1. Gondal (fictional country) – Gondal is an imaginary world or paracosm created by Emily Brontë and Anne Brontë that is found in their juvenilia. Gondal is an island in the North Pacific, just north of the island Gaaldine and it included at least four kingdoms, Gondal, Angora, Exina and Alcona. The earliest surviving reference comes from an entry in 1834. None of the prose fiction now survives but poetry still exists, mostly in the form of a manuscript donated to the British Museum in 1933, as do diary entries, the poems are characterised by war, romance and intrigue. The Gondal setting, along with the similar Angria setting created by the other Brontë siblings, has described as an early form of speculative fiction. The world of Gondal was invented as a joint venture by sisters Emily and it was a game which they may possibly have played to the end of their lives. Early on they had played with their older siblings Charlotte and Branwell in the country and game of Angria. As in the case of Angria, Gondal has its origins in the Glasstown Confederacy, Glasstown was founded when twelve wooden soldiers were offered to Branwell Brontë by his father, Patrick Brontë, on 5 June 1826. The soldiers became characters in their imaginary world, Charlotte wrote, Branwell came to our door with a box of soldiers Emily & I jumped out of bed and I snathed up one & exclaimed this is the Duke of Wellington it shall be mine. When I said this Emily likewise took one & said it should be hers when Anne came down she took one also, mine was the prettiest of the whole & perfect in every part Emilys was a Grave looking fellow we called him Gravey. Annes was a little thing very much like herself. E was called Waiting Boy Branwell chose Bonaparte, each islands capital was called Glasstown, hence the name of the Glasstown Confederacy. Emily and Anne, as the youngest siblings, were relegated to inferior positions within the game. Therefore, they staged a rebellion and established the world of Gondal for themselves. The Gondal Chronicles, which would have given us the story of Gondal, has unfortunately been lost, but the poems. All of the chronicles are now lost. The only surviving remnants of the Gondal works are made up of poems, diary entries and some occasional memory aids such as lists of names, the Gondal saga is set on two islands in the North and South Pacific. The northern island, Gondal, is a realm of moorlands, the southern island, Gaaldine, features a more tropical climateGondal (fictional country) – The manuscript of Emily Brontë's Gondal Poems.
2. Gordon Parks – Gordon Roger Alexander Buchanan Parks was an American photojournalist in the 1940s through 1970s—particularly in issues of civil rights, poverty and African-Americans—and in glamour photography. He is best remembered for his photos of poor Americans during the 1940s, for his photographic essays for Life magazine. Parks also was an author, poet and composer, Parks was born in Fort Scott, Kansas, the son of Sarah and Jackson Parks, on Nov.30,1912. He was the youngest of fifteen children and his father was a farmer who grew corn, beets, turnips, potatoes, collard greens, and tomatoes. They also had a few ducks, chickens, and hogs and he attended a segregated elementary school. Parks related in a documentary on his life that his teacher told him that his desire to go to college would be a waste of money, when Parks was eleven years old, three white boys threw him into the Marmaton River, knowing he couldnt swim. He had the presence of mind to duck underwater so they wouldnt see him make it to land and his mother died when he was fourteen. He spent his last night at the family home sleeping beside his mothers coffin, seeking not only solace, soon after, he was sent to St. Paul, Minnesota, to live with a sister and her husband. He and his uncle argued frequently and Parks was finally turned out onto the street to fend for himself at age 15, struggling to survive, he worked in brothels, and as a singer, piano