls began nor when it was finished. It is only certain that it was presented to the king the year it was dated,1546Anthony Roll – The first illustration of the first roll of the Anthony Roll, depicting the Henry Grace à Dieu, the largest ship in the English navy during the reign of King Henry VIII.
6. Beaune Altarpiece – The Beaune Altarpiece, often called The Last Judgement, is a large polyptych altarpiece by the Early Netherlandish artist Rogier van der Weyden. It was painted in oil on oak panels, with parts transferred to canvas. It consists of fifteen paintings on nine panels, six are painted on both sides and it retains some of its original frames. Six outer panels are hinged, when folded they show a view of saints. The inner panels contain scenes from the Last Judgement and are arranged across two registers, the large central panel that spans both registers shows Christ seated on a rainbow in judgement, with his feet resting on a golden globe. Below him the Archangel Michael holds scales as he weighs souls, the panel on Christs far right shows the gates of Heaven, that to his far left the entrance to Hell. The panels of the lower register form a landscape, with figures depicted moving from the central panel to their final destinations after receiving judgement. It is one of van der Weydens most ambitious works, equal to his Prado Deposition and lost Justice of Trajan and it remains in the hospice today, although not in its original position. It is in condition and was moved in the 20th century to shield it from sunlight. It has suffered from extensive paint loss, the wearing and darkening of its colours, in addition, a heavy layer of over-paint was applied during restoration. The two painted sides of the panels have been separated so both can be shown simultaneously, traditionally, the shutters would have been opened only on selected Sundays or church holidays. Nicolas Rolin was appointed Chancellor of Burgundy by Philip the Good in 1422 and his tenure with the duke made him a wealthy man, and he donated a large portion of his fortune for the foundation of the Hôtel-Dieu in Beaune. It is not known why he decided to build in Beaune rather than in his birthplace of Autun and he may have chosen Beaune because it lacked a hospital and an outbreak of the plague decimated the population between 1438 and 1440. The hospice was built after Rolin gained permission from Pope Eugene IV in 1441, in conjunction, Rolin established the religious order of Les sœurs hospitalières de Beaune. In the late 1450s, only a few years before he died, Rolins wife, Guigone de Salins, played a major role in the foundation, as probably did his nephew Jan Rolin. De Salins lived and served at the hospice until her own death in 1470, documents regarding the artworks commissioning survive and, unusually for a Netherlandish altarpiece, the artist, patron, place of installation and date of completion are all known. It was intended as the centrepiece for the chapel, and Rolin approached van der Weyden around 1443, the altarpiece was ready by 1451, the year the chapel was consecrated. Painted in van der Weydens Brussels workshop – most likely with the aid of apprentices – the completed panels were transported to the hospiceBeaune Altarpiece – The Beaune Altarpiece, c. 1445–1450. 220cm x 548cm (excluding frames). Oil on oak, Hospices de Beaune, interior view
7. The Battle of Alexander at Issus – The Battle of Alexander at Issus is a 1529 oil painting by the German artist Albrecht Altdorfer, a pioneer of landscape art and a founding member of the Danube school. It portrays the 333 BC Battle of Issus, in which Alexander the Great secured a victory over Darius III of Persia. Duke William IV of Bavaria commissioned The Battle of Alexander at Issus in 1528 as part of a set of pieces that was to hang in his Munich residence. In particular, the defeat of Suleiman the Magnificent at the Siege of Vienna may have been an inspiration for Altdorfer, the Battle of Alexander at Issus and four others that were part of Williams initial set are in the Alte Pinakothek art museum in Munich. Alexander III of Macedon, best known as Alexander the Great, was an Ancient Greek king of Macedon who reigned from 336 BC until his death and he is widely regarded as one of the greatest military tacticians and strategists in history, and is presumed undefeated in battle. Renowned for his leadership and charisma, he always led his armies personally. By conquering the Persian Empire and unifying Greece, Egypt and Babylon, he forged the largest empire of the ancient world and effected the spread of Hellenism throughout Europe and Northern Africa. Alexander embarked on his expedition to conquer the Persian Empire in the spring of 334 BC, having pacified the warring Greek states and consolidated his military might. During the first months of the Macedonian passage into Persian Asia Minor, the Battle of the Granicus, fought in May, was Persias first major effort to confront the invaders, but resulted in an easy victory for Alexander. Over the next year, Alexander took most of western and coastal Asia Minor by forcing the capitulation of the satrapies in his path and he continued inland, travelling northeast through Phyrgia before turning southeast toward Cilicia. After passing the Cilician Gates in October, Alexander was delayed by fever in Tarsus, Darius meanwhile mustered an army of up to 100,000 and personally directed it over the eastern slopes of the Amanus Mountains. In early November, as Alexander proceeded about the Gulf of Issus from Mallus via Issus and this was decidedly to Darius advantage, now at the rear of Alexander, he was able to prevent retreat and block the supply lines Alexander had established at Issus. It was not until Alexander had encamped at Myriandrus, a seaport on the shores of the Gulf of İskenderun. He immediately retraced his route to the Pinarus River, just south of Issus, Darius initial response was defensive, he immediately stockaded the river bank with stakes to impede the enemys crossing. A group of Persian light infantry was sent to the foothills, as it was suspected that Alexander would make an approach from the right. A mass of cavalry commanded by Nabarsanes occupied the Persian right, Alexander made a cautious and slow advance, intending to base his strategy on the structure of the Persian force. He led a flank of his Companion cavalry on the right, while the Thessalian cavalry were dispatched to the left, as a counter to Nabarsanes mounted unit. Aware of the importance of the foothills to his right, Alexander sent a band of light infantry, archers, the enterprise was successful – those Persians not killed were forced to seek refuge higher in the mountainsThe Battle of Alexander at Issus – The Battle of Alexander at Issus
8. Belton House – Belton House is a Grade I listed country house in Belton near Grantham, Lincolnshire, England. The mansion is surrounded by gardens and a series of avenues leading to follies within a larger wooded park. Belton has been described as a compilation of all that is finest of Carolean architecture, only Brympton dEvercy has been similarly lauded as the perfect English country house. For three hundred years, Belton House was the seat of the Brownlow and Cust family, who had first acquired land in the area in the late 16th century, between 1685 and 1688 Sir John Brownlow and his wife had the present mansion built. Despite great wealth they chose to build a modest country house rather than a grand contemporary Baroque palace, the contemporary, if provincial, Carolean style was the selected choice of design. However, the new house was fitted with the latest innovations such as windows for the principal rooms. Following World War I, the Brownlows, like many of their peers, were faced with mounting financial problems, in 1984 they gave the house away—complete with most of its contents. The recipients of their gift, the National Trust, today fully open Belton to the public and it is in a good state of repair and visited by many thousands of tourists each year. The Brownlow family, a dynasty of lawyers, began accumulating land in the Belton area from approximately 1598, in 1609 they acquired the reversion of the manor of Belton itself from the Pakenham family, who finally sold the manor house to Sir John Brownlow I in 1619. The old house was situated near the church in the garden of the present house and remained largely unoccupied, John Brownlow had married an heiress but was childless. He became attached to two of his more distant blood relations, a great-nephew, also called John Brownlow, and they immediately bought a town house in the newly fashionable Southampton Square in Bloomsbury, and decided to build a new country house at Belton. Work on the new house began in 1685, the assumption popular today, that Winde was the architect, is based on the stylistic similarity between Belton and Coombe Abbey, which was remodelled by Winde between 1682 and 1685. Further evidence is a letter dated 1690, in which Winde recommends a plasterer who worked at Belton to another of his patrons, whoever the architect, Belton follows closely the design of Clarendon House, completed in 1667. This great London town house has one of the most admired buildings of its era due to its elegant symmetry and confident. Sir John Summerson described Clarendon House as the most influential house of its time among those who aimed at the grand manner, John and Alice Brownlow assembled one of the finest teams of craftsmen available at the time to work on the project. This dream team was headed by the master mason William Stanton who oversaw the project, the wrought-ironworker John Warren worked under Stanton at Denham Place, Buckinghamshire, and the fine wrought iron gates and overthrow at Belton may be his. Thus so competent were the builders of Belton that Winde may have little more than provide the original plans and drawings. This theory is demonstrated by the external appearance of the adjoining stable blockBelton House – South (front) facade of Belton House
