1. France – France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural, political, and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is also a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the FranksFrance – One of the Lascaux paintings: a horse – Dordogne, approximately 18,000 BC
2. Monaco – Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco, is a sovereign city-state and microstate, located on the French Riviera in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides while the other side borders the Mediterranean Sea, Monaco has an area of 2.02 km2 and a population of about 38,400 according to the last census of 2015. With 19,009 inhabitants per km², it is the second smallest, Monaco has a land border of 5.47 km, a coastline of 3.83 km, and a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m. The highest point in the country is a pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of Mont Agel, in the Les Révoires Ward. Monacos most populous Quartier is Monte Carlo and the most populous Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins, through land reclamation, Monacos land mass has expanded by twenty percent, in 2005, it had an area of only 1.974 km2. Monaco is known as a playground for the rich and famous, in 2014, it was noted about 30% of the population was made up of millionaires, more than in Zürich or Geneva. Monaco is a principality governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, although Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he wields immense political power. The House of Grimaldi have ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, the official language is French, but Monégasque, Italian, and English are widely spoken and understood. The states sovereignty was recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861. Despite Monacos independence and separate foreign policy, its defense is the responsibility of France, however, Monaco does maintain two small military units. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with the opening of the countrys first casino, Monte Carlo, since then, Monacos mild climate, scenery, and gambling facilities have contributed to the principalitys status as a tourist destination and recreation center for the rich. In more recent years, Monaco has become a major banking center and has sought to diversify its economy into services and small, high-value-added, the state has no income tax, low business taxes, and is well known for being a tax haven. It is also the host of the street circuit motor race Monaco Grand Prix. Monaco is not formally a part of the European Union, but it participates in certain EU policies, including customs, through its relationship with France, Monaco uses the euro as its sole currency. Monaco joined the Council of Europe in 2004 and it is a member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. Monacos name comes from the nearby 6th-century BC Phocaean Greek colony, according to an ancient myth, Hercules passed through the Monaco area and turned away the previous gods. As a result, a temple was constructed there, the temple of Hercules Monoikos, because the only temple of this area was the House of Hercules, the city was called Monoikos. It ended up in the hands of the Holy Roman Empire, an ousted branch of a Genoese family, the Grimaldi, contested it for a hundred years before actually gaining controlMonaco – Statue of Francesco Grimaldi, " Il Malizia " ("the Cunning"), disguised as a monk with a dagger hidden under the cloak of his habit. However, he was ousted by the Genoese just four years later. The Grimaldi family purchased Monaco from the Crown of Aragon in 1419.
3. Reliability of Wikipedia – Recent incidents of conflicted editing, and the use of Wikipedia for revenge editing have attracted frequent publicity. An early study in the journal Nature said that in 2005, the study by Nature was disputed by Encyclopædia Britannica, and later Nature replied to this with both a formal response and a point-by-point rebuttal of Britannicas main objections. Wikipedia is open to anonymous and collaborative editing, so assessments of its reliability usually include examination of how quickly false or misleading information is removed, a number of Incidents have also been publicized in which false information has lasted for a long time on Wikipedia. In May 2005, an anonymous editor started a controversy when he created an article about John Seigenthaler containing several false, the inaccurate information remained uncorrected for four months. A biographical article on French Wikipedia portrayed a Léon-Robert de LAstran as an 18th-century anti-slavery ship owner, which led Ségolène Royal, a student investigation later determined that the article was a hoax and de LAstran had never existed. Wikipedia allows anonymous editing, contributors are not required to provide any identification, a 2007 study at Dartmouth College of the English Wikipedia noted that, contrary to usual social expectations, anonymous editors were some of Wikipedias most productive contributors of valid content. However, the Dartmouth study was criticized by John Timmer of the Ars Technica website for its methodological shortcomings, Wikipedia trusts the same community to self-regulate and become more proficient at quality control. In contrast with all the previous intrinsic metrics, several market-oriented extrinsic measures demonstrate that large audiences trust Wikipedia in one way or another, for instance,50 percent of physicians report that theyve consulted. For information on conditions, according to a report from IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics. Scores ranged from 0 to 8, but most received marks between 5 and 8, the non-peer-reviewed study was based on Natures selection of 42 articles on scientific topics, including biographies of well-known scientists. The articles were compared for accuracy by anonymous academic reviewers, a practice for journal article reviews. Based on their reviews, on average the Wikipedia articles were described as containing 4 errors or omissions, only 4 serious errors were found in Wikipedia, and 4 in Encyclopædia Britannica. The study concluded that Wikipedia comes close to Britannica in terms of the accuracy of its science entries, Encyclopædia Britannica expressed concerns, leading Nature to release further documentation of its survey method. Based on this information, Encyclopædia Britannica denied the validity of the Nature study. Nature acknowledged the compiled nature of some of the Britannica extracts and he wrote that Wikipedia is surprisingly accurate in reporting names, dates, and events in U. S. history and described some of the errors as widely held but inaccurate beliefs. However, he stated that Wikipedia often fails to distinguish important from trivial details and he also complained about Wikipedias lack of persuasive analysis and interpretations, and clear and engaging prose. Wikipedias policies on original research, including unpublished synthesis of published data, disallow new analysis, fifty people accepted an invitation to assess an article. Of the fifty, seventy-six percent agreed or strongly agreed that the Wikipedia article was accurate, eighteen people compared the article they reviewed to the article on the same topic in the Encyclopædia BritannicaReliability of Wikipedia – Cached version of a deleted biographical hoax in the French Wikipedia. Created in January 2007, the article on the fictional 18th century naturalist Léon Robert de L'Astran was not deleted until June 2010, when a historian identified it as a hoax.
