1.
HTML
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Hypertext Markup Language is the standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications. With Cascading Style Sheets and JavaScript it forms a triad of cornerstone technologies for the World Wide Web, Web browsers receive HTML documents from a webserver or from local storage and render them into multimedia web pages. HTML describes the structure of a web page semantically and originally included cues for the appearance of the document, HTML elements are the building blocks of HTML pages. With HTML constructs, images and other objects, such as interactive forms and it provides a means to create structured documents by denoting structural semantics for text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, links, quotes and other items. HTML elements are delineated by tags, written using angle brackets, tags such as <img /> and <input /> introduce content into the page directly. Include explicit close tags for elements that permit content but are left empty, by carefully following the W3Cs compatibility guidelines, a user agent should be able to interpret the document equally as HTML or XHTML. For documents that are XHTML1.0 and have made compatible in this way. When delivered as XHTML, browsers should use an XML parser, HTML4 defined three different versions of the language, Strict, Transitional and Frameset. The Transitional and Frameset versions allow for presentational markup, which is omitted in the Strict version, instead, cascading style sheets are encouraged to improve the presentation of HTML documents. Because XHTML1 only defines an XML syntax for the language defined by HTML4, as this list demonstrates, the loose versions of the specification are maintained for legacy support. However, contrary to popular misconceptions, the move to XHTML does not imply a removal of this legacy support, rather the X in XML stands for extensible and the W3C is modularizing the entire specification and opening it up to independent extensions. The primary achievement in the move from XHTML1.0 to XHTML1.1 is the modularization of the entire specification, the strict version of HTML is deployed in XHTML1.1 through a set of modular extensions to the base XHTML1.1 specification. Likewise, someone looking for the loose or frameset specifications will find similar extended XHTML1.1 support, the modularization also allows for separate features to develop on their own timetable. So for example, XHTML1.1 will allow quicker migration to emerging XML standards such as MathML, in summary, the HTML4 specification primarily reined in all the various HTML implementations into a single clearly written specification based on SGML. XHTML1.0, ported this specification, as is, next, XHTML1.1 takes advantage of the extensible nature of XML and modularizes the whole specification. XHTML2.0 was intended to be the first step in adding new features to the specification in a standards-body-based approach. The WHATWG considers their work as living standard HTML for what constitutes the state of the art in major browser implementations by Apple, Google, Mozilla, Opera, hTML5 is specified by the HTML Working Group of the W3C following the W3C process. HTML lacks some of the found in earlier hypertext systems, such as source tracking, fat links
2.
Mathematical operators and symbols in Unicode
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The Unicode Standard encodes almost all standard characters used in mathematics. Unicode Technical Report #25 provides comprehensive information about the repertoire, their properties. Mathematical operators and symbols are in multiple Unicode blocks, some of these blocks are dedicated to, or primarily contain, mathematical characters while others are a mix of mathematical and non-mathematical characters. This article covers all Unicode characters with a property of Math. The Mathematical Operators block contains characters for mathematical, logical, the Mathematical Alphanumeric Symbols block contains Latin and Greek letters and decimal digits that enable mathematicians to denote different notions with different letter styles. The holes in the ranges are filled by previously defined characters in the Letter like Symbols block shown below. The Letterlike Symbols block includes variables, most alphabetic math symbols are in the Mathematical Alphanumeric Symbols block shown above. The math subset of this block is U+2102, U+2107, U+210A–U+2113, U+2115, U+2118–U+2119, U+2124, U+2128–U+2129, U+212C, U+212F, U+2133, U+2135, U+213C–U+2149, the Miscellaneous Mathematical Symbols-A block contains characters for mathematical, logical, and database notation. The Miscellaneous Mathematical Symbols-B block contains miscellaneous mathematical symbols, including brackets, angles, the Miscellaneous Technical block includes braces and operators. The math subset of this block is U+2308–U+230B, U+2320-U+2321, U+237C, U+239B-U+23B5, 23B7, U+23D0, the Geometric Shapes block contains geometric shape symbols. The math subset of this block is U+25A0–25A1, U+25AE–25B7, U+25BC–25C1, U+25C6–25C7, U+25CA–25CB, U+25CF–25D3, U+25E2, U+25E4, U+25E7–25EC, the Miscellaneous Symbols and Arrows block contains arrows and geometric shapes with various fills. The math subset of this block is U+2B30–2B44 and U+2B47–2B4C, the Arrows block contains line, curve, and semicircle arrows and arrow-like operators. The Supplemental Arrows-A block contains arrows and arrow-like operators, the Supplemental Arrows-B block contains arrows and arrow-like operators. The Combining Diacritical Marks for Symbols block contains arrows, dots, enclosures, the math subset of this block is U+20D0–U+20DC, U+20E1, U+20E5–U+20E6, and U+20EB–U+20EF. The Arabic Mathematical Alphabetic Symbols block contains characters used in Arabic mathematical expressions, Mathematical characters also appear in other blocks. Below is a list of characters as of Unicode version 9. Images of glyphs in section 6.3.3 of the Mathematical Markup Language W3C Recommendation
3.