9. Blakeney Chapel – Blakeney Chapel is a ruined building on the Norfolk coast of England. Despite its name, it is in the parish of Cley next the Sea, not the village of Blakeney. It consisted of two rooms of unequal size, and appears to be intact in a 1586 map. Only the foundations and part of a wall still remain, three archaeological investigations between 1998 and 2005 provided more detail of the construction, and showed two distinct periods of active use. Although it is described as a chapel on several maps, there is no documentary or archaeological evidence to suggest that it had any religious function, a small hearth, probably used for smelting iron, is the only evidence of a specific activity on the site. Much of the material was long ago carried off for reuse in buildings in Cley and Blakeney. The surviving ruins are protected as a monument and Grade II listed building because of their historical importance. The ever-present threat from the sea is likely to accelerate following a realignment of the Glavens course through the marshes. The Blakeney Chapel ruins consist of an east-west rectangular structure 18 m ×7 m in size with a rectangular building,13 m ×5 m built onto the southern side of the main room. Most of the structure is buried, only a 6 m length of a flint, the ruins stand on the highest point of Blakeney Eye at about 2 m above sea level. The Eye is a mound in the marshes that is located inside the sea wall at the point where the River Glaven turns westward towards the sheltered inlet of Blakeney Haven. Cley Eye is a raised area on the east bank of the river. Despite the name, Blakeney Eye, like most of the part of the marshes in this area, is actually part of the parish of Cley next the Sea. The land on which the stands was in the possession of the Calthorpe family until its purchase by banker Charles Rothschild in 1912. Rothschild gave the property to the National Trust, which has managed it since, there is no public access to the site. The ruins are protected as a monument and Grade II listed building because of their historical importance. The SSSI is now additionally protected through Natura 2000, Special Protection Area and RAMSAR listings, the original map disappeared in the 19th century, but a number of copies still exist. In this map, the building on the Eye is shown as intact and roofed, some maps, including Fadens, show a second ruined chapel across the Glaven on Cley Eye, but no other documentation exists for that buildingBlakeney Chapel – No structures are now visible above ground at the site
10. The Blind Leading the Blind – The blind leading the blind is an idiom and a metaphor in the form of a parallel phrase which can be traced back to the Upanishads, written between 800 BCE and 200 BCE. A similar metaphor exists in the Buddhist Pali Canon, composed in North India, the expression appears in Horace, Caecus caeco dux. Blind leading the blind was a written by Mick Jagger, performed by Mick Jagger. أعمى يقود أعمى Arabic کوری عصاکش کور دگر τυφλός τυφλόν ὁδηγεῖ Greek caecus caeco dux Latin Слепой ведет слепого Russian Vak vezet világtalant Hungarian MetaphorThe Blind Leading the Blind – The Blind Leading the Blind, Pieter van der Heyden after Hieronymus Bosch, c. 1561.
11. Bodiam Castle – Bodiam Castle is a 14th-century moated castle near Robertsbridge in East Sussex, England. It was built in 1385 by Sir Edward Dalyngrigge, a knight of Edward III, with the permission of Richard II. Of quadrangular plan, Bodiam Castle has no keep, having its various chambers built around the defensive walls. Its corners and entrance are marked by towers, and topped by crenellations and its structure, details and situation in an artificial watery landscape indicate that display was an important aspect of the castles design as well as defence. It was the home of the Dalyngrigge family and the centre of the manor of Bodiam, possession of Bodiam Castle passed through several generations of Dalyngrigges, until their line became extinct, when the castle passed by marriage to the Lewknor family. During the Wars of the Roses, Sir Thomas Lewknor supported the House of Lancaster, and when Richard III of the House of York became king in 1483 and it is unrecorded whether the siege went ahead, but it is thought that Bodiam was surrendered without much resistance. The castle was confiscated, but returned to the Lewknors when Henry VII of the House of Lancaster became king in 1485, descendants of the Lewknors owned the castle until at least the 16th century. By the start of the English Civil War in 1641, Bodiam Castle was in the possession of Lord Thanet and he supported the Royalist cause, and sold the castle to help pay fines levied against him by Parliament. The castle was dismantled, and was left as a picturesque ruin until its purchase by John Fuller in 1829. Under his auspices, the castle was restored before being sold to George Cubitt, 1st Baron Ashcombe. The castle is protected as a Grade I listed building and Scheduled Monument and it has been owned by The National Trust since 1925, donated by Lord Curzon on his death, and is open to the public. Edward Dalyngrigge was a son and thus deprived of his fathers estates through the practice of primogeniture. By 1378, he owned the manor of Bodiam by marrying into a land-owning family, from 1379 to 1388, Dalyngrigge was a Knight of the Shire for Sussex and one of the most influential people in the county. By the time he applied to the king for a licence to crenellate, Edward III of England pressed his claim for the French throne and secured the territories of Aquitaine and Calais. Dalyngrigge was one of many Englishmen who travelled to France to seek their fortune as members of Free Companies – groups of mercenaries who fought for the highest bidder and he left for France in 1367 and journeyed with Lionel, Duke of Clarence and son of Edward III. It was as a member of the Free Companies that Dalyngrigge raised the money to build Bodiam Castle, the Treaty of Bruges ensured peace for two years, but after it expired, fighting resumed between England and France. In 1377 Edward III was succeeded by Richard II, during the war, England and France struggled for control of the English Channel, with raids on both coasts. With the renewed hostilities, Parliament voted that money should be spent on defending and fortifying Englands south coast, there was internal unrest as well as external threats, and Dalyngrigge was involved in suppressing the Peasants Revolt of 1381Bodiam Castle – Bodiam Castle from the northwest
12. Book of Kells – The Book of Kells is an illuminated manuscript Gospel book in Latin, containing the four Gospels of the New Testament together with various prefatory texts and tables. It was created in a Columban monastery in Ireland or may have had contributions from various Columban institutions from both Britain and Ireland and it is believed to have been created c.800 AD. The text of the Gospels is largely drawn from the Vulgate and it is a masterwork of Western calligraphy and represents the pinnacle of Insular illumination. It is also regarded as Irelands finest national treasure. The illustrations and ornamentation of the Book of Kells surpass that of other Insular Gospel books in extravagance, the decoration combines traditional Christian iconography with the ornate swirling motifs typical of Insular art. Figures of humans, animals and mythical beasts, together with Celtic knots and interlacing patterns in vibrant colours, many of these minor decorative elements are imbued with Christian symbolism and so further emphasise the themes of the major illustrations. The manuscript today comprises 340 folios and, since 1953, has been bound in four volumes, the Insular majuscule script of the text itself appears to be the work of at least three different scribes. The lettering is in iron gall ink, and the colours used were derived from a range of substances. The manuscript takes its name from the Abbey of Kells, which was its home for centuries, today, it is on permanent display at Trinity College Library, Dublin. These manuscripts include the Cathach of St. Columba, the Ambrosiana Orosius, fragmentary Gospel in the Durham Dean and Chapter Library, from the early 8th century come the Durham Gospels, the Echternach Gospels, the Lindisfarne Gospels, and the Lichfield Gospels. Among others, the St. Gall Gospel Book belongs to the late 8th century, scholars place these manuscripts together based on similarities in artistic style, script, and textual traditions. The fully developed style of the ornamentation of the Book of Kells places it late in this series, the Book of Kells follows many of the iconographic and stylistic traditions found in these earlier manuscripts. For example, the form of the letters found in the incipit pages for the Gospels is surprisingly consistent in Insular Gospels. The name Book of Kells is derived from the Abbey of Kells in Kells, County Meath, the manuscripts date and place of production have been the subject of considerable debate. Traditionally, the book was thought to have created in the time of Columba. This tradition has long been discredited on paleographic and stylistic grounds,800, long after St. Columbas death in 597. The proposed dating in the 9th century coincides with Viking raids on Iona, there is another tradition, with some traction among Irish scholars, that suggests the manuscript was created for the 200th anniversary of the saints death. There are at least five competing theories about the place of originBook of Kells – The Book of Kells, (folio 292r), circa 800, showing the lavishly decorated text that opens the Gospel of John
