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1. Occult – The occult is knowledge of the hidden. In common English usage, occult refers to knowledge of the paranormal, as opposed to knowledge of the measurable, the terms esoteric and arcane can also be used to describe the occult, in addition to their meanings unrelated to the supernatural. Occultism is the study of practices, including magic, alchemy, extra-sensory perception, astrology, spiritualism, religion. Alchemy was common among important seventeenth-century scientists, such as Isaac Newton, Newton was even accused of introducing occult agencies into natural science when he postulated gravity as a force capable of acting over vast distances. By the eighteenth century these unorthodox religious and philosophical concerns were well-defined as occult, inasmuch as they lay on the outermost fringe of accepted forms of knowledge and they were, however, preserved by antiquarians and mystics. Occult science is the research into or formulation of occult concepts in a manner that resembles the way natural science researches or describes phenomena. In his 1871 book Primitive Culture, the anthropologist Edward Tylor used the term occult science as a synonym for magic, Occult qualities are properties that have no known rational explanation, in the Middle Ages, for example, magnetism was considered an occult quality. Newtons contemporaries severely criticized his theory that gravity was effected through action at a distance, some religions and sects enthusiastically embrace occultism as an integral esoteric aspect of mystical religious experience. This attitude is common within Wicca and many other modern pagan religions, some other religious denominations disapprove of occultism in most or all forms. They may view the occult as being anything supernatural or paranormal which is not achieved by or through God, monistic in contrast to Christian dualistic beliefs of a separation between body and spirit, Gnostic i. e. Walker, Benjamin. Encyclopedia of the Occult, the Esoteric and the Supernatural, harold W. Percival, Joined the Theosophical Society in 1892. Blavatsky, Occultism versus the Occult Arts, Lucifer, May 1888 Bardon, true to His Ways, Purity & Safety in Christian Spiritual Practice, ISBN 1-932124-61-6. ISBN 1-57863-150-5 Forshaw, Peter, The Occult Middle Ages, in Christopher Partridge, The Occult World, London, Routledge,2014 Gettings, Fred, Vision of the Occult, ISBN 0-7126-1438-9 Kontou, Tatiana – Willburn, Sarah. The Ashgate Research Companion to Nineteenth-Century Spiritualism and the Occult, ISBN 978-0-7546-6912-8 Martin, W. Rische, J. Rische, K. & VanGordon, K. W. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.201 p. N. B, the scope of this study also embraces the occult. ISBN 0-8028-0262-1 Partridge, Christopher, The Occult World, London, the Tree of Life, An Illustrated Study in Magic. Newton, Isaac, Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, Observations upon the Prophecies of Daniel, and the Apocalypse of St. John by Sir Isaac Newton Rogers, L. W. Hints to Young Students of Occultism. Albany, NY, The Theosophical Book Company, joseph H. Peterson, Twilit Grotto, Archives of Western Esoterica Occult Science and Philosophy of the Renaissance
2. Aleister Crowley – Aleister Crowley was an English occultist, ceremonial magician, poet, painter, novelist, and mountaineer. He founded the religion of Thelema, identifying himself as the prophet entrusted with guiding humanity into the Æon of Horus in the early 20th century, a prolific writer, he published widely over the course of his life. Born to a wealthy Plymouth Brethren family in Royal Leamington Spa, Warwickshire and he was educated at the University of Cambridge, where he focused his attentions on mountaineering and poetry, resulting in several publications. Some biographers allege that here he was recruited into a British intelligence agency, in 1898 he joined the esoteric Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, where he was trained in ceremonial magic by Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers and Allan Bennett. Moving to Boleskine House by Loch Ness in Scotland, he went mountaineering in Mexico with Oscar Eckenstein, before studying Hindu and Buddhist practices in India. Announcing the start of the Æon of Horus, The Book declared that its followers should Do what thou wilt, in 1907, he and George Cecil Jones co-founded a Thelemite order, the A∴A∴, through which they propagated the religion. Thelemite groups were established in Britain, Australia, and North America, in 1920 he established the Abbey of Thelema, a religious commune in Cefalù, Sicily where he lived with various followers. His libertine lifestyle led to denunciations in the British press, and he divided the following two decades between France, Germany, and England, and continued to promote Thelema until his death. Crowley gained widespread notoriety during his lifetime, being a recreational drug experimenter, bisexual and he was denounced in the popular press as the wickedest man in the world and a Satanist. Crowley has remained an influential figure over Western esotericism and the counter-culture. In 2002, a BBC poll ranked him as the seventy-third greatest Briton of all time, Crowley was born as Edward Alexander Crowley at 30 Clarendon Square in Royal Leamington