1.
Social group
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In the social sciences, a social group has been defined as two or more people who interact with one another, share similar characteristics, and collectively have a sense of unity. Other theorists disagree however, and are wary of definitions which stress the importance of interdependence or objective similarity, instead, researchers within the social identity tradition generally define it as a group is defined in terms of those who identify themselves as members of the group. Regardless, social groups come in a myriad of sizes and varieties, for example, a society can be viewed as a large social group. A social group exhibits some degree of cohesion and is more than a simple collection or aggregate of individuals, such as people waiting at a bus stop. Characteristics shared by members of a group may include interests, values, representations, ethnic or social background, kinship ties being a social bond based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption. In a similar vein, some consider the defining characteristic of a group as social interaction. According to Dunbars number, on average, people cannot maintain stable relationships with more than 150 individuals. Social psychologist Muzafer Sherif proposed to define a unit as a number of individuals interacting with each other with respect to, Common motives and goals An accepted division of labor. It succeeds at providing the researcher with the required to answer three important questions, How is a group formed. How does one describe those social interactions occur on the way to forming a group. The attention of those who use, participate in, or study groups has focused on functioning groups, on larger organizations, or on the decisions made in these organizations. Much less attention has been paid to the ubiquitous and universal social behaviors that do not clearly demonstrate one or more of the five necessary elements described by Sherif. The primary goal of members was to defend gang territory. There remains in the media and urban law enforcement agencies an avid interest in gangs. However, these studies and the continued interest have not improved the capacity to influence behavior or to reduce gang related violence. The relevant literature on animal social behaviors, such as work on territory, also, they have been largely neglected by policy makers, sociologists and anthropologists. Of course, while this is true, it is likely that the study of the social behaviors of other animals might shed light on the evolutionary roots of social behavior in people. Territorial and dominance behaviors in humans are so universal and commonplace that they are taken for granted
2.
Team
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A team is a group of people or animals linked in a common purpose. Human teams are especially appropriate for conducting tasks that are high in complexity and have many interdependent subtasks, a group does not necessarily constitute a team. Teams normally have members with skills and generate synergy through a coordinated effort which allows each member to maximize their strengths. Teams can be broken down into from a team or one big group of people. Thus teams of players can form to practise their craft/sport. Transport logistics executives can select teams of horses, dogs, or oxen for the purpose of conveying passengers or goods, the concept was introduced into business in the late 20th century, which was followed by a popularization of the concept of constructing teams. Differing opinions exist on the efficacy of new management fad. Some see team as a word, overused and under-useful. Others see it as a panacea that realizes the human-relations movements desire to integrate what that movement perceives as best for workers, however, Hackman argued that team effectiveness should not be viewed only in terms of performance. While performance is an important outcome, an effective team will contribute to the personal well-being. Compare the more structured/skilled concept of a crew, the advantages of formal and informal partnerships, or the well-defined -, Team size and team composition affect team processes and team outcomes. The optimal size of teams is debated and will vary depending on the task at hand, at least one study of problem-solving in groups showed an optimal size of groups at four members. Other works estimate the size between 5-12 members or a number of members that can consume two pizzas. The following extract is taken from Chong, The interest in teams gained momentum in the 1980s with the publication of Belbin’s work on successful teams, the research into teams and teamwork followed two lines of inquiry. Writers such as Belbin, Woodcock, Margerison and McCann, Davis et al, parker, and Spencer and Pruss focused on team roles and how these affected team performance. These studies suggested that team performance was a function of the number, the number of roles for optimal performance varied from 15 to four. This variation has been attributed to how roles were defined, personality traits, on the other hand, were internally driven and relatively stable over time and across situations. These traits affected behavioural patterns in ways and, in varying degrees
3.
Mathematics
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Mathematics is the study of topics such as quantity, structure, space, and change. There is a range of views among mathematicians and philosophers as to the exact scope, Mathematicians seek out patterns and use them to formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof, when mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry, rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclids Elements. Galileo Galilei said, The universe cannot be read until we have learned the language and it is written in mathematical language, and the letters are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without which means it is humanly impossible to comprehend a single word. Without these, one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth, carl Friedrich Gauss referred to mathematics as the Queen of the Sciences. Benjamin Peirce called mathematics the science that draws necessary conclusions, David Hilbert said of mathematics, We are not speaking here of arbitrariness in any sense. Mathematics is not like a game whose tasks are determined by arbitrarily stipulated rules, rather, it is a conceptual system possessing internal necessity that can only be so and by no means otherwise. Albert Einstein stated that as far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain, Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, finance and the social sciences. Applied mathematics has led to entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics, Mathematicians also engage in pure mathematics, or mathematics for its own sake, without having any application in mind. There is no clear line separating pure and applied mathematics, the history of mathematics can be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions. The earliest uses of mathematics were in trading, land measurement, painting and weaving patterns, in Babylonian mathematics elementary arithmetic first appears in the archaeological record. Numeracy pre-dated writing and numeral systems have many and diverse. Between 600 and 300 BC the Ancient Greeks began a study of mathematics in its own right with Greek mathematics. Mathematics has since been extended, and there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to the benefit of both. Mathematical discoveries continue to be made today, the overwhelming majority of works in this ocean contain new mathematical theorems and their proofs. The word máthēma is derived from μανθάνω, while the modern Greek equivalent is μαθαίνω, in Greece, the word for mathematics came to have the narrower and more technical meaning mathematical study even in Classical times
4.
Commons-based peer production
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Commons-based peer production is a term coined by Harvard Law School professor Yochai Benkler. It describes a new model of production in which large numbers of people work cooperatively. Commons-based projects generally have less rigid hierarchical structures than those under more traditional business models, often—but not always—commons-based projects are designed without a need for financial compensation for contributors. The term is used interchangeably with the term social production. The paper cites Eben Moglen as the originator of the concept, in his book The Wealth of Networks, Benkler significantly expands on his definition of commons-based peer production. To ensure that the knowledge generated is available for free use, not all commons-based production necessarily qualifies as commons-based peer production. According to Benkler, peer production is defined not only by the openness of its outputs, contributors can generate dynamic content that reflects the individual skills and the variability of human creativity. In Wikinomics, Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams suggest a mechanism behind common-based peer production. People participate in peer production communities, they write, for a range of intrinsic and self-interested reasons. basically. They feel passionate about their area of expertise and revel in creating something new or better. CBPP covers many different types of output, from software to libraries of quantitative data to human-readable documents. First, the goals of peer production must be modular. In other words, objectives must be divisible into components, or modules and that allows participants to work asynchronously, without having to wait for each others contributions or coordinate with each other in person. Second, the granularity of the modules is essential, granularity refers to the degree to which objects are broken down into smaller pieces. Third, a successful peer-production enterprise must have low-cost integration—the mechanism by which the modules are integrated into an end product. Thus, integration must include both quality controls over the modules and a mechanism for integrating the contributions into the product at relatively low cost. RepRap Project, a project to create an open-source self-copying 3D printer, several outgrowths have been, Customization/Specialization, With free and open source software small groups have the capability to customize a large project according to specific needs. With the rise of low-cost 3-D printing, and other manufacturing techniques this is now also becoming true of open source hardware