13. Borobudur – The temple consists of nine stacked platforms, six square and three circular, topped by a central dome. The temple is decorated with 2,672 relief panels and 504 Buddha statues, the central dome is surrounded by 72 Buddha statues, each seated inside a perforated stupa. The monument is both a shrine to the Lord Buddha and a place for Buddhist pilgrimage, the monument guides pilgrims through an extensive system of stairways and corridors with 1,460 narrative relief panels on the walls and the balustrades. Borobudur has the largest and most complete ensemble of Buddhist reliefs in the world, evidence suggests Borobudur was constructed in the 9th century and abandoned following the 14th-century decline of Hindu kingdoms in Java and the Javanese conversion to Islam. Worldwide knowledge of its existence was sparked in 1814 by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, then the British ruler of Java, Borobudur has since been preserved through several restorations. The largest restoration project was undertaken between 1975 and 1982 by the Indonesian government and UNESCO, following which the monument was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Borobudur is still used for pilgrimage, once a year, Buddhists in Indonesia celebrate Vesak at the monument, in Indonesian, ancient temples are referred to as candi, thus locals refer to Borobudur Temple as Candi Borobudur. The term candi also loosely describes ancient structures, for example gates, the origins of the name Borobudur, however, are unclear, although the original names of most ancient Indonesian temples are no longer known. The name Borobudur was first written in Sir Thomas Raffless book on Javan history, Raffles wrote about a monument called Borobudur, but there are no older documents suggesting the same name. The only old Javanese manuscript that hints the monument called Budur as a holy Buddhist sanctuary is Nagarakretagama, written by Mpu Prapanca, most candi are named after a nearby village. If it followed Javanese language conventions and was named after the village of Bore. Raffles thought that Budur might correspond to the modern Javanese word Buda —i. e. ancient Boro and he also suggested that the name might derive from boro, meaning great or honourable and Budur for Buddha. However, another archaeologist suggests the second component of the name comes from Javanese term bhudhara, another possible etymology suggests that Borobudur is a corrupted simplified local Javanese pronunciation of Biara Beduhur written in Sanskrit as Vihara Buddha Uhr. This suggests that Borobudur means vihara of Buddha located on a place or on a hill. The construction and inauguration of a sacred Buddhist building—possibly a reference to Borobudur—was mentioned in two inscriptions, both discovered in Kedu, Temanggung Regency, the Karangtengah inscription, dated 824, mentioned a sacred building named Jinalaya, inaugurated by Pramodhawardhani, daughter of Samaratungga. The Tri Tepusan inscription, dated 842, is mentioned in the sima, Kamūlān is from the word mula, which means the place of origin, a sacred building to honor the ancestors, probably those of the Sailendras. Casparis suggested that Bhūmi Sambhāra Bhudhāra, which in Sanskrit means the mountain of combined virtues of the ten stages of Boddhisattvahood, was the name of Borobudur. According to local myth, the known as Kedu Plain is a Javanese sacred place and has been dubbed the garden of Java due to its high agricultural fertilityBorobudur – Borobudur, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
14. Boydell Shakespeare Gallery – During the 1790s the London gallery that showed the original paintings emerged as the projects most popular element. The works of William Shakespeare enjoyed a popularity in 18th-century Britain. Several new editions of his works were published, his plays were revived in the theatre and numerous works of art were created illustrating the plays and specific productions of them. Capitalising on this interest, Boydell decided to publish an illustrated edition of Shakespeares plays that would showcase the talents of British painters and engravers. He chose the noted scholar and Shakespeare editor George Steevens to oversee the edition, the press reported weekly on the building of Boydells gallery, designed by George Dance the Younger, on a site in Pall Mall. Boydell commissioned works from famous painters of the day, such as Joshua Reynolds, however, the long delay in publishing the prints and the illustrated edition prompted criticism. Because they were hurried, and many illustrations had to be done by lesser artists, the project caused the Boydell firm to become insolvent, and they were forced to sell the gallery at a lottery. In the 18th century, Shakespeare became associated with rising British nationalism, Shakespeare appealed not only to a social elite who prided themselves on their artistic taste, but also to the emerging middle class who saw in Shakespeares works a vision of a diversified society. The mid-century Shakespearean theatrical revival was probably most responsible for reintroducing the British public to Shakespeare, Shakespeares plays were integral to the theatres resurgence at this time. Despite the upsurge in theatre-going, writing tragedies was not profitable, Shakespeares works filled the gap in the repertoire, and his reputation grew as a result. By the end of the 18th century, one out of six plays performed in London was by Shakespeare. The actor, director, and producer David Garrick was a key figure in Shakespeares theatrical renaissance, garricks Drury Lane theatre was the centre of the Shakespeare mania which swept the nation. The visual arts played a significant role in expanding Shakespeares popular appeal. In particular, the conversation pieces designed chiefly for homes generated an audience for literary art. This tradition began with William Hogarth and attained its peak in the Royal Academy exhibitions, which displayed paintings, drawings, the exhibitions became important public events, thousands flocked to see them, and newspapers reported in detail on the works displayed. They became a place to be seen. In the process, the public was refamiliarized with Shakespeares works, the rise in Shakespeares popularity coincided with Britains accelerating change from an oral to a print culture. Towards the end of the century, the basis of Shakespeares high reputation changed and he had originally been respected as a playwright, but once the theatre became associated with the masses, Shakespeares status as a great writer shiftedBoydell Shakespeare Gallery – Joshua Reynolds ' Puck (1789), painted for Boydell 's Shakespeare Gallery, is modelled after Parmigianino 's Madonna with St. Zachary, the Magdalen, and St. John
15. Bramall Hall – Bramall Hall is a Tudor manor house in Bramhall, within the Metropolitan Borough of Stockport, Greater Manchester, England. It is a building, the oldest parts of which date from the 14th century. The house, which functions as a museum, and its 70 acres of landscaped parkland with lakes, woodland, dating back to Anglo-Saxon England, the manor of Bramall was first described in the Domesday Book in 1086, when it was held by the Masseys. The Hall and a park of over 50 acres was sold on by the Freeholders to the Nevill family of successful industrialists. In 1925 it was purchased by John Henry Davies, and then, in 1935, acquired by the government authority for the area, Hazel Grove. The manor of Bramall dates from the Anglo-Saxon period, when it was held as two separate estates owned by the Anglo-Saxon freemen Brun and Hacun, the manor was devastated during William the Conquerors Harrying of the North. After William subdued the north-west of England, the land was divided among his followers, the earliest reference to Bramall was recorded in the Domesday Book as Bramale at which time the manor was part of the Hamestan Hundred in Cheshire. With Cheadle and Norbury, Bramall was one of three places described in the Domesday Book that today lie within the modern-day Metropolitan Borough of Stockport, while its value was 32 shillings before 1066, it was worth only 5 shillings by 1086. In the first part of the 12th century, the manor passed from the second Baron of Dunham Massey to Matthew de Bromale. According to Dean, Matthews father is said to have founded the de Bromale family, naming himself after the manor and he may have also held the manor at some point. The de Bromales held the manor until 1370 when Alice de Bromale married John de Davenport, the Davenports were a family of significant landowners in the north-west of England whose antecedents can be traced back to the time of the Norman conquest. Orm de Davenport lived close to what is now Marton, and his name derives from the Norman French Dauen-port meaning the town on the trickling stream, in 1160, the family became responsible for Macclesfield Forest, and in the early 13th century Vivian Davenport became its Grand Sergeant. The familys coat of arms includes a head with a rope around the neck. The Davenports acquired land throughout the area, notably at Wheltrough, Henbury, Woodford, the Davenports held the manor for around 500 years, and it is likely that they built the current house after their accession. The first William Davenport was lord of the manor from 1478 to 1528, according to Dean, it was during this first Williams tenure that Bramall may have been vandalised by a man named Randle Hassall, who destroyed all or part of nine houses and stole the timber. This gives credence to the theory that Bramall was rebuilt, replacing or partially replacing an older building. The third William Davenport, who succeeded his father of the name in 1541, took part in what later became known as The Rough Wooing. He was knighted in Scotland for his efforts at the burning of Edinburgh in May 1544, the fifth William Davenport inherited Bramall in 1585 from his father of the same name, and lived there with his wife Dorothy for over 50 yearsBramall Hall – Bramall Hall from the west, the side of the main entrance, showing the courtyard and the north and south wings. The Great Hall is in the centre.