Spa, Warwickshire, on 12 October 1875. His father, Edward Crowley, was trained as an engineer and his mother, Emily Bertha Bishop, came from a Devonshire-Somerset family and had a strained relationship with her son, she described him as the Beast, a name that he revelled in. The couple had married at Londons Kensington Registry Office in November 1874. Crowleys father was particularly devout, spending his time as a preacher for the sect and reading a chapter from the Bible to his wife. Following the death of their daughter in 1880, in 1881 the Crowleys moved to Redhill. At the age of 8, Crowley was sent to H. T, habershons evangelical Christian boarding school in Hastings, and then to Ebor preparatory school in Cambridge, run by the Reverend Henry dArcy Champney, whom Crowley considered a sadist. In March 1887, when Crowley was 11, his father died of tongue cancer, Crowley described this as a turning point in his life, and he always maintained an admiration of his father, describing him as his hero and his friend. Inheriting a third of his fathers wealth, he began misbehaving at school and was punished by Champney
3. Black magic – Black magic or dark magic has traditionally referred to the use of supernatural powers or magic for evil and selfish purposes. With respect to the path and right-hand path dichotomy, black magic is the malicious. In modern times, some find that the definition of magic has been convoluted by people who define magic or ritualistic practices that they disapprove of as black magic. Like its counterpart white magic, the origins of magic can be traced to the primitive, ritualistic worship of spirits as outlined in Robert M. Places 2009 book, Magic. During the Renaissance, many magical practices and rituals were considered evil or irreligious and by extension, Witchcraft and non-mainstream esoteric study were prohibited and targeted by the Inquisition. While natural magic became popular among the educated and upper classes of the 16th and 17th century, ritualistic magic, summers also highlights the etymological development of the term nigromancer, in common use from 1200 to approximately 1500, broadly one skilled in the black arts. In a modern context, the line between magic and black magic is somewhat clearer and most modern definitions focus on intent rather than practice. There is also an extent to which many modern Wicca and witchcraft practitioners have sought to distance themselves from those intent on practising black magic, the influence of popular culture has allowed other practices to be drawn in under the broad banner of black magic including the concept of Satanism. While the invocation of demons or spirits is an part of black magic. Those lines, though, continue to be blurred by the inclusion of spirit rituals from otherwise white magicians in compilations of work related to Satanism. Dees rituals themselves were designed to contact spirits in general and angels in particular, laVeys Bible, however, is a complete contradiction of Dees intentions but offers the same rituals as a means of contact with evil spirits and demons. LaVeys Church of Satan, officially denies the efficacy of ritual but affirms the subjective, psychological value of ritual practice. LaVey himself was more specific, The latter quote, though, Voodoo, too, has been associated with modern black magic, drawn together in popular culture and fiction. In fact, Voodoo tradition makes its own distinction between black and white magic, with sorcerers like the Bokor known for using magic and rituals of both. But their penchant for magic associated with curses, poisons and zombies means they, the links and interaction between black magic and religion are many and varied. Beyond black magics links to organised Satanism or its historical persecution by Christianity and its inquisitions, the Black Mass, for example, is a sacrilegious parody of the Catholic Mass. Likewise, a saining, though primarily a practice of magic, is a Wiccan ritual analogous to a christening or baptism for an infant. 17th century priest, Étienne Guibourg, is said to have performed a series of Black Mass rituals with alleged witch Catherine Monvoisin for Madame de Montespan, in Islam, al-Fatiha al-Falaq, al-Nas and other Surahs are recited to protect against sorcery
4. Secret organization – A secret society is a club or an organization whose activities, events, and inner functioning are concealed from non-members. The society may or may not attempt to conceal its existence, the term usually excludes covert groups, such as intelligence agencies or guerrilla insurgencies, that hide their activities and memberships but maintain a public presence. Anthropologically and historically, secret societies are deeply interlinked with the concept of the Männerbund, a purported family tree of secret societies has been proposed, although it may not be comprehensive. Alan Axelrod, author of the International Encyclopedia of Secret Societies and Fraternal Orders, defines a secret society as an organization that, shows a strong inclination to favor its own. David V. Barrett, author of Secret Societies, From the Ancient and Arcane to the Modern and Clandestine, uses slightly different terms to define what does and does not qualify as a secret society. Barrett goes on to say that a characteristic common to most of them is the practice of rituals