4. 2014 Dijon attack – On 21 December 2014, a man in the French city of Dijon was arrested after a vehicle-ramming attack in which he drove a van into 11 pedestrians in five areas of the city in the space of half an hour. The perpetrator shouted the Islamic takbir Allahu Akbar and had a record of mental disorder. According to the Globe and Mail the attack, and others were inspired by a video circulated by ISIL calling on French Muslims to attack non-Muslims using vehicles. He had been known to the police for minor of offenses committed over the course of 20 years, French Interior Minister Bernard Cazeneuve described him as very unstable. The local prosecutor said the incident was not linked to terrorism, according to the New York Times, The driver is said to have become very agitated at home after watching a television program about the plight of children in Chechnya. The question of whether the attack should be understood as motivated by radical Islamism was unclear, according to the BBC, the official line was that this attack was not terrorism, however, many people will be asking themselves if there is not some copycat effect being played out. Also, even if it is established the car attacks were the work of unbalanced individuals, although the motives of the attacker remain unclear, the attack has sometimes been described as one of a series of violent attacks on French soil. Manuel Valls, the Prime Minister of France, expressed his solidarity with the victims of the attack via Twitter2014 Dijon attack – Location of Côte-d’Or within France
5. Vichy Pastilles – Vichy Pastilles are a French confectionery produced in the town of Vichy, department of Allier, France. Sometimes called pastilles of Vichy, they are recognizable as a white, in the 19th century, they were originally made purely from bicarbonate of soda and taken for their digestive properties. Empress Eugénie de Montijo is said to have been a fan, later, they were made with mineral salts extracted from the local spring water. Nowadays, they include sugar and are flavoured with mint, lemon, the Vichy Pastilles brand now belongs to Cadbury France, a division of CadburyVichy Pastilles – Box of Vichy Pastilles manufactured by Moinet-Vichy-Sante. Pastilles are labeled "Bassin de Vichy".
6. Pascal Le Deunff – Pascal Le Deunff is a French diplomat and since August 2012, is Deputy director in charge of international scientific cooperation at the French Ministry of foreign affairs. Pascal Le Deunff obtained a degree in International Economy and a Doctorate in Economics at the University of Paris. From 1981 to 1984, Mr. Le Deunff was a professor of Economics at the University of Paris, in 1985 and 1986, he taught Economics at the French Lycée of Montevideo, Uruguay. From 1987 to 1991, Mr. Le Deunff was Attaché at the French Consulate in San Francisco and he served the local French community and also assisted the French Consul General in various special projects, involving relations with the universities of Berkeley and Stanford. In 1992 and 1993, Mr. Le Deunff worked as Press Attaché at the Consulate General of France in Stuttgart, in 1994, he joined the team of the Spokesman of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Paris. In this capacity, he was spokesperson of the French Ministry for matters regarding Central and Eastern Europe, the Balkans, international strategic affairs, from 1997 to 2000, Mr. Le Deunff was posted as First Secretary at the French Embassy in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. During the Asian financial crisis, his duties included the monitoring of the Malaysian political situation, between September 2000 and August 2003, he was First Secretary and Deputy Head of Mission at the French Embassy in Ljubljana, Slovenia. In this capacity, Mr. Le Deunff contributed to finalizing the Accession Treaty negotiation between Slovenia and the European Union. Returning to Paris in September 2003, Mr. Le Deunff became Adviser to Mrs Noelle Lenoir, French Minister of European Affairs, in charge of EU enlargement and EU external relations. After working with the Secretary General of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in April 2004 he was appointed as Deputy Head of the Department for the EU Foreign and he was responsible for formulating the French official position in all matters related to the European Foreign Policy. From August 2006 until August 2009, Mr. Le Deunff was Senior Adviser and Deputy Head of Mission at the Embassy of France in Bangkok, Thailand. From September 2009 until August 2012, Mr. Le Deunff was Consul General of France in Atlanta, covering the States of Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, pascal Le Deunff l is married to Diana, who is Franco-American. In January 2009, Mr. Le Deunff was awarded the silver Medal of Honour of the French Ministry of Foreign, in November 2009, he has been appointed as Knight of the National Order of Merit by the President of the French RepublicPascal Le Deunff – Pascal Le Deunff