16. Bramshill House – Bramshill House, in Bramshill, northeast Hampshire, England, is one of the largest and most important Jacobean prodigy house mansions in England. It was built in the early 17th century by Baron Edward la Zouche of Harringworth, the design shows the influence of the Italian Renaissance, which became popular in England during the late 16th century. The house was designated a Grade I listed building in 1952, the mansions southern façade is notable for its decorative architecture, which includes at its centre a large oriel window above the principal entrance. Interior features include a great hall displaying 92 coats of arms on a Jacobean screen, a drawing room. Numerous columns and friezes are found throughout the mansion, while several rooms have large tapestries depicting historical figures, the house is set in 262-acre of grounds containing an 18-acre lake. The grounds, which received a Grade II* listing in 1984, are part of a Registered Historic Park that includes about 25 acres of early 17th-century formal gardens near the house, the wider medieval park was landscaped from the 17th to the 20th century and contains woodland. Bramshill appears to have been a sporting and social venue since the 16th century. The cricket ground at the house played host to a match in 1823 when an early Hampshire team played an England XI. During the Second World War, the mansion was used as a Red Cross maternity home, before becoming the residence of the exiled King Michael and it became the location of the Police Staff College in 1960, and was later home to the European Police College. As a result, many buildings have been added to the estate. Owing to escalating maintenance costs the property was sold to the property developers City & Country in August 2014. Among the 14 ghosts reputed to haunt the house is that of a bride who accidentally locked herself in a chest on her night and was not found until 50 years later. Bramshill House is at the centre of a triangular shape formed by Reading, Basingstoke and Farnborough. It lies to the northeast of Hartley Wintney, east of Hazeley off the B3349 road, southeast of the village of Bramshill, which lies on the B3011 road. There is also a lane within the grounds, known as Lower Pool Road. The latitudinal and longitudinal location is 51°1957. 9N 0°5443. 2W or also,51.332759, the 1086 Domesday Book lists one of the two manors of Bromeselle as held by Hugh de Port, whose family were in possession of it for nine generations. The last of the de Port line, William de Port, in the early 14th century, Sir John Foxley, Baron of the Exchequer, built and endowed a chapel in the village of Bramshill. His first wife, Constance de Bramshill, may have been the heiress of the Bramshill family and their son, Thomas Foxley, became MP for Berkshire in 1325, and was appointed constable of Windsor Castle in 1328, soon after the accession of the 14-year-old Edward IIIBramshill House – Bramshill House, south façade with oriel window in centre
17. Britomart Redeems Faire Amoret – Britomart Redeems Faire Amoret is an oil painting on canvas by English artist William Etty, first exhibited in 1833 and now in Tate Britain. In Spensers original poem Amoret has been tortured and mutilated by the time of her rescue, sold by Etty to a private collector in 1833, it passed through the hands of several more before entering the collection of the Lady Lever Art Gallery. In 1958 it was acquired by the Tate Gallery, and it remains in the collection of Tate Britain, William Etty was born in York in 1787, the son of a miller and baker. He showed artistic promise from an age, but his family were financially insecure. On completing his indenture he moved to London with a few pieces of chalk-crayons in colours, with the aim of emulating the Old Masters. Etty gained acceptance to the Royal Academy Schools in early 1807, after a year spent studying under renowned portrait painter Thomas Lawrence, Etty returned to the Royal Academy, drawing at the life class and copying other paintings. In 1821 the Royal Academy exhibited one of Ettys works, The Arrival of Cleopatra in Cilicia, the painting was extremely well received, and many of Ettys fellow artists greatly admired him. He was elected a full Royal Academician in 1828, ahead of John Constable and he became well respected for his ability to capture flesh tones accurately in painting and for his fascination with contrasts in skin tones. Following the exhibition of Cleopatra, Etty attempted to reproduce its success and he exhibited 15 paintings at the Summer Exhibition in the 1820s, and all but one contained at least one nude figure. In so doing Etty became the first English artist to treat nude studies as an art form in their own right, capable of being aesthetically attractive. The supposed prurient reaction of the classes to his nude paintings caused concern throughout the 19th century. Many critics condemned his repeated depictions of nudity as indecent. From 1832 onwards, needled by repeated attacks from the press, Etty remained a prominent painter of nudes, the heroic female warrior Britomart battles through obstacles to reach the chamber in which Amoret is being held, and slays Busirane moments before he is able to kill Amoret. Britomart Redeems Faire Amoret was intended by Etty to illustrate the virtues of chastity and it shows the moment in which Busirane is interrupted by Britomart as he prepares to kill Amoret. Amoret is chained to a gilded Solomonic column, carved with depictions of Venus, Britomart, clad in armour, enters Busiranes Moorish chamber, and tramples a blood-stained grimoire as she draws her sword. Busirane, naked from the waist up and with Chinese-style trousers and queue, falls to the floor, unusually for Etty, Britomart is painted very thinly, with the canvas weave still visible through the paint. Art historian Alison Smith considers that this was inspired by Henry Fuseli. In the original poem, Busirane had tortured and cut out the heart of the still-living Amoret by the time of her rescueBritomart Redeems Faire Amoret – Britomart Redeems Faire Amoret, 1833, 90.8 by 66 cm (35.7 by 26.0 in)
18. Brougham Castle – Brougham Castle is a medieval building about 2 miles south-east of Penrith, Cumbria, England. The castle was founded by Robert de Vieuxpont in the early 13th century, the site, near the confluence of the rivers Eamont and Lowther, had been chosen by the Romans for a Roman fort called Brocavum. The castle is scheduled as an Ancient Monument, along with the fort, as Brougham Roman fort, in its earliest form, the castle consisted of a stone keep, with an enclosure protected by an earthen bank and a wooden palisade. When the castle was built, Robert de Vieuxpont was one of only a few lords in the region who were loyal to the king, the Vieuxponts were a powerful land-owning family in North West England and also owned the castles of Appleby and Brough. In 1264, Robert de Vieuxponts grandson, also named Robert, was declared a traitor, Brougham Castle and the other estates were eventually returned to the Vieuxpont family, and stayed in their possession until 1269 when the estates passed to the Clifford family through marriage. With the outbreak of the Wars of Scottish Independence in 1296, Brougham became an important military base for Robert Clifford and he began refortifying the castle, the wooden outer defences were replaced with stronger, more impressive stone walls, and the large stone gatehouse was added. The importance of Brougham and Roger Clifford was such that in 1300 he hosted Edward I at the castle. The second Roger Clifford was executed as a traitor in 1322, the region was often at risk from the Scots, and in 1388 the castle was captured and sacked. Following this, the Cliffords began spending time at their other castles. Brougham descended through several generations of Cliffords, intermittently serving as a residence, however, by 1592 it was in a state of disrepair as George Clifford was spending more time in southern England due to his role as Queens Champion. The castle was restored in the early 17th century to such an extent that James I was entertained there in 1617. In 1643, Lady Anne Clifford inherited the estates, including the castles of Brougham, Appleby and Brough, and set about restoring them. Brougham Castle was kept in good condition for a time after Lady Annes death in 1676, however, the Earl of Thanet. The empty shell was left to decay as it was too costly to maintain, as a ruin, Brougham Castle inspired a painting by J. M. W. The castle was left to the Ministry of Works in the 1930s and is maintained by its successor. The site of Brougham Castle has been fortified since the Romans erected the fort of Brocavum at the intersection of three Roman roads. With the rivers Eamont and Lowther flowing nearby and meeting to the west, the site had natural defences, a civilian settlement grew around the fort. When Angles arrived in the area named the place BroughamBrougham Castle – Brougham Castle seen from the north east, across the River Eamont
19. Bruce Castle – Bruce Castle is a Grade I listed 16th-century manor house in Lordship Lane, Tottenham, London. It is named after the House of Bruce who formerly owned the land on which it is built, believed to stand on the site of an earlier building, about which little is known, the current house is one of the oldest surviving English brick houses. It was remodelled in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, the house has been home to Sir William Compton, the Barons Coleraine and Sir Rowland Hill, among others. The building also houses the archives of the London Borough of Haringey, since 1892 the grounds have been a public park, Tottenhams oldest. The name Bruce Castle is derived from the House of Bruce, however, there was no castle in the area, and it is unlikely that the family lived nearby. The former Bruce land in Tottenham was granted to Richard Spigurnell, the three parts of the manor of Tottenham were united in the early 15th century under the Gedeney family and have remained united since. In all early records, the building is referred to as the Lordship House, the name Bruce Castle first appears to have been adopted by Henry Hare, 2nd Baron Coleraine, although Daniel Lysons speculates in The Environs of London the names use dates to the late 13th century. The tower is built of red brick, and is 21 feet tall. In 2006, excavations revealed that it continues for some distance below the current ground level and it was described in 1829 as being over a deep well, and being used as a dairy. Sources disagree on the initial construction date, and no records survive of its construction. Nikolaus Pevsner speculates the front may have formed part of a house of which the remainder has disappeared. The Grade I mansions principal facade has been substantially remodelled, the house is made of red brick with ashlar quoining and the principal facade, terminated by symmetrical matching bays, has tall paned windows. The house and detached tower are among the earliest uses of brick as the building material for an English house. Henry Hare, 2nd Baron Coleraine oversaw a substantial remodelling of the house in 1684, the end bays were heightened, and the central porch was rebuilt with stone quoins and pilasters, a balustraded top and a small tower and cupola. A plan from 1684 shows the hall in the centre, with service rooms to the west. On the first floor, the room was over the hall, the main bedchamber over the kitchen. In the late 18th century, under the ownership of James Townsend, the narrow east facade of the house was remodelled into an entrance front, at the same time, the south fronts gabled attics were removed, giving the houses southern elevation its current appearance. In the early 19th century, the houses west wing was demolished, the house was converted into a school, and in 1870 a three-story extension was built in the Gothic Revival style to the northwest of the houseBruce Castle – Bruce Castle's south facade
