1. Library – A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to material, and may be a building or room, or a virtual space. Libraries range in size from a few shelves of books to several million items, in Latin and Greek, the idea of a bookcase is represented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothēkē, derivatives of these mean library in many modern languages, e. g. French bibliothèque. The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in Sumer. Private or personal libraries made up of books appeared in classical Greece in the 5th century BC. In the 6th century, at the close of the Classical period. A library is organized for use and maintained by a body, an institution. In addition to providing materials, libraries also provide the services of librarians who are experts at finding and organizing information, Libraries often provide quiet areas for studying, and they also often offer common areas to facilitate group study and collaboration. Libraries often provide facilities for access to their electronic resources. Modern libraries are increasingly being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats, the first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing—the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in temple rooms in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC. These archives, which consisted of the records of commercial transactions or inventories, mark the end of prehistory. Things were much the same in the government and temple records on papyrus of Ancient Egypt, the earliest discovered private archives were kept at Ugarit, besides correspondence and inventories, texts of myths may have been standardized practice-texts for teaching new scribes. There is also evidence of libraries at Nippur about 1900 BC, philosopher Laozi was keeper of books in the earliest library in China, which belonged to the Imperial Zhou dynasty. Also, evidence of catalogues found in some destroyed ancient libraries illustrates the presence of librarians, the Library of Alexandria, in Egypt, was the largest and most significant great library of the ancient world. It flourished under the patronage of the Ptolemaic dynasty and functioned as a center of scholarship from its construction in the 3rd century BC until the Roman conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The library was conceived and opened either during the reign of Ptolemy I Soter or during the reign of his son Ptolemy II, an early organization system was in effect at Alexandria. The Library of Celsus in Ephesus, Anatolia, now part of Selçuk, Turkey was built in honor of the Roman Senator Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus by Celsus’ son, the library was built to store 12,000 scrolls and to serve as a monumental tomb for Celsus. Private or personal libraries made up of books appeared in classical Greece in the 5th century BCLibrary – Library at Melk Abbey in Austria
2. Librarian – A librarian is a person who works professionally in a library, providing access to information and sometimes social or technical programming. In addition, librarians provide instruction on information literacy and they are usually required to hold a graduate degree from a library school such as a Masters degree in Library Science or Library and Information Studies. Traditionally, a librarian is associated with collections of books, as demonstrated by the etymology of the word librarian, the role of a librarian is continually evolving to meet social and technological needs. Appreciation for librarians is often included by authors and scholars in the acknowledgment sections of books, for history in North America, see Librarians in North America. The Sumerians were the first to train clerks to keep records of accounts, Masters of the books or Keepers of the Tablets were scribes or priests who were trained to handle the vast amount and complexity of these records. The extent of their duties is unknown. Sometime in the 8th century BC, Ashurbanipal, King of Assyria, Ashurbanipal was the first individual in history to introduce librarianship as a profession. All of these tablets were cataloged and arranged in order by subject or type. The Great Library of Alexandria, created by Ptolemy I after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC, was created to house the entirety of Greek literature. It was notable for its famous librarians, Demetrius, Zenodotus, Eratosthenes, Apollonius, Aristophanes, Aristarchus and these scholars contributed significantly to the collection and cataloging of the wide variety of scrolls in the librarys collection. Most notably, Callimachus created what is considered to be the first subject catalogue of the library holdings, the pinakes contained 120 scrolls arranged into ten subject classes, each class was then subdivided, listing authors alphabetically by titles. The librarians at Alexandria were considered the custodians of learning, near the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire, it was common for Roman aristocrats to hold private libraries in their home. Many of these aristocrats, such as Cicero, kept the contents of their libraries to themselves. Others, such as Lucullus, took on the role of lending librarian by sharing scrolls in their collection, many Roman emperors included public libraries into their political propaganda to win favor from citizens. While scholars were employed in librarian roles in the various emperors libraries, for example, Pompeius Macer, the first librarian of Augustus library, was a praetor, an office that combined both military and judicial duties. A later librarian of the library was Gaius Julius Hyginus. Christian monasteries in Europe are credited with keeping the institution of libraries alive after the fall of the Roman Empire and it is during this time that the first book enters popularity, the parchment codex. Within the monasteries, the role of librarian was often filled by an overseer of the scriptorium where monks would copy out books cover to cover, a monk named Anastasias who took on the title of Bibliothecarius following his successful translations of the Greek classicistsLibrarian – Courtney Young, librarian and former president of the American Library Association
