1. Google Knowledge Graph – The Knowledge Graph is a knowledge base used by Google to enhance its search engines search results with semantic-search information gathered from a wide variety of sources. Knowledge Graph display was added to Googles search engine in 2012, starting in the United States and it provides structured and detailed information about the topic in addition to a list of links to other sites. The goal is that users would be able to use information to resolve their query without having to navigate to other sites. The short summary provided in the graph is often used as a spoken answer in Google Now searches. According to some websites, the implementation of Googles Knowledge Graph has played a role in the page view decline of various language versions of Wikipedia. As of the end of 2016, knowledge graph holds over 70 billion facts, according to Google, the information in the Knowledge Graph is derived from many sources, including the CIA World Factbook, Wikidata, and Wikipedia. The feature is similar in intent to answer such as Wolfram Alpha and efforts such as Linked Data. On December 4,2012, the Knowledge Graph was introduced in seven languages, Spanish, French, German, Portuguese, Japanese, Russian. As part of his keynote talk Singhal asked, A computer you can talk to, and it will answer everything you ask it.6 billion facts collected by machine learning algorithms. On December 16,2014, the Freebase and Knowledge Graph team at Google announced that Freebase would shut-down in late 2015, in October 2016 Google announced that the Knowledge Graph now holds 70 billion facts. Other companies knowledge graphs, Microsoft Bings Satori Knowledge Base, revealed to the public in mid-2013 Yandexs Object Answer, released in 2015 Yahoo. linkedIns Knowledge Graph, revealed to the public in Oct 2016. It is a dynamic graph updated in real time upon member profile changes, according to Google, information in the knowledge graph powers a knowledge panel, which is a box containing information, and the box is presented at the top of search results. Dario Taraborelli of the Wikimedia Foundation says that Googles omission of sources in its knowledge panels is designed so that the panel will seem more authoritative. The Post reports that Googles knowledge panels are frequently unattributed, such as a panel on the age of actress Betty White which is as unsourced. In Google Assistant search results sources are included for information in voice response. Semantic integration Linked data Wikidata DBpedia Knowledge Vault Graphiq Google Assistant Official websiteGoogle Knowledge Graph – Knowledge Graph data about Thomas Jefferson displayed on Google Web Search, as of January 2015.
2. Zotero – Zotero /zoʊˈtɛroʊ/ is a free and open-source reference management software to manage bibliographic data and related research materials. org Writer and NeoOffice. It is produced by the Center for History and New Media at George Mason University, the name Zotero is loosely derived from an Albanian verb meaning to master. Zotero shows an icon when a resource is being viewed on many websites, clicking this icon saves the full reference information to the Zotero library. Zotero can also save a copy of the webpage, or, in the case of academic articles, users can then add notes, tags, attachments, and their own metadata. Items are organized through a drag-and-drop iTunes-like interface, and can be searched, selections of the local reference library data can later be exported as formatted bibliographies. Furthermore, all entries including bibliographic information and user-created rich-text memos of the articles can be summarized into an HTML report. Zotero users can generate citations and bibliographies through word processor plugins, or directly in Zotero, the house styles of most academic journals are available in Zotero, and the bibliography can be reformatted with a few clicks. Zotero also allows users to create their own customized citation styles, given a choice of several formats, you should prefer RIS as the import option. Zotero can associate notes with bibliographic items and it can annotate PDFs and sync them with a mobile PDF reader through the Zotfile plugin. Zotero supports more than thirty languages as of 2014, questions and issues raised in the forums are answered quickly, with users and developers suggesting solutions. Many academic institutions provide Zotero tutorials to their members, Zotero uses translators – short pieces of computer code, or scripts – written by volunteers, to understand the structure of web pages and to parse them into citations using its internal formats. These open-source scripts may be used by third party tools also, development of Zotero has been funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and the Institute of Museum and Library Services, as well as user donations. Zotero has won awards from PC Magazine, Northwestern Universitys CiteFest competition, the first release of Zotero,1.0. 0b2. r1, was made available in October 2006 as an add-on for the Firefox web browser. Development of Zotero 1.0. x continued until May 2009, the journal Nature editorialized that the virtues of interoperability and easy data-sharing among researchers are worth restating. Imagine if Microsoft Word or Excel files could be opened and saved only in proprietary formats. It would be impossible for OpenOffice and other software to read. The case was dismissed on June 4,2009 due to a lack of jurisdiction, although the Virginia Supreme Court granted an appeal to Thomson Reuters in this case on December 18,2009, the appeal was withdrawn on January 11,2011. Zotero 2.0, released in February 2010, added features like metadata and file syncing and group librariesZotero – Zotero detecting bibliographic information from embedded COinS on a Wikipedia page