20. Buckingham Palace – Buckingham Palace is the London residence and administrative headquarters of the reigning monarch of the United Kingdom. Located in the City of Westminster, the palace is often at the centre of state occasions and it has been a focal point for the British people at times of national rejoicing and mourning. It was acquired by King George III in 1761 as a residence for Queen Charlotte. During the 19th century it was enlarged, principally by architects John Nash and Edward Blore, Buckingham Palace became the London residence of the British monarch on the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837. The palace chapel was destroyed by a German bomb during World War II, the original early 19th-century interior designs, many of which survive, include widespread use of brightly coloured scagliola and blue and pink lapis, on the advice of Sir Charles Long. King Edward VII oversaw a partial redecoration in a Belle Époque cream, many smaller reception rooms are furnished in the Chinese regency style with furniture and fittings brought from the Royal Pavilion at Brighton and from Carlton House. The palace has 775 rooms, and the garden is the largest private garden in London, the state rooms, used for official and state entertaining, are open to the public each year for most of August and September and on some days in winter and spring. In the Middle Ages, the site of the palace formed part of the Manor of Ebury. The marshy ground was watered by the river Tyburn, which flows below the courtyard. Where the river was fordable, the village of Eye Cross grew, ownership of the site changed hands many times, owners included Edward the Confessor and his queen consort Edith of Wessex in late Saxon times, and, after the Norman Conquest, William the Conqueror. William gave the site to Geoffrey de Mandeville, who bequeathed it to the monks of Westminster Abbey, in 1531, King Henry VIII acquired the Hospital of St James from Eton College, and in 1536 he took the Manor of Ebury from Westminster Abbey. These transfers brought the site of Buckingham Palace back into royal hands for the first time since William the Conqueror had given it away almost 500 years earlier, various owners leased it from royal landlords and the freehold was the subject of frenzied speculation during the 17th century. By then, the old village of Eye Cross had long fallen into decay. Needing money, James I sold off part of the Crown freehold, clement Walker in Anarchia Anglicana refers to new-erected sodoms and spintries at the Mulberry Garden at S. Jamess, this suggests it may have been a place of debauchery. Eventually, in the late 17th century, the freehold was inherited from the property tycoon Sir Hugh Audley by the great heiress Mary Davies, possibly the first house erected within the site was that of a Sir William Blake, around 1624. The next owner was Lord Goring, who from 1633 extended Blakes house and he did not, however, obtain the freehold interest in the mulberry garden. Unbeknown to Goring, in 1640 the document failed to pass the Great Seal before King Charles I fled London and it was this critical omission that helped the British royal family regain the freehold under King George III. The improvident Goring defaulted on his rents, Henry Bennet, 1st Earl of Arlington obtained the mansion and was occupying it, now known as Goring House, Arlington House rose on the site—the location of the southern wing of todays palace—the next yearBuckingham Palace – Buckingham Palace. This is the principal façade, the East Front; originally constructed by Edward Blore and completed in 1850. It acquired its present appearance following a remodelling, in 1913, by Sir Aston Webb.
21. Buildings and architecture of Bristol – Bristol, the largest city in South West England, has an eclectic combination of architectural styles, ranging from the medieval to 20th century brutalism and beyond. During the mid-19th century, Bristol Byzantine, a style unique to the city, was developed. Buildings from most of the periods of the United Kingdom can be seen throughout Bristol. Parts of the city and castle date back to the medieval era. Outside the historical city centre there are several large Tudor mansions built for wealthy merchants, Almshouses and public houses of the same period survive, intermingled with areas of more recent development. Several Georgian-era squares were laid out for the enjoyment of the middle class, as the city grew, it merged with its surrounding villages, each with its own character and centre, often clustered around a parish church. The construction of the citys Floating Harbour, taking in the wharves on the River Avon and Frome, provided a focus for industrial development, the 20th century saw further expansion of the city, the growth of the University of Bristol and the arrival of the aircraft industry. During World War II, the city centre was bombed in the Bristol Blitz. The redevelopment of shopping centres, office buildings, and the continues to this day. The city was defended in medieval times by Bristol Castle, a Norman fortification built on the site of a wooden predecessor, the castle played a key role in the civil wars that followed the death of Henry I. Stephen of Blois reconnoitred Bristol in 1138 and claimed that the town was impregnable, after Stephens capture, in 1141, he was imprisoned in the castle. The castle was taken into royal hands, and Henry III spent lavishly on it, adding a barbican before the main west gate, a gate tower. By the 16th century, the castle had fallen into disuse, but the city authorities had no control over royal property, in 1630, the city purchased the castle, Oliver Cromwell ordered its destruction in 1656. An area outside the castle, known as Old Market, was used as a point for troops. It later became a market for the people to set up stalls. Old Market was also the site of an autumn fair, the market may have existed as early as the 12th century, and was the site of the first suburb outside the city walls. It had side roads which could accommodate the traffic on market days, the city had extensive walls built by Geoffrey de Montbray, Bishop of Coutances. These have now disappeared, although parts remain on properties in King StreetBuildings and architecture of Bristol – St. Mary Redcliffe from the northwest
22. Buildings of Jesus College, Oxford – Jesus College was founded in 1571 by Elizabeth I upon the petition of a Welsh clergyman, Hugh Price, who was treasurer of St Davids Cathedral. Her foundation charter gave to the college the land and buildings of White Hall, Price added new buildings to those of White Hall, and construction work continued after his death in 1574. The first of the quadrangles, which includes the hall, chapel. Construction of the quadrangle began in the 1630s, but was interrupted by the English Civil War and was not completed until about 1712. Further buildings were erected in a third quadrangle during the 20th century, including laboratories, a library for undergraduates. In addition to the site, the college owns flats in east and north Oxford. The chapel, which was dedicated in 1621 and extended in 1636, was altered in 1864 under the supervision of the architect George Edmund Street. The alterations have had their supporters and their critics, one historian of the described the work as ill-considered. The halls original hammerbeam roof was hidden by a ceiling in 1741 when rooms were installed in the roofspace. The principals lodgings, the last part of the first quadrangle to be constructed, the Fellows Library in the second quadrangle dates from 1679 and contains 11,000 antiquarian books, it was restored at a cost of £700,000 in 2007. A new Junior Common Room, about twice the size of its predecessor, was completed in the quadrangle in 2002. Further student and teaching rooms were added in Ship Street, opposite the college, eleven parts of the college are listed buildings, including all four sides of the first and second quadrangles. Nine parts, including the chapel, hall, and principals lodgings, have the highest Grade I designation, two other parts have a Grade II designation, given to buildings of national importance and special interest. However, he regarded the early 20th-century additions in the third quadrangle as dull, the college buildings on the main site are arranged in three quadrangles, the first quadrangle containing the oldest college buildings and the third quadrangle the newest. The quadrangles are often referred to as First Quad, Second Quad, as is often the case in Oxford colleges, the rooms in the older buildings are connected to the quadrangles by a series of staircases, rather than horizontally to each other by internal corridors. The staircases are numbered, staircases 1 to 5 are in the first quadrangle, staircases 6 to 13 in the second quadrangle, the charter also gave the buildings of White Hall, one of a number of university halls in this location. Halls provided lodgings and meals for students at the university, and sometimes lectures, as the system of colleges grew, however, halls declined in popularity and their sites and buildings tended to be taken over by colleges. Over time, it seems to have absorbed neighbouring halls, including Little White Hall on Ship Street from about 1450, by 1571, however, White Hall was either completely or virtually deserted by students, making it possible for Price to secure the site for the new collegeBuildings of Jesus College, Oxford – The second quadrangle (built c. 1640–c.1712) of Jesus College, with the large bay window of the hall on the right