which non-members are not permitted to observe. Because some secret societies have political aims, they are illegal in several countries, poland, for example, has included a ban on secret political parties and political organizations in its constitution. Many student societies established on university campuses in the United States have been considered secret societies, perhaps one of the most famous secret collegiate societies is Skull and Bones at Yale University. One of the best known British secret societies is the Cambridge Apostles, founded as an essay, in France, Vandermonde is the secret society of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers. Notable examples in Canada include Episkopon at the University of Torontos Trinity College, Secret societies are disallowed in a few colleges. The goals of the society remain unknown, but it is believed that they are involved in cryptography, the International Encyclopedia of Secret Societies and Fraternal Orders. Secret Societies in America, The North American Review, Vol.164, conspiracy Theories and Secret Societies For Dummies. Geheimgesellschaften, Kulturhistorische Sozialstudien, Secret Societies, Comparative Studies in Culture, Society, the Mythology of the Secret Societies. Pledged, The Secret Life of Sororities, New York, Hamilton Printing & Publishing Company. Secret Places, Hidden Sanctuaries, Uncovering Mysterious Sights, Symbols, a comprehensive, though dated, review of the subject. Useful histories of Secret Societies in Australia and of Rise and Fall of English Freemasonry on non-commercial site <www. fraternalsecrets. org>
5. Secret society – A secret society is a club or an organization whose activities, events, and inner functioning are concealed from non-members. The society may or may not attempt to conceal its existence, the term usually excludes covert groups, such as intelligence agencies or guerrilla insurgencies, that hide their activities and memberships but maintain a public presence. Anthropologically and historically, secret societies are deeply interlinked with the concept of the Männerbund, a purported family tree of secret societies has been proposed, although it may not be comprehensive. Alan Axelrod, author of the International Encyclopedia of Secret Societies and Fraternal Orders, defines a secret society as an organization that, shows a strong inclination to favor its own. David V. Barrett, author of Secret Societies, From the Ancient and Arcane to the Modern and Clandestine, uses slightly different terms to define what does and does not qualify as a secret society. Barrett goes on to say that a characteristic common to most of them is the practice of rituals which non-members are not permitted to observe. Because some secret societies have political aims, they are illegal in several countries, poland, for example, has included a ban on secret political parties and political organizations in its constitution. Many student societies established on university campuses in the United States have been considered secret societies, perhaps one of the most famous secret collegiate societies is Skull and Bones at Yale University. One of the best known British secret societies is the Cambridge Apostles, founded as an essay, in France, Vandermonde is the secret society of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers. Notable examples in Canada include Episkopon at the University of Torontos Trinity College, Secret societies are disallowed in a few colleges. The goals of the society remain unknown, but it is believed that they are involved in cryptography, the International Encyclopedia of Secret Societies and Fraternal Orders. Secret Societies in America, The North American Review, Vol.164, conspiracy Theories and Secret Societies For Dummies. Geheimgesellschaften, Kulturhistorische Sozialstudien, Secret Societies, Comparative Studies in Culture, Society, the Mythology of the Secret Societies. Pledged, The Secret Life of Sororities, New York, Hamilton Printing & Publishing Company. Secret Places, Hidden Sanctuaries, Uncovering Mysterious Sights, Symbols, a comprehensive, though dated, review of the subject. Useful histories of Secret Societies in Australia and of Rise and Fall of English Freemasonry on non-commercial site <www. fraternalsecrets. org>
6. Fraternal order – A fraternal order is a fraternity organised as an order. Traits sometimes allude to aspects of the religious or chivalric orders of the Middle Ages. Contemporary fraternal orders typically have secular purposes, including social, cultural, a fraternal order may be organised by a Grand Master and divided geographically by lodges or provinces. Internal member activities may or may not be related to those concerned in phaleristics, prominent more modern-time examples include the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, the Independent Order of Foresters and the Loyal Order of Moose. Some may line with ethnic or religious affiliations, such as Ancient Order of Hibernians or Order of Alhambra for Irish Catholics, others may be associated with professions, like the Fraternal Order of Police, while yet others are focused on academic traditions. There were typically reciprocal agreements between lodges within an order, so that if moved to other cities or countries. The ceremonies were fairly uniform throughout an order, occasionally, a lodge might change the order that it was affiliated to, two orders might merge, or a group of lodges would break away from an order and form a new one. Consequently, the histories of some orders and friendly societies are difficult to follow. Often there were different, unrelated organisations with similar names, fraternity Friendly society Benefit society Mutual organisation