3. Librarianship – Rather than classifying information based on nature-oriented elements, as was previously done in his Bavarian library, Schrettinger organized books in alphabetical order. The first American school for science was founded by Melvil Dewey at Columbia University in 1887. It is an aspect of the field of librarianship. Historically, library science has also included archival science, LIS should not be confused with information theory, the mathematical study of the concept of information. Library and information science can also be seen as an integration of the two fields of science and information science, which were separate at one point. Library philosophy has been contrasted with science as the study of the aims. The earliest text on library operations, Advice on Establishing a Library was published in 1627 by French librarian, Naudé wrote prolifically, producing works on many subjects including politics, religion, history, and the supernatural. He put into all the ideas put forth in Advice when given the opportunity to build. Martin Schrettinger wrote the textbook on the subject from 1808 to 1829. The Jefferson collection provided the start of what became the Library of Congress, the term library economy was common in the U. S. until 1942, with the library science predominant through much of the 20th century. Later, the term was used in the title of S. R. Ranganathans The Five Laws of Library Science, published in 1931, and in the title of Lee Pierce Butlers 1933 book, An introduction to library science. S. R. Ranganathan conceived the five laws of science and the development of the first major analytico-synthetic classification system. In India, he is considered to be the father of science, documentation. He was one of the first faculty at the University of Chicago Graduate Library School and this research agenda went against the more procedure-based approach of library economy, which was mostly confined to practical problems in the administration of libraries. While Ranganathans approach was philosophical it was tied more to the day-to-day business of running a library. A reworking of Ranganathans laws was published in 1995 which removes the constant references to books, in more recent years, with the growth of digital technology, the field has been greatly influenced by information science concepts. This university was the first in Asia to begin teaching library science, the Punjab Library Primer was the first textbook on library science published in English anywhere in the world. The first textbook in the United States was the Manual of Library Economy and this report had a significant impact on library science training and educationLibrarianship – Portrait of Gabriel Naudé, author of Advis pour dresser une bibliothèque (1627), later translated into English in 1661.
4. Information science – Information science should not be confused with information theory or library science. Information theory is the study of the types of communications we use, such as verbal, signal transmission, encoding, Information science as an academic discipline is often taught in combination with Library science as Library and Information Science. Library science as such is a related to the dissemination of information through libraries making use of the principles of information science. Information science focuses on understanding problems from the perspective of the involved and then applying information. In other words, it tackles systemic problems first rather than individual pieces of technology within that system and it must therefore be regarded as an autonomous system controlling and ultimately permeating all other subsystems of society. Several institutions have formed an I-School Caucus, but numerous others besides these also have comprehensive information foci and it is concerned with that body of knowledge relating to the origination, collection, organization, storage, retrieval, interpretation, transmission, transformation, and utilization of information. It has both a pure science component, which inquires into the subject without regard to its application, and an applied science component, some authors use informatics as a synonym for information science. This is especially true when related to the concept developed by A. I, Mikhailov and other Soviet authors in the mid-1960s. The Mikhailov school saw informatics as a related to the study of scientific information. Informatics is difficult to define because of the rapidly evolving. Definitions reliant on the nature of the used for deriving meaningful information from data are emerging in Informatics academic programs. Regional differences and international terminology complicate the problem, some people note that much of what is called Informatics today was once called Information Science – at least in fields such as Medical Informatics. Brian Campbell Vickerys Information Systems places information systems within IS, ellis, Allen, & Wilson, on the other hand, provide a bibliometric investigation describing the relation between two different fields, information science and information systems. Philosophy of information studies conceptual issues arising at the intersection of science, information technology. In computer science and information science, an ontology formally represents knowledge as a set of concepts within a domain, and it can be used to reason about the entities within that domain and may be used to describe the domain. More specifically, an ontology is a model for describing the world consists of a set of types, properties. Exactly what is provided around these varies, but they are the essentials of an ontology, there is also generally an expectation that there be a close resemblance between the real world and the features of the model in an ontology. In theory, an ontology is a formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualisation, an ontology renders shared vocabulary and taxonomy which models a domain with the definition of objects and/or concepts and their properties and relationsInformation science – The Ancient Library of Alexandria, an early form of information storage and retrieval.