Unicode
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Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the worlds writing systems. As of June 2016, the most recent version is Unicode 9.0, the standard is maintained by the Unicode Consortium. Unicodes success at unifying character sets has led to its widespread, the standard has been implemented in many recent technologies, including modern operating systems, XML, Java, and the. NET Framework. Unicode can be implemented by different character encodings, the most commonly used encodings are UTF-8, UTF-16 and the now-obsolete UCS-2. UTF-8 uses one byte for any ASCII character, all of which have the same values in both UTF-8 and ASCII encoding, and up to four bytes for other characters. UCS-2 uses a 16-bit code unit for each character but cannot encode every character in the current Unicode standard, UTF-16 extends UCS-2, using one 16-bit unit for the characters that were representable in UCS-2 and two 16-bit units to handle each of the additional characters. Many traditional character encodings share a common problem in that they allow bilingual computer processing, Unicode, in intent, encodes the underlying characters—graphemes and grapheme-like units—rather than the variant glyphs for such characters. In the case of Chinese characters, this leads to controversies over distinguishing the underlying character from its variant glyphs. In text processing, Unicode takes the role of providing a unique code point—a number, in other words, Unicode represents a character in an abstract way and leaves the visual rendering to other software, such as a web browser or word processor. This simple aim becomes complicated, however, because of concessions made by Unicodes designers in the hope of encouraging a more rapid adoption of Unicode, the first 256 code points were made identical to the content of ISO-8859-1 so as to make it trivial to convert existing western text. For other examples, see duplicate characters in Unicode and he explained that he name Unicode is intended to suggest a unique, unified, universal encoding. In this document, entitled Unicode 88, Becker outlined a 16-bit character model, Unicode could be roughly described as wide-body ASCII that has been stretched to 16 bits to encompass the characters of all the worlds living languages. In a properly engineered design,16 bits per character are more than sufficient for this purpose, Unicode aims in the first instance at the characters published in modern text, whose number is undoubtedly far below 214 =16,384. By the end of 1990, most of the work on mapping existing character encoding standards had been completed, the Unicode Consortium was incorporated in California on January 3,1991, and in October 1991, the first volume of the Unicode standard was published. The second volume, covering Han ideographs, was published in June 1992, in 1996, a surrogate character mechanism was implemented in Unicode 2.0, so that Unicode was no longer restricted to 16 bits. The Microsoft TrueType specification version 1.0 from 1992 used the name Apple Unicode instead of Unicode for the Platform ID in the naming table, Unicode defines a codespace of 1,114,112 code points in the range 0hex to 10FFFFhex. Normally a Unicode code point is referred to by writing U+ followed by its hexadecimal number, for code points in the Basic Multilingual Plane, four digits are used, for code points outside the BMP, five or six digits are used, as required. Code points in Planes 1 through 16 are accessed as surrogate pairs in UTF-16, within each plane, characters are allocated within named blocks of related characters
4.
MathML
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Mathematical Markup Language is a mathematical markup language, an application of XML for describing mathematical notations and capturing both its structure and content. It aims at integrating mathematical formulae into World Wide Web pages and it is part of HTML5 and an ISO standard ISO/IEC DIS40314 since 2015. MathML1 was released as a W3C recommendation in April 1998 as the first XML language to be recommended by the W3C, Version 1.01 of the format was released in July 1999 and version 2.0 appeared in February 2001. In October 2003, the edition of MathML Version 2.0 was published as the final release by the W3C math working group. MathML was originally designed before the finalization of XML namespaces, when MathML is used in HTML this namespace is automatically inferred by the HTML parser and need not be specified in the document. Version 3 of the MathML specification was released as a W3C Recommendation on 20 October 2010, a recommendation of A MathML for CSS Profile was later released on 7 June 2011, this is a subset of MathML suitable for CSS formatting. Another subset, Strict Content MathML, provides a subset of content MathML with a structure and is designed to be compatible with OpenMath. Other content elements are defined in terms of a transformation to the strict subset, new content elements include <bind> which associates bound variables to expressions, for example a summation index. The new <share> element allows structure sharing, the development of MathML3.0 went through a number of stages. In June 2006 the W3C rechartered the MathML Working Group to produce a MathML3 Recommendation until February 2008, a sixth Working Draft of the MathML3 revision was published in June 2009. On 10 August 2010 version 3 graduated to become a Proposed Recommendation rather than a draft, the Second Edition of MathML3.0 was published as a W3C Recommendation on April 10,2014. The specification was approved as an ISO/IEC international standard 40314,2015 on June 23,2015, MathML deals not only with the presentation but also the meaning of formula components. Because the meaning of the equation is preserved separate from the presentation, Presentation MathML focuses on the display of an equation, and has about 30 elements. The elements names all begin with m, a Presentation MathML expression is built up out of tokens that are combined using higher-level elements, which control their layout. Token elements generally only contain characters and they include, <mi>x</mi> – identifiers, <mo>+</mo> – operators, <mn>2</mn> – numbers. Note however that these elements may be used as extension points. MathML in HTML5 allows most inline HTML markup in mtext, and <mtext><b>non</b> zero</mtext> is conforming and these are combined using layout elements, that generally contain only elements. They include, <mrow> – a horizontal row of items, <msup>, <munderover>, <mfrac> – fractions, <msqrt> and <mroot> – roots, <mfenced> - surrounding content with fences, such as parentheses