7. Mystery religion – The main characterization of this religion is the secrecy associated with the particulars of the initiation and the ritual practice, which may not be revealed to outsiders. The most famous mysteries of Greco-Roman antiquity were the Eleusinian Mysteries, the mystery schools flourished in Late Antiquity, Julian the Apostate in the mid 4th century is known to have been initiated into three distinct mystery schools — most notably the mithraists. Because of this element of secrecy, we are ill-informed as to the beliefs and we know that they had a general likeness to one another. They too were embraced by the process of the inculturation of Christianity in its initial phase, the term Mystery derives from Latin mysterium, from Greek mysterion, in this context meaning secret rite or doctrine. The Mysteries were thus schools in all religious functions were closed to the uninitiated. This is also reflected in the division of theology by Varro, in civil theology, natural theology. Mysteries thus supplement rather than compete with civil religion, an individual could easily observe the rites of the state religion, be an initiate in one or several mysteries, and at the same time adhere to a certain philosophical school. In contrast to the rituals of civil religion, participation in which was expected of every member of society. This is important in the context of the persecution of Christians. The mystery schools offered a niche for the preservation of ancient religious ritual and they had, more often than not, come up from a barbarous underworld. The mysteries at Eleusis near Athens lasted for a thousand years, for this reason, what glimpses we do have of the older Greek mysteries have been taken as reflecting certain archaic aspects of common Indo-European religion, with parallels in Indo-Iranian religion. The mystery schools of Greco-Roman antiquity include the Eleusinian Mysteries, the Dionysian Mysteries, the ancient mystery schools were a subject of fascination for 19th and early-20th century German and French classical scholars. This literature had an influence on European culture in the late 19th century. Psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Carl Gustav Jung borrowed metaphors from this literature to reframe his theories, navigium Isidis Mysticism Notes Further reading Media related to Mysteric religions in ancient world at Wikimedia Commons
8. Invocation – An invocation may take the form of, Supplication, prayer or spell. These forms are described below, but are not mutually exclusive, as a supplication or prayer it implies to call upon God, a god, goddess, or person, etc. When a person calls upon God, a god, or goddess to ask for something or simply for worship, an example of a pre-established text for an invocation is the Lords Prayer. An invocation can also be an alternative to a prayer. On August 30,2012, Dan Nerren, a member of the Humanist Association of Tulsa, Nerren was invited to perform the invocation as a compromise following a long-running dispute with the City Council over prayers opening meetings. In this usage, it is comparable to an affirmation as an alternative for those who object to taking oaths of any kind. The word possession is used here in its form to mean a state in which an individuals normal personality is replaced by another. This is also known as aspecting. This can be done as a means of communicating with or getting closer to a deity or spirit, again, Aleister Crowley states that To invoke is to call in, just as to evoke is to call forth. This is the difference between the two branches of Magick. In invocation, the floods the consciousness. In evocation, the magician, having become the macrocosm, creates a microcosm, possessive invocation may be attempted singly or, as is often the case in Wicca, in pairs - with one person doing the invocation, and the other person being invoked. The person successfully invoked may be moved to speak or act in ways, acting as the deity or spirit. A communication might also be given via imagery and they may also be led to recite a text in the manner of that deity, in which case the invocation is more akin to ritual drama. The Wiccan Charge of the Goddess is an example of such a pre-established recitation, see also the ritual of Drawing Down the Moon. The ecstatic, possessory form of invocation may be compared to loa possession in the Vodou tradition where devotees are described as being ridden or mounted by the deity or spirit, nearby a believer, perhaps a yam farmer or fisherman, heated hand-wrought knives in crackling flames. Then another man brought one of the knives to his tongue and we cringed at the sight and were dumbfounded when, after several repetitions, his tongue had not even reddened. Possessive invocation has also described in certain Norse rites where Odin is invoked to ride workers of seidr