5. Archive – An archive is an accumulation of historical records or the physical place they are located. Archives contain primary source documents that have accumulated over the course of an individual or organizations lifetime, in general, archives consist of records that have been selected for permanent or long-term preservation on grounds of their enduring cultural, historical, or evidentiary value. Archival records are normally unpublished and almost always unique, unlike books or magazines for which many copies exist. This means that archives are quite distinct from libraries with regard to their functions and organization, a person who works in archives is called an archivist. The study and practice of organizing, preserving, and providing access to information, the physical place of storage can be referred to as an archive, an archives, or a repository. When referring to historical records or the places they are kept, the computing use of the term archive should not be confused with the record-keeping meaning of the term. The adjective formed from archive is archival, the practice of keeping official documents is very old. Archaeologists have discovered archives of hundreds of clay tablets going back to the third and second millennia BC in sites like Ebla, Mari, Amarna, Hattusas, Ugarit and these discoveries have been fundamental to know ancient alphabets, languages, literature, and politics. Archives were well developed by the ancient Chinese, the ancient Greeks, however, they have been lost, since documents written on materials like papyrus and paper deteriorated at a faster pace, unlike their stone tablet counterparts. Archives of churches, kingdoms, and cities from the Middle Ages survive and have kept their official status uninterruptedly till now. They are the tool for historical research on these ages. Modern archival thinking has many roots from the French Revolution, historians, genealogists, lawyers, demographers, filmmakers, and others conduct research at archives. The research process at each archive is unique, and depends upon the institution that houses the archive. While there are kinds of archives, the most recent census of archivists in the United States identifies five major types, academic, business, government, non-profit. There are also four main areas of inquiry involved with archives, material technologies, organizing principles, geographic locations and these areas help to further categorize what kind of archive is being created. Archives in colleges, universities, and other facilities are typically housed within a library. Academic archives exist to preserve history and serve the academic community. Access to the collections in these archives is usually by prior appointment only, users of academic archives can be undergraduates, graduate students, faculty and staff, scholarly researchers, and the general publicArchive – Shelved record boxes of an archive.