player, bus boy, traveling waiter, and semi-pro basketball player. In 1929, he worked in a gentlemens club, the Minnesota Club. There he not only observed the trappings of success, but was able to read books from the club library. When the Wall Street Crash of 1929 brought an end to the club, he jumped a train to Chicago, while working as a waiter in a railroad dining car, he began seeing the portfolios of photographers in picture magazines, and decided to become a photographer. At the age of 25, Parks was struck by photographs of migrant workers in a magazine and he bought his first camera, a Voigtländer Brillant, for $7.50 at a Seattle, Washington, pawnshop and taught himself how to take photos. The photography clerks who developed Parks first roll of film applauded his work and prompted him to seek a fashion assignment at a clothing store in St. Paul, Minnesota. Those photographs caught the eye of Marva Louis, wife of boxing champion Joe Louis. She encouraged Parks to move to Chicago in 1940, where he began a portrait business and he began to chronicle the citys South Side black ghetto and, in 1941, an exhibition of those photographs won Parks a photography fellowship with the Farm Security Administration. Upon viewing the photograph, Stryker said that it was an indictment of America, and he urged Parks to keep working with Watson, however, which led to a series of photographs of her daily life. After the FSA disbanded, Parks remained in Washington, D. C. as a correspondent with the Office of War Information and he was unable to follow the group in the overseas war theatre, so he resigned from the O. W. IGordon Parks – Parks at the Civil Rights March on Washington, 1963
3. History of London – London has a history going back over 2,000 years. In the main time, it has grown to one of the most significant financial and cultural capitals on Earth and it has experienced plague, devastating fire, civil war, aerial bombardment, terrorist attacks, and widespread rioting. The City of London is its core and today is its primary financial district. Trinovantes were the Iron Age tribe who inhabited the area prior to the Romans. Geoffrey provides prehistoric London with an array of legendary kings, such as Lud who, he claims, renamed the town Caer Ludein, from which London was derived. However, despite intensive excavations, archaeologists have found no evidence of a major settlement in the area. There have been scattered prehistoric finds, evidence of farming, burial and traces of habitation and it is now considered unlikely that a pre-Roman city existed, but as some of the Roman city remains unexcavated, it is still just possible that some major settlement may yet be discovered. London was most likely an area with scattered settlement. Some recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area, in 1999, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found, again on the foreshore south of Vauxhall Bridge. This bridge either crossed the Thames, or went to a now lost island in the river, dendrology dated the timbers to 1500BC. In 2001 a further dig found that the timbers were driven vertically into the ground on the bank of the Thames west of Vauxhall Bridge. In 2010 the foundations of a timber structure, dated to 4000BC, were found on the Thames foreshore. The function of the structure is not known. All these structures are on the bank at a natural crossing point where the River Effra flows into the Thames. Numerous finds have made of spear heads and weaponry from the Bronze and Iron Ages near the banks of the Thames in the London area. This suggests that the Thames was an important tribal boundary, Londinium was established as a civilian town by the Romans about seven years after the invasion of AD43. London, like Rome, was founded on the point of the river where it was enough to bridge. Early Roman London occupied a small area, roughly equivalent to the size of Hyde ParkHistory of London – Carausius coin from Londinium mint.