3. JSTOR – JSTOR is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of journals, it now also includes books and primary sources. It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries have access to JSTOR, most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone. William G. Bowen, president of Princeton University from 1972 to 1988, JSTOR originally was conceived as a solution to one of the problems faced by libraries, especially research and university libraries, due to the increasing number of academic journals in existence. Most libraries found it prohibitively expensive in terms of cost and space to maintain a collection of journals. By digitizing many journal titles, JSTOR allowed libraries to outsource the storage of journals with the confidence that they would remain available long-term, online access and full-text search ability improved access dramatically. Bowen initially considered using CD-ROMs for distribution, JSTOR was initiated in 1995 at seven different library sites, and originally encompassed ten economics and history journals. JSTOR access improved based on feedback from its sites. Special software was put in place to make pictures and graphs clear, with the success of this limited project, Bowen and Kevin Guthrie, then-president of JSTOR, wanted to expand the number of participating journals. They met with representatives of the Royal Society of London and an agreement was made to digitize the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society dating from its beginning in 1665, the work of adding these volumes to JSTOR was completed by December 2000. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded JSTOR initially, until January 2009 JSTOR operated as an independent, self-sustaining nonprofit organization with offices in New York City and in Ann Arbor, Michigan. JSTOR content is provided by more than 900 publishers, the database contains more than 1,900 journal titles, in more than 50 disciplines. Each object is identified by an integer value, starting at 1. In addition to the site, the JSTOR labs group operates an open service that allows access to the contents of the archives for the purposes of corpus analysis at its Data for Research service. This site offers a facility with graphical indication of the article coverage. Users may create focused sets of articles and then request a dataset containing word and n-gram frequencies and they are notified when the dataset is ready and may download it in either XML or CSV formats. The service does not offer full-text, although academics may request that from JSTOR, JSTOR Plant Science is available in addition to the main site. The materials on JSTOR Plant Science are contributed through the Global Plants Initiative and are only to JSTORJSTOR – The JSTOR front page
4. The University of British Columbia – The University of British Columbia, commonly referred to as UBC, is a public research university with campuses and facilities in British Columbia, Canada. Founded in 1908 as the McGill University College of British Columbia and it is British Columbias oldest institution of higher learning and has over 60,000 students at its Vancouver and Okanagan Valley campuses. Most students are enrolled in five faculties, Arts, Science, Applied Science, UBC Faculty of Medicine. UBCs 4.02 km2 Vancouver campus is within the University Endowment Lands, the 2.09 km2 Okanagan campus, acquired in 2005, is in Kelowna. UBCs admission standards is the 2nd most rigorous in Canada with the average of 89. 95% high school GPA for all incoming domestic students in 2015 for the Vancouver Campus. According to the annual rankings compiled by Macleans and U. S. News, in 2015 U. S. News and World Report and Times Higher Education ranked UBC among the 20 best public universities worldwide. With an annual research budget valued at $600 million, UBC funds 8,442 projects as of 2014, the university has also educated three Canadian prime ministers, most recently Justin Trudeau, the current prime minister. One of the largest research libraries in Canada, the UBC Library system has over 9.9 million volumes among its 21 branches, since 1968, UBC is home to TRIUMF, Canadas national laboratory for particle and nuclear physics which houses the worlds largest cyclotron. In 1877, only six years after British Columbia joined Canada, the provincial legislature passed An Act Respecting the University of British Columbia in 1890, but disagreements arose over whether to build the university on Vancouver Island or the mainland. The British Columbia University Act of 1908 formally called a university into being. The president, appointed by the board, was to provide a link between the two bodies and to perform institutional leadership, the Act constituted a twenty-one member senate with Francis Carter-Cotton of Vancouver as Chancellor. Before the University Act, there had been attempts at creating a degree-granting university with help from the Universities of Toronto. Building on an affiliation between Vancouver and Victoria high schools with McGill University, Henry Marshall Tory helped establish the McGill University College of British Columbia. From 1906 to 1915, McGill BC operated as an institution providing the first few years toward a degree at McGill University or elsewhere. The Henry Marshall Tory Medal was established in 1941 by Tory, founding President of the University of Alberta and of the National Research Council of Canada, and a co-founder of Carleton University. In the meantime, appeals were made to the government to revive the legislation for a provincial institution, leading to the University Endowment Act in 1907. In 1910 the Point Grey site was chosen, and the government appointed Dr. Frank Fairchild Wesbrook as President in 1913, on the first day of lectures was September 30,1915, the new independent university absorbed McGill University College. The University of British Columbia awarded its first degrees in 1916, World War I dominated campus life, and the student body was decimated by enlistments for active service, with three hundred UBC students in Company D aloneThe University of British Columbia – Original 1914 plan of the UBC campus, by architects Sharp and Thompson