6. Archivist – An archivist is an information professional who assesses, collects, organizes, preserves, maintains control over, and provides access to records and archives determined to have long-term value. The records maintained by an archivist can consist of a variety of forms, including letters, diaries, logs, various writings, official documents, sound and/or picture recordings. As Richard Pearce-Moses wrote, Archivists keep records that have enduring value as reliable memories of the past, determining what records have enduring value can be challenging. Archivists must also select records valuable enough to justify the costs of storage and preservation, plus the labor-intensive expenses of arrangement, description, the theory and scholarly work underpinning archives practices is called archival science. Although both are concerned with managing information, the occupation of archivist is quite distinct from that of librarian, the two occupations have separate courses of training, adhere to separate and distinct principles, and are represented by separate professional organizations. In broad terms, the librarian tends to deal with published media, in addition, because archival records are frequently unique, some archivists may be as much concerned with the preservation and custody of the information carrier as with its informational content. In this regard, some would argue the archivist may have more in common with the museum curator than with the librarian, Archivists duties include acquiring and appraising new collections, arranging and describing records, providing reference service, and preserving materials. In arranging records, archivists apply two important principles, provenance and original order, provenance refers to the origin of records, essentially who created them. Many entities create records, including government, businesses, universities, original order is applied by keeping records in their order as established and maintained by the creator. Both provenance and original order are closely related to the concept of respect des fonds, there are two aspects to arrangement, intellectual and physical. Both aspects follow the principle of original order, Archivists process the records physically by placing them in folders and boxes, usually acid free to ensure their long-term survival. They also process the records intellectually, by determining what the records consist of, how they are organized, finding aids can be box lists or descriptive inventories, or indexes. If the original arrangement is unclear or even unhelpful in terms of accessing the collection and this is because preserving the original order answers the most questions about the collection. It shows how the creator of the records functioned, why the records were created, if the archivist rearranged them, the records would lose the ability to answer these questions. It would also lose all significance, as the provenance and authenticity of the records may be lost, in negotiating ethical conflicts that arise in their work, archivists are guided by codes of ethics. The Society of American Archivists first adopted a code of ethics in 1980, alongside their work behind the scenes arranging and caring for collections, archivists assist users in interpreting collections and answering inquiries. This reference work can be just part of a job in a smaller organization. Alternatively, they could work on the collections of a large family or even of an individualArchivist – An archivist surveying an unprocessed collection of materials. Surveying is commonly done to determine priorities for preservation and/or conservation of materials before an archivist begins arrangement and description.
7. Archival science – Archival science, or archival studies, is the study and theory of building and curating archives, which are collections of recordings and data storage devices. To build and curate an archive, one must acquire and evaluate recorded materials, to this end, archival science seeks to improve methods for appraising, storing, preserving, and cataloging recorded materials. An archival record preserves data that is not intended to change, in order to be of value to society, archives must be trustworthy. Therefore, an archivist has a responsibility to authenticate archival materials, such as documents, and to ensure their reliability, integrity. An archive curator is called an archivist, the curation of an archive is called archive administration, Archival science emerged from diplomatics, the critical analysis of documents. In 1540, Jacob von Rammingen wrote the manuscript of the earliest known archival manual and he was an expert on registries, the German word for what later became known as archives. Rammingen elaborated a registry for the Augsburg city council, however, since he could not attend the council meeting, he described the structure and management of the archives in writing. Although this is not the first work about archival science, earlier manuals were not published. Archival science had no formal beginning, Jacob von Rammingens manual was printed in Heidelberg in 1571. Traditionally, archival science has involved the study of methods for preserving items in climate-controlled storage facilities and it is also the study of cataloguing and accession, of retrieval and safe handling. The advent of digital documents along with the development of electronic databases has caused the field to re-evaluate its means, while generally associated with museums and libraries, the field also can pertain to individuals who maintain private collections or business archives. Archival Science is taught in colleges and universities, usually under the umbrella of Information Science or paired with a History program, a list of foundational thinkers in archival studies could include, American archivist Theodore Schellenberg and British archivist Sir Hilary Jenkinson. There is no set of laws or standards that governs the form or mission of archival institutions. The standard developed by archivists in Canada, Rules for Archival Description, as a standard, RAD aims to provide archivists with a consistent and common foundation for the description of archival material within a fonds, based on traditional archival principles. A comparable standard used in the United States is Describing Archives, A Content Standard and these standards are in place to provide archivists with the tools for describing and making accessible archival material to the public. Metadata comprises contextual data pertaining to a record or aggregate of records, provenance in archival science refers to the origin or source of something, information regarding the origins, custody, and ownership of an item or collection. As a fundamental principle of archives, provenance refers to the individual, family, in practice, provenance dictates that records of different origins should be kept separate to preserve their context. As a methodology, provenance becomes a means of describing records at the series level, Describing records at the series level to ensure that records of different origins are kept separate, provided an alternative to item-level manuscript cataloguingArchival science – The earliest archival manuals: Jacob von Rammingen, Von der Registratur (1571), Baldassare Bonifacio, De Archivis (1632).