4. McMaster University – McMaster University is a public research university located in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The main campus is located on 121 hectares of land near the neighbourhoods of Ainslie Wood and Westdale. The university operates six academic faculties, the DeGroote School of Business, Engineering, Health Sciences, Humanities, Social Science and it is a member of the U15, a group of research-intensive universities in Canada. The university bears the name of Honourable William McMaster, a prominent Canadian Senator, McMaster University was incorporated under the terms of an act of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario in 1887, merging the Toronto Baptist College with Woodstock College. It opened in Toronto in 1890, inadequate facilities and the gift of land in Hamilton prompted the institution to relocate in 1930. McMaster was controlled by the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec until it became a privately chartered, the university is co-educational, and has over 25,000 undergraduate and over 4,000 post-graduate students. Alumni and former students of the university can be found all across Canada, notable alumni include government officials, academics, business leaders, one Rhodes Scholar, and two Nobel laureates. The McMaster athletic teams are known as the Marauders, and are members of the Canadian Interuniversity Sport, McMaster University resulted from the outgrowth of educational initiatives undertaken by Baptists as early as the 1830s. It was founded in 1881 as Toronto Baptist College, in 1887 the Act to unite Toronto Baptist College and Woodstock College was granted royal assent, and McMaster University was officially incorporated. Woodstock College, Woodstock, and Moulton Ladies College, Toronto, were maintained in close connection, the new university, housed in McMaster Hall in Toronto, was sponsored by the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec as a sectarian undergraduate institution for its clergy and adherents. The first courses—initially limited to arts and theology leading to a BA degree—were taught in 1890, as the university grew, McMaster Hall started to become overcrowded. By the 1920s, after previous proposals between various university staff, the Hamilton Chamber of Commerce launched a campaign to bring McMaster University to Hamilton, as the issue of space at McMaster Hall became more acute, the university administration debated the future of the university. The university nearly became federated with the University of Toronto, as had been the case with Trinity College, instead, in 1927, the university administration decided to transfer the university to Hamilton. The Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec secured $1.5 million, the lands for the university and new buildings were secured through gifts from graduates. Lands were transferred from Royal Botanical Gardens to establish the campus area, the first academic session on the new Hamilton campus began in 1930. McMasters property in Toronto was sold to the University of Toronto when McMaster moved to Hamilton in 1930, McMaster Hall is now home to the Royal Conservatory of Music. Professional programs during the period were limited to just theology. By the 1940s the McMaster administration was under pressure to modernize, during the Second World War and post-war periods the demand for technological expertise, particularly in the sciences, increasedMcMaster University – McMaster Hall, located in Toronto, was the original location of the university. The building is currently used as the headquarters for The Royal Conservatory of Music.
5. United States Army Center of Military History – The United States Army Center of Military History is a directorate within the Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army. The center is responsible for the use of history and military records throughout the United States Army. Traditionally, this mission has meant recording the history of the army in both peace and war, while advising the army staff on historical matters. CMH is the organization leading the Army Historical Program. The center traces its lineage back to historians under the Secretary of War who compiled the Official Records of the Rebellion, a similar work on World War I was prepared by the Historical Section of the Army War College. They began publication of the United States Army in World War II series, since then, the Center has produced detailed series on the Armys role in the Korean and Vietnam Wars and has begun a series on the U. S. Army in the Cold War. These works are supplemented by monographs and other publications on a mix of topics and it has expanded its role in the areas of military history education, the management of the armys museum system, and the introduction of automated data-retrieval systems. The centers work with army schools ensures that the study of history is a part of the training of officers, much of this educational work is performed at field historical offices and in army museums. Under the direction of the chief of military history and his principal adviser and those works under way and projected are described in the Army Historical Program, an annual report to the Chief of Staff on the Army’s historical activities. All center publications are listed in the catalog Publications of the United States Army Center of Military History, CMH also serves as a clearinghouse for the oral history programs in the army at all levels of command. It also conducts and preserves its own oral history