5. The University of Virginia – The University of Virginia, frequently referred to simply as Virginia, is a public research university and the flagship for the Commonwealth of Virginia. Founded in 1819 by Declaration of Independence author Thomas Jefferson, UVA is known for its foundations, student-run honor code. UNESCO designated UVA as Americas first and only collegiate World Heritage Site in 1987, the university was established in 1819, and its original governing Board of Visitors included Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe. Monroe was the sitting President of the United States at the time of its foundation, former Presidents Jefferson and Madison were UVAs first two rectors and the Academical Village and Jefferson conceived and designed the original courses of study. The universitys research endeavors are highly recognized, in 2015, Science honored UVA faculty for discovering two of its top 10 annual scientific breakthroughs, from the fields of Medicine and Psychology. UVA is one of 62 institutions in the Association of American Universities and it is the only AAU member university in Virginia. UVA is classified as a Research University with Very High Research by the Carnegie Foundation, the university was the first non-founding member, and the first university of the American South, to attain AAU membership in 1904. UVAs academic strength is broad, with 121 majors across the eight undergraduate, students compete in 26 collegiate sports and UVA leads the Atlantic Coast Conference in mens NCAA team national championships with 17. UVA is second in womens NCAA titles with 7, UVA was awarded the Capital One Cup in 2015 after fielding the top overall mens athletics programs in the nation. Students come to attend the university in Charlottesville from all 50 states and 147 countries, the historic 1, 682-acre campus is internationally protected by UNESCO and considered one of the most beautiful collegiate grounds in the country. UVA additionally maintains 2,913 acres southeast of the city, the university also manages the College at Wise in Southwest Virginia, and until 1972 operated George Mason University and the University of Mary Washington in Northern Virginia. In 1817, three Presidents and Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court John Marshall joined 24 other dignitaries at a meeting held in the Mountain Top Tavern at Rockfish Gap, after some deliberation, they selected nearby Charlottesville as the site of the new University of Virginia. Farmland just outside Charlottesville was purchased from James Monroe by the Board of Visitors as Central College, the school laid its first buildings cornerstone late in that same year, and the Commonwealth of Virginia chartered the new university on January 25,1819. John Hartwell Cocke collaborated with James Madison, Monroe, and Joseph Carrington Cabell to fulfill Jeffersons dream to establish the university, Cocke and Jefferson were appointed to the building committee to supervise the construction. The universitys first classes met on March 7,1825, another innovation of the new university was that higher education would be separated from religious doctrine. Jefferson opined to philosopher Thomas Cooper that a professorship of theology should have no place in our institution, Jefferson was intimately involved in the university to the end, hosting Sunday dinners at his Monticello home for faculty and students until his death. Thus, he eschewed mention of his accomplishments, such as the Louisiana Purchase. This was a source of frustration for Jefferson, who assembled the students during the schools first year, on October 3,1825, to such behaviorThe University of Virginia – Thomas Jefferson is the founder of the University of Virginia
7. Museum of Modern Art – The Museum of Modern Art is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan in New York City, on 53rd Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues. MoMA has been important in developing and collecting modernist art, and is identified as one of the largest and most influential museums of modern art in the world. The MoMA Library includes approximately 300,000 books and exhibition catalogs, over 1,000 periodical titles, the archives holds primary source material related to the history of modern and contemporary art. The idea for The Museum of Modern Art was developed in 1929 primarily by Abby Aldrich Rockefeller and they became known variously as the Ladies, the daring ladies and the adamantine ladies. They rented modest quarters for the new museum in the Heckscher Building at 730 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, and it opened to the public on November 7,1929, nine days after the Wall Street Crash. Abby had invited A. Conger Goodyear, the president of the board of trustees of the Albright Art Gallery in Buffalo, New York. At the time, it was Americas premier museum devoted exclusively to art. One of Abbys early recruits for the staff was the noted Japanese-American photographer Soichi Sunami. Goodyear enlisted Paul J. Sachs and Frank Crowninshield to join him as founding trustees, Sachs, the associate director and curator of prints and drawings at the Fogg Museum at Harvard University, was referred to in those days as a collector of curators. Goodyear asked him to recommend a director and Sachs suggested Alfred H. Barr, under Barrs guidance, the museums holdings quickly expanded from an initial gift of eight prints and one drawing. Its first successful exhibition was in November 1929, displaying paintings by Van Gogh, Gauguin, Cézanne. Abbys husband was opposed to the museum and refused to release funds for the venture. Nevertheless, he donated the land for the current site of the museum, plus other gifts over time. During that time it initiated many more exhibitions of noted artists, the museum also gained international prominence with the hugely successful and now famous Picasso retrospective of 1939–40, held in conjunction with the Art Institute of Chicago. In its range of presented works, it represented a significant reinterpretation of Picasso for future art scholars, Boy Leading a Horse was briefly contested over ownership with the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. In 1941, MoMA hosted the exhibition, Indian Art of the United States. His brother, David Rockefeller, also joined the board of trustees in 1948. David subsequently employed the noted architect Philip Johnson to redesign the garden and name it in honor of his motherMuseum of Modern Art – Museum of Modern Art