23. Buildings of Nuffield College, Oxford – The buildings of Nuffield College, one of the colleges of the University of Oxford, are to the west of the city centre of Oxford, England, and stand on the site of the basin of the Oxford Canal. Nuffield College was founded in 1937 after a donation to the University by the car manufacturer Lord Nuffield, he land for the college, as well as £900,000 to build. The architect Austen Harrison, who had worked in Greece and Palestine, was appointed by the University to design the buildings. His initial design, heavily influenced by Mediterranean architecture, was rejected by Nuffield, Harrison reworked the plans, aiming for something on the lines of Cotswold domestic architecture, as Nuffield wanted. Construction of the design began in 1949 and was finished in 1960. Progress was hampered by post-war building restrictions, and the effects of inflation on Nuffields donation led to various cost-saving changes to the plans, in one change, the tower, which had been planned to be ornamental, was redesigned to hold the colleges library. It was the first tower built in Oxford for 200 years and is about 150 feet tall, the buildings are arranged around two quadrangles, with residential accommodation for students and fellows in one, and the hall, library and administrative offices in the other. The chapel has stained glass designed by John Piper. Reaction to the architecture of the college has been largely unfavourable, in the 1960s, it was described as Oxfords biggest monument to barren reaction. The tower has been described as ungainly, and marred by repetitive windows, the travel writer Jan Morris wrote that the college was a hodge-podge from the start. However, the architectural historian Sir Nikolaus Pevsner, although unimpressed with most of the college, thought that the tower helped the Oxford skyline and predicted it would one day be loved. The writer Simon Jenkins doubted Pevsners prediction, and claimed that vegetation was the best hope for the tower – as well as the rest of the college. The history of Nuffield College dates from 16 November 1937, when the university entered a Deed of Covenant and Trust with Lord Nuffield. Nuffield, known as William Morris before he was raised to the peerage, was an industrialist and the founder of Morris Motors, which was based in Cowley, east Oxford. For the creation of Nuffield College and for his other donations and he donated land on New Road, to the west of the city centre near the mound of Oxford Castle, on the site of the largely disused basin of the Oxford Canal. As well as the land, Nuffield gave £900,000 to build the college, however, although he was persuaded to put the remainder towards a college for social science studies instead, he still felt cheated. He later described the college as that bloody Kremlin, where left-wingers study at my expense, administration of Nuffields donation was the responsibility of the University, as the college did not become an independent body until after the Second World War. A sub-committee, consisting of three heads of Oxford colleges, was appointed to choose the architect, Emden appears to have played the part in the groups workBuildings of Nuffield College, Oxford – Nuffield College, facing New Road, with the library tower topped by a flèche. The main entrance to the college is in the middle of the building to the left of the tower.
24. Capon Chapel – Capon Chapel is one of the oldest existing log churches in Hampshire County, along with Mount Bethel Church and Old Pine Church. A Baptist congregation was gathering at the site of the church by at least 1756. Primitive Baptist minister John Monroe is credited for establishing a place of worship at this site, the land on which Capon Chapel was built originally belonged to William C. Nixon, a member of the Virginia House of Delegates, later, the first documented mention of a church at the Capon Chapel site was in March 1852, when Joseph Pugh allocated the land to three trustees for the construction of a church and cemetery. Capon Chapel was used as a place of worship by Baptists until the late 19th or early 20th century, in the 1890s, Capon Chapel was added as a place of worship on the Capon Bridge Methodist circuit of the Southern Methodist Episcopal Church. As of 2015, Capon Chapel remains a Methodist church, now a part of the United Methodist Church, Capon Chapels cemetery is surrounded by a wrought iron fence made by Stewart Iron Works, and contains the remains of John Monroe, William C. Nixon, West Virginia House of Delegates member Captain David Pugh, American Civil War veterans from the Union and the Confederacy, Capon Chapel is 894 feet east of the Cacapon River, from which the church derives its name. The church and cemetery are situated atop a hill on a 0.96 acres plot of land, at an elevation of 869 feet. The church and cemetery are accessible through a driveway to the north, to the west. Capon Chapel is landscaped with boxwoods on its north and south sides, a single holly on its east side, and forsythias along its west side. The Capon Chapel property consists of the structure, and its associated cemetery. A flagpole stands at the center of the eastern perimeter. One of these seven supporters, Thomas Colepeper, 2nd Baron Colepeper, acquired the area in 1681, his grandson, Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron. Under Lord Fairfaxs ownership, the Cacapon River Valley was predominantly inhabited by English-speaking settlers as early as the late 1730s. The majority of settlers had come from Pennsylvania and New Jersey. The Baptists established the oldest extant churches in Hampshire County, after the end of the American Revolutionary War, Baptist preachers continued their attempt to gain a foothold in what is now the Eastern Panhandle region. During the Baptists early growth in Hampshire County, the best known Baptist ministers were John Monroe, Monroe preached at the North River, Crooked Run, and Pattersons Creek churches during the early 19th century. Monroe probably established a Baptist church on the site of the present-day Capon Chapel, however, other sources claim that a Baptist congregation began gathering at the Capon Chapel site as early as 1756Capon Chapel – Capon Chapel
25. Castell Coch – Castell Coch is a 19th-century Gothic Revival castle built above the village of Tongwynlais in South Wales. The first castle on the site was built by the Normans after 1081, to protect the newly conquered town of Cardiff and this castle was likely destroyed in the native Welsh rebellion of 1314. In 1760, the ruins were acquired by John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute. John Crichton-Stuart, the 3rd Marquess of Bute, inherited the castle in 1848, Burges rebuilt the outside of the castle between 1875 and 1879, before turning to the interior, he died in 1881 and the work was finished by Burgess remaining team in 1891. Bute reintroduced commercial viticulture into Britain, planting a vineyard just below the castle, the Marquess made little use of his new retreat and in 1950 his grandson, the 5th Marquess of Bute, placed it into the care of the state. It is now controlled by the Welsh heritage agency Cadw, Castell Cochs external features and the High Victorian interiors led the historian David McLees to describe it as one of the greatest Victorian triumphs of architectural composition. The interiors were decorated, with specially designed furniture and fittings. The surrounding beech woods contain rare plant species and unusual features and are protected as a Site of Special Scientific Interest. The first castle on the Castell Coch site was built after 1081. It formed one of a string of eight intended to defend the newly conquered town of Cardiff. It took the form of a raised, earth-work motte, about 35 metres across at the base and 25 metres on the top, the first castle was probably abandoned after 1093 when the Norman lordship of Glamorgan was created, changing the line of the frontier. In 1267, Gilbert de Clare, who held the Lordship of Glamorgan, Caerphilly Castle was built to control the new territory and Castell Coch—strategically located between Cardiff and Caerphilly—was reoccupied. A new castle was built in stone around the motte, comprising a shell-wall, a circular tower, a gatehouse. The north-west section of the walls was protected by a talus, further work followed between 1268 and 1277, which added two large towers, a turning-bridge for the gatehouse and further protection to the north-west walls. On Gilberts death, the passed to his widow Joan and around this time it was referred to as Castrum Rubeum, Latin for the Red Castle. Gilberts son, also named Gilbert, inherited the property in 1307 and he died at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, triggering an uprising of the native Welsh in the region. Castell Coch was probably destroyed by the rebels in July 1314, and possibly slighted to put it any further use, it was not rebuilt. Castell Coch remained derelict, the antiquarian John Leland, visiting around 1536, described it as all in ruin, no big thing but highCastell Coch – The main entrance to Castell Coch
26. Castle – A castle is a type of fortified structure built in Europe and the Middle East during the Middle Ages by European nobility. Scholars debate the scope of the castle, but usually consider it to be the private fortified residence of a lord or noble. Usage of the term has varied over time and has applied to structures as diverse as hill forts. Over the approximately 900 years that castles were built, they took on a great many forms with different features, although some, such as curtain walls. A European innovation, castles originated in the 9th and 10th centuries, after the fall of the Carolingian Empire resulted in its territory being divided among individual lords and princes. Although their military origins are often emphasised in castle studies, the structures served as centres of administration. Many castles were built from earth and timber, but had their defences replaced later by stone. Early castles often exploited natural defences, lacking features such as towers and arrowslits, in the late 12th and early 13th centuries, a scientific approach to castle defence emerged. This led to the proliferation of towers, with an emphasis on flanking fire, many new castles were polygonal or relied on concentric defence – several stages of defence within each other that could all function at the same time to maximise the castles firepower. These changes in defence have been attributed to a mixture of castle technology from the Crusades, such as concentric fortification, not all the elements of castle architecture were military in nature, so that devices such as moats evolved from their original purpose of defence into symbols of power. Some grand castles had long winding approaches intended to impress and dominate their landscape, while castles continued to be built well into the 16th century, new techniques to deal with improved cannon fire made them uncomfortable and undesirable places to live. As a result, true castles went into decline and were replaced by artillery forts with no role in civil administration, and country houses that were indefensible. From the 18th century onwards, there was a renewed interest in castles with the construction of castles, part of a romantic revival of Gothic architecture. The word castle is derived from the Latin word castellum, which is a diminutive of the word castrum, meaning fortified place. The Old English castel, Old French castel or chastel, French château, Spanish castillo, Italian castello, the word castle was introduced into English shortly before the Norman Conquest to denote this type of building, which was then new to England. In its simplest terms, the definition of a castle accepted amongst academics is a fortified residence. Feudalism was the link between a lord and his vassal where, in return for service and the expectation of loyalty. Castles served a range of purposes, the most important of which were military, administrative, as well as defensive structures, castles were also offensive tools which could be used as a base of operations in enemy territoryCastle – The Alcázar of Segovia in Spain overlooking the city
27. Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception (Moscow) – The Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception of the Holy Virgin Mary is a neo-Gothic church that serves as the cathedral of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Moscow. Located in the Central Administrative Okrug, it is one of only two Catholic churches in Moscow and the largest in Russia, the construction of the cathedral was proposed by the Tsarist government in 1894. Groundbreaking was in 1899, construction began in 1901 and was completed ten years later. Three-aisled and built from red brick, the cathedral is based on a design by architect Tomasz Bohdanowicz-Dworzecki, the style was influenced by Westminster Abbey and Milan Cathedral. With the help of funds from Catholic parishes in Russia and its neighbouring states, in the aftermath of the Russian Revolution in 1917, the Provisional Government was overthrown by the Bolsheviks and Russia became part of the newly formed Soviet Union. Because the promotion of atheism was a part of Marxist–Leninist ideology, the government ordered many churches closed. During World War II, it was threatened with demolition, and was used after the war for civil purposes, as a warehouse, following the fall of communism in 1991, it returned to being a church in 1996. In 2002 it was elevated to the status of cathedral, following an extensive and costly programme of reconstruction and refurbishment, the cathedral was reconsecrated in 2005. Its organ, the third since the construction, was donated by the Basel Münster. The cathedral is listed as a building in the Russian Federation. As the congregation for the Polish church had increased to around 30,000 members, following the submission of a petition to the Governor-General of Moscow, the local council voted for a new church in 1894. The purchase of the land was funded by donations, and cost 10,000 rubles in gold, the purchase agreement and a full list of donations are today kept in the city archives of Moscow and St. Petersburg. The plans for the building were produced by a Russian architect of Polish descent, although his plan did not follow the councils latter condition, it was accepted. The plan provided seating for up to 5,000 worshippers, groundbreaking was in 1899, and construction took place from 1901 to 1911. The construction cost was 290,000 roubles in gold, much of which was donated by members of the Polish parish of Moscow, More funding came from Catholic parishes throughout Russia, Poland and Byelorussia. The church was consecrated on 21 December 1911 as the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception of the Holy Virgin Mary and it soon obtained the status of a chapel in the Peter and Paul parish. The consecration received extensive coverage in the Russian and Polish press, with a plenty of conning turrets and towers with crosses. The new cathedral makes a deep impression, looks impressive and eminent, Not the slightest stylistic flaw could be seen or detectedCathedral of the Immaculate Conception (Moscow) – Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception of the Holy Virgin Mary Собор Непорочного Зачатия Пресвятой Девы Марии
28. Chartwell – Chartwell was the principal adulthood home of Sir Winston Churchill. Churchill and his wife Clementine bought the property, located two miles south of Westerham, Kent, England, in 1922, extensive renovations simplifying and modernising the home were undertaken directly, completely transforming it when complete. When it became clear to the Churchills in 1946 that they could not afford to run the property, when Sir Winston died in 1965, Clementine decided to present Chartwell to the National Trust immediately. The site had been built upon at least as early as the 16th century, Henry VIII is reputed to have stayed in the house during his courtship of Anne Boleyn at nearby Hever Castle. The original farmhouse was enlarged and modified during the 19th century. It became, according to the National Trust, an example of Victorian architecture at its least attractive, the estate derives its name from the well to the north of the house called Chart Well. Chart is an Old English word for rough ground, the highest point of the estate is approximately 650 feet above sea level, and the house commands a spectacular view across the Weald of Kent. This view possessed Churchill and was certainly an important factor in persuading him to buy a house of no architectural merit. Churchill employed architect Philip Tilden to modernise and extend the house, Tilden worked between 1922 and 1924, simplifying and modernising, as well as allowing more light into the house through large casement windows. Tildens work completely transformed the house, the garden areas provided inspiration for Churchills paintings, many of which are on display in the houses garden studio. He withdrew after industrialist Sir Henry Strakosch agreed to take over his portfolio for three years and pay off heavy debts. During the Second World War, the house was mostly unused and its relatively exposed position, in a county so near across the English Channel to German occupied France, meant it was potentially vulnerable to a German airstrike or commando raid. The Churchills instead spent their weekends at Ditchley, Oxfordshire, until security improvements were completed at the Prime Ministers official country residence, Chequers, the house has been preserved as it looked when Churchill owned it. Rooms are carefully decorated with memorabilia and gifts, the furniture and books, as well as honours. The house is Grade I listed for historical reasons, the gardens are listed Grade II*. The property is currently under the administration of the National TrustChartwell – Chartwell House
29. Chetro Ketl – Chetro Ketl is an Ancestral Puebloan great house and archeological site located in Chaco Culture National Historical Park, New Mexico, United States. Construction on Chetro Ketl began c. 990 and was complete by 1075, with significant remodeling occurring in the early. Following the onset of a drought, most Chacoans emigrated from the canyon by 1140. Edgar L. Hewett, the director of the first archeological field school in the canyon, conducted excavations of Chetro Ketl during 1920 and 1921, and again between 1929 and 1935. Chaco scholars estimate that it required more than 500,000 man-hours,26,000 trees, and 50 million sandstone blocks to erect Chetro Ketl. The great house is a D-shaped structure, its east wall is 280 feet long, and the wall is more than 450 feet, the perimeter is 1,540 feet. Chetro Ketl contained approximately 400 rooms and was the largest great house by area in Chaco Canyon, Chetro Ketl lies 0.4 miles from Pueblo Bonito, in an area that archeologists call downtown Chaco, they theorize that the area may be an ancestral sacred zone. Chetro Ketl contains architectural elements, such as a colonnade and tower kiva, Chetro Ketls purpose is widely debated but many archeologists believe the building was a place of large-scale ceremony that held an important position within the larger Chacoan system. It may have been occupied primarily by groups of priests and, during times of ritual, the building has deteriorated significantly since its rediscovery in the early 19th century, and its usefulness as a source of information about Chacoan culture is slowly diminishing. During the 10th to 8th millennia BCE, the San Juan Basin was occupied by Paleo-Indians known as the Clovis culture, projectile points found in the vicinity of Chaco Canyon suggest that hunters may have been active in the region as early as 10,000. The Oshara occupied portions of northwestern New Mexico, northeastern Arizona, southeastern Utah and they harvested jackrabbits in the basin as early as 5500. Irwin-Williams divided the Oshara Tradition into six phases, and during the Armijo phase the Arroyo Cuervo area east of Chaco Canyon saw the introduction of maize and the use of rock shelters. She hypothesized that this saw the beginning of seasonal gatherings of people from around the San Juan Basin. By 200 BCE, the Basketmaker culture had begun to develop from the Oshara Tradition, during the first four centuries CE, the Basketmaker II people established pit-houses at elevated locations near sources of water and arable land. Brian M. Fagan notes that the development of pottery in the area during the 4th century permitted the boiling of maize and beans for the first time and this period also marked the introduction of the bow and arrow to the region. Parts of the San Juan Basin saw plentiful rainfall during the 5th to 8th centuries and this culture is known as Basketmaker III, and by 500 at least two such settlements had been established in Chaco Canyon. An important phase of Basketmaker III people is known as the La Plata, one of the earliest La Plata phase sites, Shabikeshchee Village, was continuously occupied until the early 8th century, when the canyon was home to a few hundred people. Several clusters of Basketmaker III sites have been identified in the vicinity of Chetro Ketl, as the Basketmaker III people improved their farming techniques during the 8th century, the well-watered areas of the San Juan Basin became densely populatedChetro Ketl – The San Juan Basin (note: U.S. Route 666 has been renumbered Route 491).