collections, including those from the Vietnam War, Desert Storm, in addition, the center’s end-of-tour interviews within the Army Secretariat and Staff provide a basis for its annual histories of the Department of the Army. As tangible representations of the mission, military artifacts and art enhance the soldier’s understanding of the profession of arms. CMH manages a system of more than 120 army museums and their holdings, current projects include the establishment of a National Army Museum at Fort Belvoir, Virginia, and a complementary Army Heritage and Educational Center at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania. The Chief of Military History is responsible for ensuring the use of military history in the teaching of strategy, tactics, logistics. This mission includes a requirement that military leaders at all levels be aware of the value of history in advancing military professionalism, in this effort, the chief of military history is assisted by a historical advisory committee that includes leading academic historians and representatives of the army school system. Staff rides enable military leaders to retrace the course of a battle on the ground, as one of the army’s major teaching devices, staff rides are particularly dependent on a careful knowledge of military history. Center historians lead rides directed by the Secretary of the Army and it administers the army’s Command History Program, to provide historical support to army organizations worldwide. To stimulate interest in history in the army and the nationUnited States Army Center of Military History – The Organizational Chart for the OAA, and its subordinate units, including the United States Army Center of Military History
6. Artwork by John Steuart Curry – This page explores the notable artwork by John Steuart Curry. During Currys lifetime he was prolific in a number of mediums, including painting, mural work, the page captures the most notable works, alongside many of his other works and describes their publication context. A list begins each section talking about the works contained within that medium or genre and are sorted by date, following each list is a discussion of the context in which that work was produced. Currently the list is incomplete and does not include images of the pieces of artwork because much of it is still under copyright. The references on each citation for works links to websites for the holding the collection, or, if not available. The Homestead, and The Oklahoma Land Rush, were painted with oil and tempera on canvas, created during the Great Depression, the murals are the product of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal. The two murals depict events of the period, the Homestead Acts and the Oklahoma Land Run of 1889. Early sketches of figures and ideas are held by archives located at the Marianna Kistler Beach Museum of Art at Kansas State University and this mural is nine foot by 19 feet eight inch. It represents a homestead with the features that make up its ideal of blessed peace, happiness. The Homestead features a mother and her daughter paring potatoes near a small garden for the family meal, a young son holds the fence posts while his father drives them into the ground. An older sister drives the wagon full of spikes while she cares for the youngest child. Each member of the family is working and contributing its energies to the productive whole. Near the bottom left of the mural, roosters, chicks, just two inches taller than its partner painting, this nine feet two inch by 19 feet eight inch mural represents another historical event from the time period. Anxious but looking forward to eventual security, an 1889 pioneer mother, perched on a broken-down wagon, she clutches her small son while waving and calling out to her certificate-holding husband, who, astride their rearing horse, is to ride on to claim a new farm site. His hellbent competition includes a cyclist riding a high, ordinary safety bicycle from the 1880s and she rolls back in an open wagon driven frantically by her balding husband, and, if nothing else, lends comic relief to balance the anxious sincerity of the mother on the ground. John Steuart Currys Oklahoma Land Rush repeated an important theme of the time, by emphasizing the rush of figures across the land, Curry shared his concern with capturing the energy and vigor of American pioneers. One of Currys most famous works are the murals designed for the Kansas State Capitol, in Topeka, in June 1937, newspaper editors raised money to commission John Steuart Curry to paint murals in the statehouse. Curry wanted to be free to express his own ideas regarding the murals, I want to paint this war with nature and I want to paint the things I feel as a native KansanArtwork by John Steuart Curry – John Steuart Curry's Ajax