9. Supplication – Supplication is a form of prayer, wherein one party humbly or earnestly asks another party to provide something, either for the party who is doing the supplicating or on behalf of someone else. Supplication is a theme of earliest antiquity, embodied in the Iliad as the prayers of Chryses for the return of his daughter, richard Martin notes repeated references to suppliants throughout the poem, including warriors begging to be spared by the Greeks on the battlefield. In Christianity, the prayer of supplication for health by and on behalf of the sick is referenced in early Christian writings in the New Testament, especially James 5, 13-16. One example of supplication is the Catholic ritual of novena wherein one repeatedly asks for the same favor over a period of nine days. This ritual began in Spain during the Middle Ages when a period of hymns and prayers led up to a Christmas feast. A contemporary Christian example of supplication is the practice of the Daily Prayer for Peace by the Community of Christ where a member prays for each day at a specified time. Philippians 4,6 says, Be anxious for nothing, but in everything by prayer and supplication, with thanksgiving, in Islam, the Arabic word duʻā is used to refer to supplications. Adʻiya may be made in any language, although there are many traditional Islamic supplications in Arabic, Persian, in Islam, duʻā tends to mean personal prayer. The supplications of Prophets are given in the Holy Quran, the word Ardâs is derived from the Persian word Arazdashat, meaning a request, a supplication, a prayer, a petition or an address to a superior authority. In Sikhism, these prayers are said before and after eating. The prayer is a plea to God to support and help the devotee with whatever he or she is about to undertake or has done, an explanation of supplication in the Sikh tradition
10. Esotericism – Western esotericism is a scholarly term for a wide range of loosely related ideas and movements which have developed within Western society. They are largely distinct both from orthodox Judeo-Christian religion and from Enlightenment rationalism, the idea of categorising a wide range of Western traditions and philosophies together under the rubric that we now term esotericism developed in Europe during the late seventeenth century. Various academics have debated the definition of Western esotericism, with a number of different options proposed. One scholarly model adopts its definition of esotericism from certain esotericist schools of thought themselves, treating esotericism as a perennialist hidden, a second perspective sees esotericism as a category that encompasses world-views which seek to embrace an enchanted world-view in the face of increasing de-enchantment. The 19th century saw the emergence of new trends of thought that have come to be known as occultism. Prominent groups in this included the Theosophical Society and the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. Modern Paganism developed within occultism, and includes religious movements such as Wicca, Esoteric ideas permeated the counterculture of the 1960s and later cultural tendencies, from which emerged the New Age movement in the 1970s. The academic study of Western esotericism only emerged in the late 20th-century, pioneered by scholars like Frances Yates, Esoteric ideas have meanwhile also exerted an influence in popular culture, appearing in art, literature, film, and music. The adjective esoteric first appeared in the second century CE as the Ancient Greek term esôterikós, the noun esotericism, in its French form of lésotérisme, was first used in 1828, by Jacques Matter in his book, Histoire du gnosticisme. The term was popularized by the French occultist and ceremonial magician Eliphas Lévi in the 1850s, Lévi also introduced the term loccultisme, a notion that he developed against the background of contemporary socialist and Catholic discourses. Esotericism and occultism were often employed as synonyms until being distinguished by later scholars, the concept of Western esotericism is a modern scholarly construct rather than a pre-existing, self-defined tradition of thought. The first to do so was Ehregott Daniel Colberg, a German Lutheran who wrote Platonisch-Hermetisches Christianity, various academics have emphasised the idea that esotericism is a phenomenon unique to the Western world, as Faivre stated, an empirical perspective would hold that esotericism is a Western notion. As scholars such as Faivre and Hanegraaff have pointed out, there is no category of Eastern or Oriental esotericism. The emphasis on Western esotericism was nevertheless primarily devised to distinguish the field from a universal esotericism, Hanegraaff has characterised these as recognisable world views and approaches to knowledge that have played an important although always controversial role in the history of Western culture. This attitude was endorsed by Egil Asprem, nevertheless, esotericism itself remains a controversial term, with scholars specialising in the subject disagreeing as to how it can best be defined. It subsequently became a popular approach within several esoteric movements, most notably Martinism and Traditionalism, within the academic field of religious studies, those who study different religions in search of an inner, universal dimension to them all are termed religionists. Such religionist ideas also exerted an influence on more recent scholars like Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, there are various problems with this model for understanding Western esotericism. The most significant is that is rests upon the conviction that there really is a universal, hidden, moreover, Hanegraaff noted that when scholars adopt this definition, it shows that they subscribe to the religious doctrines which are espoused by the very groups that they are studying