30. Chicago Board of Trade Building – The Chicago Board of Trade Building is a skyscraper located in Chicago, Illinois, United States. It stands at 141 W. Jackson Boulevard at the foot of the LaSalle Street canyon, built in 1930 and first designated a Chicago Landmark on May 4,1977, the building was listed as a National Historic Landmark on June 2,1978. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places on June 16,1978, in 2012, the CME Group sold the CBOT Building to a consortium of real estate investors, including GlenStar Properties LLC and USAA Real Estate Company. The current structure is known for its art deco architecture, sculptures and large-scale stone carving, an aluminum, three-story art deco statue of Ceres, goddess of agriculture, caps the building. The building is a sightseeing attraction and location for shooting movies. On April 3,1848, the Board of Trade opened for business at 101 South Water Street, when 122 members were added in 1856, it was moved to the corner of South Water and LaSalle Streets. In 1871, the Great Chicago Fire destroyed this building, in 1882 construction began of the CBOTs new home, which opened at the current location on May 1,1885. The building was designed by William W. Boyington, best known today for his work on the Chicago Water Tower and it faced Jackson Street with 180 ft feet of frontage, and was built from structural steel and granite taken from the Fox Island quarry near Vinalhaven, Maine. With a rear of enameled brick, it was 10 stories tall and featured a tower 320 ft tall containing a clock and 4,500 pounds bell. The interiors were finished in mahogany and frescoed and it was also the first building in the city to exceed 300 ft in height and at the time was the tallest building in Chicago. The building attracted tourists, visitors, and protesters, the building, on which two million dollars had been lavished in the midst of an economic depression, was denounced by the anarchists as. The crowning symbol of all that was hateful in the property system. The procession were cheered by thousands of spectators, viewing galleries were opened to the public for the first time in honor of the 1893 Worlds Columbian Exposition. In 1895, the tower was removed and the tallest building in Chicago record was then held by the 302 ft tall Masonic Temple Building. Built on caissons surrounded by muck, the house was rendered structurally unsound in the 1920s when construction began across the street on the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. The 1885 building was demolished in 1929, and the exchange temporarily moved to Van Buren and Clark while a new building was constructed at the LaSalle. The 1885 allegorical architectural sculptures of 35 ft Industry and Agriculture, in 1925, the Chicago Board of Trade commissioned Holabird & Root to design the current building. The general contractors Hegeman & Harris built it for $11.3 million and it serves as the southern border for the skyscrapers hugging LaSalle Street and is taller than surrounding structures for several blocksChicago Board of Trade Building – Chicago Board of Trade Building
31. Clemuel Ricketts Mansion – The Clemuel Ricketts Mansion is a Georgian-style house made of sandstone, built in 1852 or 1855 on the shore of Ganoga Lake in Colley Township, Sullivan County, Pennsylvania in the United States. It was home to generations of the Ricketts family, including R. Bruce Ricketts. Originally built as a lodge, it was also a tavern and post office. After 1903 the house served as the Ricketts familys summer home, the house was included in the Historic American Buildings Survey in 1936 and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. A group of investors bought the lake, surrounding land, and house in 1957 and developed them privately for housing, the house became the Ganoga Lake Associations clubhouse, and is not open to the public. The original mansion is an L-shaped structure, two-and-a-half stories high and it was built in a clearing surrounded by old-growth forest with a view to the lake 900 feet to the east. In 1913 a 2 1⁄2-story wing was added to the side of the house. The house has rooms, four porches, and its original hardware. Dormers and some windows were added in the renovation, and electrical wiring, according to the NRHP nomination form, the Clemuel Ricketts Mansion is a stunning example of Georgian vernacular architecture. The Clemuel Ricketts Mansion is on the southwest shore of Ganoga Lake in Colley Township in the part of Sullivan County. The mansion and lake are on a part of the Allegheny Plateau known as North Mountain, rocks—gray sandstone with conglomerates and some siltstone—of the Mississippian Pocono Formation more than 340 million years old, underlie the house and lake. The lake is in a valley,13 feet deep, which is impounded by glacial till up to 30 feet thick at the southeast end. The earliest recorded inhabitants of the region were the Susquehannocks, who left or died out by 1675, the land then came under the control of the Iroquois, who sold it to the British in the Treaty of Fort Stanwix in 1768. The land on which the house was built was first part of Northumberland County. The lake was known as Long Pond, and the Long Pond Tavern. Sullivan County was formed from Lycoming County in 1847, and two years later Colley Township was formed from Cherry Township. They bought the lake, Long Pond Tavern, and 5,000 acres of surrounding land in the early 1850s, the year 1852 is also carved in stone on the front of the house, which faced the highway. However, according to Tomasaks The Life and Times of Robert Bruce Ricketts, the brothers purchased the lake, tavern, and land on April 13,1853, for $550, according to Ricketts family tradition, Gad Seward built the mansionClemuel Ricketts Mansion – Clemuel Ricketts Mansion
32. Cloud Gate – Cloud Gate is a public sculpture by Indian-born British artist Anish Kapoor, that is the centerpiece of AT&T Plaza at Millennium Park in the Loop community area of Chicago, Illinois. The sculpture and AT&T Plaza are located on top of Park Grill, constructed between 2004 and 2006, the sculpture is nicknamed The Bean because of its shape. Made up of 168 stainless steel welded together, its highly polished exterior has no visible seams. It measures 33 by 66 by 42 feet, and weighs 110 short tons, Kapoors design was inspired by liquid mercury and the sculptures surface reflects and distorts the citys skyline. Visitors are able to walk around and under Cloud Gates 12-foot high arch, on the underside is the omphalos, a concave chamber that warps and multiplies reflections. The sculpture builds upon many of Kapoors artistic themes, and it is popular with tourists as an opportunity for its unique reflective properties. The sculpture was the result of a design competition, after Kapoors design was chosen, numerous technological concerns regarding the designs construction and assembly arose, in addition to concerns regarding the sculptures upkeep and maintenance. Various experts were consulted, some of whom believed the design could not be implemented, eventually, a feasible method was found, but the sculptures construction fell behind schedule. It was unveiled in an incomplete form during the Millennium Park grand opening celebration in 2004, Cloud Gate was formally dedicated on May 15,2006, and has since gained considerable popularity, both domestically and internationally. Lying between Lake Michigan to the east and the Loop to the west, Grant Park has been Chicagos front yard since the mid-19th century, for 2007, the park was Chicagos second largest tourist attraction, trailing only Navy Pier. In 1999, Millennium Park officials and a group of art collectors, curators and architects reviewed the works of 30 different artists. The committee chose the design by internationally acclaimed artist Anish Kapoor. Measuring 33 by 66 by 42 feet and weighing 110 short tons and this mirror-like surface would reflect the Chicago skyline, but its elliptical shape would distort and twist the reflected image. As visitors walk around the structure, its surface acts like a mirror as it distorts their reflections. In the underside of the sculpture is the omphalos, an indentation whose mirrored surface provides multiple reflections of any subject situated beneath it, the apex of the omphalos is 27 feet above the ground. The concave underside allows visitors to walk underneath to see the omphalos, during the grand opening week in July 2004, press reports described the omphalos as the spoon-like underbelly. The stainless steel sculpture was originally envisioned as the centerpiece of the Lurie Garden at the southeast corner of the park, however, Park officials believed the piece was too large for the Lurie Garden and decided to locate it at AT&T Plaza, despite Kapoors objections. Although Kapoor does not draw with computers, computer modeling was essential to the process of analyzing the complex form, the extreme temperature variation between seasons was also feared to weaken the structureCloud Gate – Cloud Gate