7. William Blake – William Blake was an English poet, painter, and printmaker. Largely unrecognised during his lifetime, Blake is now considered a figure in the history of the poetry. His so-called prophetic works were said by 20th century critic Northrop Frye to form what is in proportion to its merits the least read body of poetry in the English language. His visual artistry led 21st-century critic Jonathan Jones to proclaim him far, in 2002, Blake was placed at number 38 in the BBCs poll of the 100 Greatest Britons. Although he lived in London his entire life, he produced a diverse and symbolically rich œuvre and his paintings and poetry have been characterised as part of the Romantic movement and as Pre-Romantic. Reverent of the Bible but hostile to the Church of England, Blake was influenced by the ideals and ambitions of the French, despite these known influences, the singularity of Blakes work makes him difficult to classify. William Blake was born on 28 November 1757 at 28 Broad Street in Soho and he was the third of seven children, two of whom died in infancy. Blakes father, James, was a hosier and he attended school only long enough to learn reading and writing, leaving at the age of ten, and was otherwise educated at home by his mother Catherine Blake. Even though the Blakes were English Dissenters, William was baptised on 11 December at St Jamess Church, Piccadilly, the Bible was an early and profound influence on Blake, and remained a source of inspiration throughout his life. Blake started engraving copies of drawings of Greek antiquities purchased for him by his father, within these drawings Blake found his first exposure to classical forms through the work of Raphael, Michelangelo, Maarten van Heemskerck and Albrecht Dürer. The number of prints and bound books that James and Catherine were able to purchase for young William suggests that the Blakes enjoyed, at least for a time, a comfortable wealth. When William was ten years old, his parents knew enough of his headstrong temperament that he was not sent to school and he read avidly on subjects of his own choosing. During this period, Blake made explorations into poetry, his work displays knowledge of Ben Jonson, Edmund Spenser. On 4 August 1772, Blake was apprenticed to engraver James Basire of Great Queen Street, at the sum of £52.10, at the end of the term, aged 21, he became a professional engraver. This aside, Basires style of line-engraving was of a kind held at the time to be old-fashioned compared to the flashier stipple or mezzotint styles. It has been speculated that Blakes instruction in this form may have been detrimental to his acquiring of work or recognition in later life. After two years, Basire sent his apprentice to copy images from the Gothic churches in London and his experiences in Westminster Abbey helped form his artistic style and ideas. The Abbey of his day was decorated with suits of armour, painted funeral effigies, ackroyd notes that. the most immediate would have been of faded brightness and colourWilliam Blake – Blake in a portrait by Thomas Phillips (1807)
8. French Revolution – Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians widely regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history, the causes of the French Revolution are complex and are still debated among historians. Following the Seven Years War and the American Revolutionary War, the French government was deeply in debt, Years of bad harvests leading up to the Revolution also inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and the aristocracy. Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates-General in May 1789, a central event of the first stage, in August 1789, was the abolition of feudalism and the old rules and privileges left over from the Ancien Régime. The next few years featured political struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the intent on thwarting major reforms. The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy, in a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. External threats closely shaped the course of the Revolution, internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution significantly, culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins. Large numbers of civilians were executed by revolutionary tribunals during the Terror, after the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795. The rule of the Directory was characterised by suspended elections, debt repudiations, financial instability, persecutions against the Catholic clergy, dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. The modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution, almost all future revolutionary movements looked back to the Revolution as their predecessor. The values and institutions of the Revolution dominate French politics to this day, the French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not merely national, for it aimed at benefiting all humanity. Globally, the Revolution accelerated the rise of republics and democracies and it became the focal point for the development of all modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, radicalism, nationalism, socialism, feminism, and secularism, among many others. The Revolution also witnessed the birth of total war by organising the resources of France, historians have pointed to many events and factors within the Ancien Régime that led to the Revolution. Over the course of the 18th century, there emerged what the philosopher Jürgen Habermas called the idea of the sphere in France. A perfect example would be the Palace of Versailles which was meant to overwhelm the senses of the visitor and convince one of the greatness of the French state and Louis XIV. Starting in the early 18th century saw the appearance of the sphere which was critical in that both sides were active. In France, the emergence of the public sphere outside of the control of the saw the shift from Versailles to Paris as the cultural capital of France. In the 1750s, during the querelle des bouffons over the question of the quality of Italian vs, in 1782, Louis-Sébastien Mercier wrote, The word court no longer inspires awe amongst us as in the time of Louis XIVFrench Revolution – The August Insurrection in 1792 precipitated the last days of the monarchy.