11. Grimoire – In this manner, while all books on magic could be thought of as grimoires, not all magical books should be thought of as grimoires. He also noted that the first grimoires could be found in Europe and it is most commonly believed that the term grimoire originated from the Old French word grammaire, which had initially been used to refer to all books written in Latin. By the 18th century, the term had gained its now common usage in France, Owen Davies presumed this was because many of them continued to circulate in Latin manuscripts. However, the term later developed into a figure of speech amongst the French indicating something that was hard to understand. The ancient Egyptians also employed magical incantations, which have been inscribed on amulets. The Egyptian magical system, known as heka, was altered and enhanced after the Macedonians, led by Alexander the Great. Under the next three centuries of Hellenistic Egypt, the Coptic writing system evolved, and the Library of Alexandria was opened, the ancient Greeks and Romans believed that books on magic were invented by the Persians. His claims are not, however, supported by modern historians, the ancient Jewish people were often viewed as being knowledgeable in magic, which, according to legend, they had learned from Moses, who had learned it in Egypt. Among many ancient writers, Moses was seen as an Egyptian rather than a Jew. Two manuscripts likely dating to the 4th century, both of which purport to be the legendary eighth Book of Moses, present him as a polytheist who explained how to conjure gods and subdue demons. Meanwhile, there is evidence of grimoires being used by certain, particularly Gnostic. In the Book of Enoch found within the Dead Sea Scrolls, for instance, there is information on astrology, israelite King Solomon was a Biblical figure associated with magic and sorcery in the ancient world. The book may have been the Testament of Solomon but was probably a different work. The pseudepigraphic Testament of Solomon is one of the oldest magical texts and it is a Greek manuscript attributed to Solomon and likely written in either Babylonia or Egypt sometime in the first five centuries AD, over 1,000 years after Solomons death. The work tells of the building of The Temple and relates that construction was hampered by demons until the angel Michael gave the king a magical ring, the ring, engraved with the Seal of Solomon, had the power to bind demons from doing harm. Subsequently, after losing favour with God, King Solomon wrote the work as a warning, when Christianity became the dominant faith of the Roman Empire, the early Church frowned upon the propagation of books on magic, connecting it with paganism, and burned books of magic. The New Testament records that St. Paul called for the burning of magic and pagan books in the city of Ephesus, in the Medieval period, the production of grimoires continued in Christendom, as well as amongst Jews and the followers of the newly founded Islamic faith. The use of books on magic continued
12. Thelema – Thelema is a religion based on a philosophical law of the same name, adopted as a central tenet by some religious organizations. The law of Thelema is Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law, Love is the law, love under will. The law of Thelema was developed in the early 1900s by Aleister Crowley and he believed himself to be the prophet of a new age, the Æon of Horus, based upon a spiritual experience that he and his wife, Rose Edith, had in Egypt in 1904. An adherent of Thelema is a Thelemite, the Thelemic pantheon includes a number of deities, primarily a trio adapted from ancient Egyptian religion, who are the three speakers of The Book of the Law, Nuit, Hadit and Ra-Hoor-Khuit. Crowley described these deities as a literary convenience, the religion is founded upon the idea that the 20th century marked the beginning of the Aeon of Horus, in which a new ethical code would be followed, Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law. This statement indicates that adherents, who are known as Thelemites, should seek out and follow their own path in life. The philosophy also emphasizes the practice of Magick. The word thelema is the English transliteration of the Koine Greek noun θέλημα will, from the verb θέλω to will, wish, want or purpose. As Crowley developed the religion, he wrote widely on the topic and he also included ideas from occultism, yoga and both Eastern and Western mysticism, especially the Qabalah. The word θέλημα is rare in classical Greek, where it signifies the appetitive will, desire, sometimes even sexual, but it is frequent in the Septuagint. Early Christian writings occasionally use the word to refer to the human will, and even the will of Gods opponent, the Devil, one well-known example is in the Lords Prayer, “Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done, On earth as it is in heaven. ”It is used