Who Stole Feminism?
How Women Have Betrayed Women is a 1994 book about American feminism by Christina Hoff Sommers, a writer who was at that time a philosophy professor at Clark University. Sommers argues that there is a split within between equity feminism and what she terms gender feminism, Sommers contends that equity feminists seek equal legal rights for women and men, while gender feminists seek to counteract historical inequalities based on gender. Sommers argues that feminists have made false claims about issues such as anorexia and domestic battery. Who Stole Feminism. received wide attention for its attack on American feminism, some reviewers praised the book, while others found it flawed. Sommers argues that, American feminism is currently dominated by a group of women who seek to persuade the public that American women are not the free creatures we think we are and she identifies with equity feminism, based on belief in fair treatment for everyone. According to Sommers, while most experts are reluctant to give exact figures, Sommers argues that feminists have falsely accused English legal historian William Blackstone of supporting a mans right to beat his wife. Sommers points to philosopher Michel Foucault and his Discipline and Punish as influences on Wolf and Susan Faludi, author of Backlash and she argues that Foucaults work is overrated. Discussing the influence of feminists on college campuses, she writes that in many cases feminist consciousness-raisers are driving out the scholars and it is now virtually impossible to be appointed to high administrative office in any university system without having passed muster with the gender feminist. Who Stole Feminism. was first reviewed in Kirkus Reviews in April 1994, the staff at Kirkus said that Sommers book highlighted instances of shoddy research in feminist studies but failed to tell the reader about similar poor quality research in other fields. Kirkus said that Sommers presumed to speak for the majority of feminists without providing evidence that most women are liberal feminists. Sommers was praised for her valid challenges to feminist ideology, a June 1994 review by Nina Auerbach in The New York Times Book Review was widely seen. Conservatives such as Jim Sleeper, Howard Kurtz and Rush Limbaugh defended Sommers, feminist columnist Katha Pollitt, however, thought Auerbachs review was too polite and failed to give Sommers book the pasting it deserved. Editor Deirdre English writing in The Washington Post Book World was appreciative of the aspect of Sommers work. Calling Sommers a well-published conservative is itching for a fight, she said the book would likely provoke debate as well as some retractions. English said of the book that the question is whether women want equality with men as they are, in the world men have shaped. The book was reviewed by Cathy Young who was an executive colleague of Sommers in the Womens Freedom Network. It was also praised in the National Review by Sommers close friend Mary Lefkowitz. Paglia called the book a landmark study, melanie Kirkpatrick, writing in The Wall Street Journal, gave the book high marks, saying that Sommers simply lines up her facts and shoots one bullseye after another
Polyandry involves marriage that includes more than two partners and can fall under the broader category of polyamory. More specifically, it is a form of polygamy, where a woman takes two or more husbands at the same time, Polyandry is contrasted with polygyny, involving one male and two or more females. If a marriage involves a number of husbands and wives participants of each gender, then it can be called polyamory. In its broadest use, polyandry refers to relations with multiple males within or without marriage. Of the 1,231 societies listed in the 1980 Ethnographic Atlas,186 were found to be monogamous,453 had occasional polygyny,588 had more frequent polygyny, Polyandry is less rare than this figure which listed only those examples found in the Himalayan mountains. More recent studies have more than 50 other societies practicing polyandry. It is associated with partible paternity, the belief that a child can have more than one father. Polyandry is believed to be likely in societies with scarce environmental resources. It is believed to limit population growth and enhance child survival. It is a form of marriage that exists not only among peasant families. For example, polyandry in the Himalayan mountains is related to the scarcity of land, the marriage of all brothers in a family to the same wife allows family land to remain intact and undivided. If every brother married separately and had children, family land would be split into small plots. In contrast, very poor persons not owning land were likely to practice polyandry in Buddhist Ladakh. In Europe, the splitting up of land was prevented through the practice of impartible inheritance. For example, disinheriting most siblings where many of whom then became celibate monks, polyandrous mating systems are also a common phenomenon in the animal kingdom. In the Indian Himalayas, polyandry may be combined with polygyny to produce a system termed polygynandry, the system results in less land fragmentation, a diversification of domestic economic activities, and lower population growth. Fraternal polyandry, also called adelphic polyandry, is a form of polyandry in which a woman is married to two or more men who are one anothers brothers. Fraternal polyandry was found in areas of Tibet, Nepal, and Northern India