9. Charles Dickens – Charles John Huffam Dickens was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the worlds best-known fictional characters and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian era and his works enjoyed unprecedented popularity during his lifetime, and by the twentieth century critics and scholars had recognised him as a literary genius. His novels and short stories enjoy lasting popularity, born in Portsmouth, Dickens left school to work in a factory when his father was incarcerated in a debtors prison. Dickenss literary success began with the 1836 serial publication of The Pickwick Papers, within a few years he had become an international literary celebrity, famous for his humour, satire, and keen observation of character and society. His novels, most published in monthly or weekly instalments, pioneered the publication of narrative fiction. The instalment format allowed Dickens to evaluate his audiences reaction, and he modified his plot. For example, when his wifes chiropodist expressed distress at the way Miss Mowcher in David Copperfield seemed to reflect her disabilities and his plots were carefully constructed, and he often wove elements from topical events into his narratives. Masses of the poor chipped in hapennies to have each new monthly episode read to them, opening up. Dickens was regarded as the literary colossus of his age and his 1843 novella, A Christmas Carol, remains popular and continues to inspire adaptations in every artistic genre. Oliver Twist and Great Expectations are also adapted, and, like many of his novels. His 1859 novel, A Tale of Two Cities, set in London, Dickens has been praised by fellow writers—from Leo Tolstoy to George Orwell and G. K. Chesterton—for his realism, comedy, prose style, unique characterisations, and social criticism. On the other hand, Oscar Wilde, Henry James, and Virginia Woolf complained of a lack of depth, loose writing. The term Dickensian is used to something that is reminiscent of Dickens and his writings. Charles John Huffam Dickens was born on 7 February 1812, at 1 Mile End Terrace, Landport in Portsea Island and his father was a clerk in the Navy Pay Office and was temporarily stationed in the district. He asked Christopher Huffam, rigger to His Majestys Navy, gentleman, Huffam is thought to be the inspiration for Paul Dombey, the owner of a shipping company in Dickenss eponymous Dombey and Son. In January 1815 John Dickens was called back to London, when Charles was four, they relocated to Sheerness, and thence to Chatham, Kent, where he spent his formative years until the age of 11. His early life seems to have been idyllic, though he himself a very small. Charles spent time outdoors but also read voraciously, including the novels of Tobias Smollett and Henry Fielding, as well as Robinson CrusoeCharles Dickens – Dickens in New York, 1867
10. Open access – Open access refers to online research outputs that are free of all restrictions on access and free of many restrictions on use. These additional usage rights are granted through the use of various specific Creative Commons licenses. There are multiple ways authors can provide access to their work. One way is to publish it and then self-archive it in a repository where it can be accessed for free, such as their institutional repository and this is known as green open access. Some publishers require delays, or an embargo, on when an output in a repository may be made open access. Several initiatives provide an alternative to the American and English language dominance of existing publication indexing systems, including Index Copernicus, SciELO and Redalyc. A second way authors can make their work open access is by publishing it in such a way that makes their research output immediately available from the publisher. This is known as open access, and within the sciences this often takes the form of publishing an article in either an open access journal. Pure open access journals do not charge fees, and may have one of a variety of business models. Many, however, do charge an article processing fee, widespread public access to the World Wide Web in the late 1990s and early 2000s fueled the open access movement, and prompted both the green open access way and the creation of open access journals. Conventional non-open access journals cover publishing costs through access tolls such as subscriptions, some non-open access journals provide open access after an embargo period of 6–12 months or longer. The Budapest statement defined open access as follows, There are many degrees, despite these statements emerging in the 2000s, the idea and practise of providing free online access to journal articles began at least a decade before the term open access was formally coined. Computer scientists had been self-archiving in anonymous ftp archives since the 1970s, the Subversive Proposal to generalize the practice was posted in 1994. Gratis OA refers to online access, and libre OA refers to free online access plus some additional re-use rights. The Budapest, Bethesda, and Berlin definitions had corresponded only to libre OA, the re-use rights of libre OA are often specified by various specific Creative Commons licenses, these almost all require attribution of authorship to the original authors. Open access itself began to be sought and provided worldwide by researchers when the possibility itself was opened by the advent of Internet, the momentum was further increased by a growing movement for academic journal publishing reform, and with it gold and libre OA. Electronic publishing created new benefits as compared to paper publishing but beyond that, rather than applying traditional notions of copyright to academic publications, they could be libre or free to build upon. The intended audience of research articles is usually other researchers, Open access helps researchers as readers by opening up access to articles that their libraries do not subscribe toOpen access – authors may use form language like this to request an open access license when submitting their work to a publisher