8. Preservation (library and archival science) – Preservation refers to the set of activities that aims to prolong the life of a record and relevant metadata, or enhance its value, or improve access to it through non-interventive means. This includes actions taken to influence records creators prior to selection and acquisition and it should be distinguished from conservation-restoration of cultural heritage, which refers to the treatment and repair of individual items to slow decay or restore them to a usable state. Conservation is occasionally used interchangeably with preservation, particularly outside the professional literature, Preservation as a formal profession in libraries and archives dates from the twentieth century, but its philosophy and practice has roots in many earlier traditions. In many ancient societies, appeals to heavenly protectors were used to preserve books, scrolls and manuscripts from insects, fire, to the ancient Egyptians, the scarab or dung beetle was a protector of written products. The scarab was used as a holder or medium for personal name seals. A figurine of a scarab would be carved out of stone, and then on the stomach of the scarab. Later, this image was used for the representation of the cartouche. In ancient Babylon, Nabu is the patron of books. Nabu is the Babylonian god of wisdom and writing, and is the patron of the scribes, librarians, nabus symbols are the clay writing tablet with the cuneiform writing stylus. He usually wears a cap, and often stands with his hands clasped together. Nabu engraves the destiny of each person, as the Gods have decided, thus, Nabu has the power to increase or diminish, at will, the length of human life. The image of Nabu is also one of the images on the brass doors designed by Lee Lawrie, entitled, A History of the Written Word, in Hindu beliefs, Ganesh is the elephant-headed god of learning and new enterprises. As the god of wisdom, he knows all, since he has the head of an elephant, he also has the reputed memory of the elephant, and thus does not forget anything. His statue is placed over the doors of and entrances of buildings in India and Sri Lanka. Ganesh is the scribe who wrote the Mahabharata from Vyasas dictation, Ganesh is credited with inventing the Sanskrit alphabet, and he broke off his right tusk to make the first pen. As the inventor of the alphabet, as a scribe, and as a keeper of wisdom and knowledge, Ganesh is credited as a patron of libraries, librarians and book sellers and buyers. In Arabic and other societies, sometimes a traditional method to protect books and scrolls was a metaphysical appeal to Kabi, Kaj. By appealing to the king to protect a manuscript, cockroaches of less nobility would refrain from intruding on documents which could be eaten by the king onlyPreservation (library and archival science) – National Bureau of Standards preserving the U.S. Declaration of Independence in 1951
9. Art conservation – The conservation-restoration of cultural heritage focuses on protection and care of tangible cultural heritage, including artworks, architecture, archaeology, and museum collections. Conservation activities include preventive conservation, examination, documentation, research, treatment and this field is closely allied with conservation science, curators and registrars. Conservation of cultural heritage can be described as a type of ethical stewardship, Conservation of cultural heritage applies simple ethical guidelines, Minimal intervention, Appropriate materials and reversible methods, Full documentation of all work undertaken. Often there are compromises between preserving appearance, maintaining original design and material properties, and ability to reverse changes, reversibility is now emphasized so as to reduce problems with future treatment, investigation, and use. The care of cultural heritage has a history, one that was primarily aimed at fixing and mending objects for their continued use. Until the early 20th century, artists were normally the ones called upon to repair damaged artworks, louis Pasteur carried out scientific analysis on paint as well. The society was founded by William Morris and Philip Webb, both of whom were influenced by the writings of John Ruskin. He not only developed an approach to the care of objects in the collections. The early development of conservation of heritage in any area of the world is usually linked to the creation of positions for chemists within museums. Lauries interests were fostered by William Holman Hunt, the creation of this department moved the focus for the development of conservation theory and practice from Germany to Britain, and made the latter a prime force in