later in the gospel, He went away again a second time and prayed, saying, My Father, if this cannot pass away unless I drink it. In his 5th-century Sermon on 1 John 4, 4–12, Augustine of Hippo gave an instruction, Love. In the Renaissance, a character named Thelemia represents will or desire in the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili of the Dominican monk Francesco Colonna, the protagonist Poliphilo has two allegorical guides, Logistica and Thelemia. When forced to choose, he chooses fulfillment of his sexual will over logic, the only rule of this Abbey was fay çe que vouldras. In the mid-18th century, Sir Francis Dashwood inscribed the adage on a doorway of his abbey at Medmenham, where it served as the motto of the Hellfire Club. Rabelaiss Abbey of Thelema has been referred to by later writers Sir Walter Besant and James Rice, in their novel The Monks of Thelema, françois Rabelais was a Franciscan and later a Benedictine monk of the 16th century. Eventually he left the monastery to study medicine, and moved to the French city of Lyon in 1532, there he wrote Gargantua and Pantagruel, a connected series of books
13. Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn – The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn was an organization devoted to the study and practice of the occult, metaphysics, and paranormal activities during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Known as an order, the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn was active in Great Britain and focused its practices on theurgy. The three founders, William Robert Woodman, William Wynn Westcott, and Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers, were Freemasons, Westcott appears to have been the initial driving force behind the establishment of the Golden Dawn. The Golden Dawn system was based on hierarchy and initiation like the Masonic Lodges, the Golden Dawn was the first of three Orders, although all three are often collectively referred to as the Golden Dawn. The Second or Inner Order, the Rosae Rubeae et Aureae Crucis, taught magic, including scrying, astral travel, the foundational documents of the original Order of the Golden Dawn, known as the Cipher Manuscripts, are written in English using the Trithemius cipher. The documents did not excite Woodford, and in February 1886 he passed them on to Freemason William Wynn Westcott, Westcott, pleased with his discovery, called on fellow Freemason Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers for a second opinion. Westcott asked for Mathers help to turn the manuscripts into a coherent system for lodge work, Mathers in turn asked fellow Freemason William Robert Woodman to assist the two, and he accepted. Mathers and Westcott have been credited with developing the ritual outlines in the Cipher Manuscripts into a workable format, Mathers, however, is generally credited with the design of the curriculum and rituals of the Second Order, which he called the Rosae Rubae et Aureae Crucis. In October 1887, Westcott claimed to have written to a German countess and prominent Rosicrucian named Anna Sprengel, Westcott purportedly received a reply from Sprengel granting permission to establish a Golden Dawn temple and conferring honorary grades of Adeptus Exemptus on Westcott, Mathers, and Woodman. The temple was to consist of the five grades outlined in the manuscripts, in 1888, the Isis-Urania Temple was founded in London. In contrast to the S. R. I. A. and Masonry, women were allowed, the Order was more of a philosophical and metaphysical teaching order in its early years. Other than certain rituals and meditations found in the Cipher manuscripts and developed further, for the first four years, the Golden Dawn was one cohesive group later known as the Outer Order or First Order. An Inner Order was established and became active in 1892, the Inner Order consisted of members known as adepts, who had completed the entire course of study for the Outer Order. This group of adepts eventually became known as the Second Order, eventually, the Osiris temple in Weston-super-Mare, the Horus temple in Bradford, and the Amen-Ra temple in Edinburgh were founded. In 1893 Mathers founded the Ahathoor temple in Paris, in 1891, Westcotts alleged correspondence with Anna Sprengel suddenly ceased. He claimed to have received word from Germany that she was dead or that her companions did not approve of the founding of the Order. If the founders were to contact the Secret Chiefs, apparently, in 1892, Mathers professed that a link to the Secret Chiefs had been established. Subsequently, he supplied rituals for the Second Order, calling them the Red Rose, the rituals were based on the tradition of the tomb of Christian Rosenkreuz, and a Vault of Adepts became the controlling force behind the Outer Order