this fledgling field. In the United States, the development of conservation of heritage can be traced to the Fogg Art Museum. Importantly he also brought onto the staff chemists. Rutherford John Gettens was the first of usch in the US to be employed by an art museum. He worked with George L. Stout, the founder and first editor of Technical Studies, Gettens and Stout co-authored Painting Materials, A Short Encyclopaedia in 1942, reprinted in 1966. This compendium is still cited regularly, only a few dates and descriptions in Gettens and Stouts book are now outdated. George T. Oliver, of Oliver Brothers Art Restoration and Art Conservation-Boston invented the vacuum hot table for relining paintings in 1920s, taylors prototype table, which he designed and constructed, is still in operation. Oliver Brothers is believed to be the first and the oldest continuously operating art restoration company in the United States, the focus of conservation development then accelerated in Britain and America, and it was in Britain that the first International Conservation Organisations developed. Art historians and theorists such as Cesare Brandi have also played a significant role in developing conservation science theory, in recent years ethical concerns have been at the forefront of developments in conservationArt conservation – Removal of adherent surface deposits by physical chemical means (by cotton swab). Church of Suceviţa Monastery, burial chamber. Romania, Suceava.
10. Literary Hall – Literary Hall is a mid-19th-century brick library building and museum in Romney, West Virginia. It is located at the intersection of North High Street and West Main Street, Literary Hall was constructed between 1869 and 1870 by the Romney Literary Society. Founded in 1819, the Romney Literary Society was the first literary organization of its kind in the state of West Virginia. In 1846, the society constructed a building housed the Romney Classical Institute. The Romney Literary Society and the Romney Classical Institute both flourished and continued to grow in importance and influence until the onset of the American Civil War in 1861. During the war, the contents of the library were plundered by Union Army forces. After a reorganization in 1869, the society commenced construction of the present Literary Hall in downtown Romney, the Romney Literary Societys last meeting was held at Literary Hall in 1886. From 1886 to 1973 the building was used as a space by the Clinton Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons. In 1973, the building was purchased by prominent Romney lawyer Ralph Haines, from 1937 to the early 1940s the building also housed a community library. Literary Hall was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on May 29,1979, Literary Halls basic design incorporates Federal and Greek Revival styles along with Victorian details. Architectural historian Michael J. Pauley described Literary Hall as one of Romneys and Hampshire Countys most notable landmarks, and one in which this community is justifiably proud. Literary Hall is located in the center of downtown Romney, West Virginia, at the intersection of North High Street, the Hampshire County Courthouse is immediately to its east across North High Street and the Romney First United Methodist Church is situated immediately to the buildings north. The Old National Building is located to the south of Literary Hall across West Main Street. Literary Hall stands at an elevation of 820.3 feet above sea level, one of these seven supporters, Thomas Colepeper, 2nd Baron Colepeper, acquired the entire area in 1681, his grandson, Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, inherited it in 1719. Literary Hall was built upon a land lot designated Lot 56 to the immediate west of the square of Romney. In 1790, the trustees of the Town of Romney commissioned John Mitchel to draft a cadastral map of Romney. Prior to this survey, Lord Fairfax had commissioned a similar survey of Romney sometime before the towns incorporation on December 23,1762. The Romney Literary Society, which built Literary Hall between 1869 and 1870, was organized by nine prominent men in Romney on January 30,1819Literary Hall – Literary Hall
11. National Archives of Morocco – The Bibliothèque Nationale du Royaume du Maroc is located in Rabat, Morocco with a branch in Tetouan. The library was founded in 1924, after a dahir in 1926, it became a public establishment. Tétouan native Muhammad Abu Khubza authored a library catalog for the branch in that city in 1984, list of national libraries Bibliothèque Nationale du Royaume du Maroc >National Archives of Morocco – Bibliothèque Nationale du Royaume du Maroc