14. Ordo Templi Orientis – Ordo Templi Orientis is an international fraternal and religious organization founded at the beginning of the 20th century. English author and occultist Aleister Crowley has become the member of the order. This Law—expressed as Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law and Love is the law, similar to many secret societies, O. T. O. Membership is based on a system with a series of degree ceremonies that use ritual drama to establish fraternal bonds. O. T. O. also includes the Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica or Gnostic Catholic Church and its central rite, which is public, is called Liber XV, or the Gnostic Mass. The early history of O. T. O. is difficult to trace reliably and it originated in Germany or Austria between 1895 and 1906. Its apparent founder was Carl Kellner, a wealthy Austrian industrialist, theodor Reuss collaborated with Kellner in creating O. T. O. and succeeded him as head of O. T. O. after Kellners death. Under Reuss, charters were given to occult brotherhoods in France, Denmark, Switzerland, There were nine degrees, of which the first six were Masonic. Although these rites are considered to be irregular, they, along with the Swedenborg Rite formed the core of the newly established Order, Reuss met Aleister Crowley and in 1910 admitted him to the first three degrees of O. T. O. Only two years later, Crowley was placed in charge of Great Britain and Ireland, and was advanced to the X°, in 1913, Crowley composed the Gnostic Mass while in Moscow, which he described as being the Order’s central ceremony of its public and private celebration. In 1914, soon after World War I broke out, he moved to the United States and it was around this time that Crowley decided to integrate Thelema into the O. T. O. System, and in 1915 prepared revised rituals for use in the M∴M∴M∴, in 1917, Reuss wrote a Synopsis of Degrees of O. T. O. The same document shows that the degree of O. T. O. is also known as the Holy Royal Arch of Enoch. In 1919, Crowley attempted to work this Masonic-based O. T. O. in Detroit, the result was that he was rebuffed by the Council of the Scottish rite on the basis that O. T. O. Rituals were too similar to orthodox Masonry, Crowley subsequently rewrote the initiation rituals of the first three degrees, and in doing so removed most of those rituals ties to Masonry. He did not, however, rewrite the fourth degree ritual, Crowley wrote that Theodore Reuss suffered a stroke in the spring of 1920. In correspondence with one of Reuss officers, Crowley expressed doubts about Reuss competence to remain in office, relations between Reuss and Crowley began to deteriorate, and the two exchanged angry letters in November 1921. Crowley informed Reuss that he was availing himself of Reuss abdication from office, Reuss died on October 28,1923 without designating a successor, though Crowley claimed in later correspondence that Reuss had designated him
15. Astrology – Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events. Throughout most of its history astrology was considered a tradition and was common in academic circles, often in close relation with astronomy, alchemy, meteorology. It was present in political circles, and is mentioned in works of literature, from Dante Alighieri and Geoffrey Chaucer to William Shakespeare, Lope de Vega. Astrology thus lost its academic and theoretical standing, and common belief in it has largely declined, Astrology is now recognized to be pseudoscience. The word astrology comes from the early Latin word astrologia, which derives from the Greek ἀστρολογία—from ἄστρον astron, astrologia later passed into meaning star-divination with astronomia used for the scientific term. Many cultures have attached importance to astronomical events, and the Indians, Chinese, the majority of professional astrologers rely on such systems. Astrology has been dated to at least the 2nd millennium BCE, with roots in systems used to predict seasonal shifts. A form of astrology was practised in the first dynasty of Mesopotamia, Chinese astrology was elaborated in the Zhou dynasty. Hellenistic astrology after 332 BCE mixed Babylonian astrology with Egyptian Decanic astrology in Alexandria, Alexander the Greats conquest of Asia allowed astrology to spread to Ancient Greece and Rome. In Rome, astrology was associated with Chaldean wisdom, after the conquest of Alexandria in the 7th century, astrology was taken up by Islamic scholars, and Hellenistic texts were translated into Arabic and Persian. In the 12th century, Arabic texts were imported to Europe, major astronomers including Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler and Galileo practised as court astrologers. Astrological references appear in literature in the works of such as Dante Alighieri and Geoffrey Chaucer. Throughout most of its history, astrology was considered a scholarly tradition and it was accepted in political and academic contexts, and was connected with other studies, such as astronomy, alchemy, meteorology, and medicine. At the end of the 17th century, new concepts in astronomy. Astrology thus lost its academic and theoretical standing, and common belief in astrology has largely declined, Astrology, in its broadest sense, is the search for meaning in the sky. This was a first step towards recording the Moons influence upon tides and rivers, by the 3rd millennium BCE, civilisations had sophisticated awareness of celestial cycles, and may have oriented temples in alignment with heliacal risings of the stars. Scattered evidence suggests that the oldest known references are copies of texts made in the ancient world. The Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa thought to be compiled in Babylon around 1700 BCE, a scroll documenting an early use of electional astrology is doubtfully ascribed to the reign of the Sumerian ruler Gudea of Lagash