The Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception of the Holy Virgin Mary is a neo-Gothic church that serves as the cathedral of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Moscow. Located in the Central Administrative Okrug, it is one of only two Catholic churches in Moscow and the largest in Russia, the construction of the cathedral was proposed by the Tsarist government in 1894. Groundbreaking was in 1899, construction began in 1901 and was completed ten years later. Three-aisled and built from red brick, the cathedral is based on a design by architect Tomasz Bohdanowicz-Dworzecki, the style was influenced by Westminster Abbey and Milan Cathedral. With the help of funds from Catholic parishes in Russia and its neighbouring states, in the aftermath of the Russian Revolution in 1917, the Provisional Government was overthrown by the Bolsheviks and Russia became part of the newly formed Soviet Union. Because the promotion of atheism was a part of Marxist–Leninist ideology, the government ordered many churches closed.
During World War II, it was threatened with demolition, and was used after the war for civil purposes, as a warehouse, following the fall of communism in 1991, it returned to being a church in 1996. In 2002 it was elevated to the status of cathedral, following an extensive and costly programme of reconstruction and refurbishment, the cathedral was reconsecrated in 2005. Its organ, the third since the construction, was donated by the Basel Münster. The cathedral is listed as a building in the Russian Federation. As the congregation for the Polish church had increased to around 30,000 members, following the submission of a petition to the Governor-General of Moscow, the local council voted for a new church in 1894. The purchase of the land was funded by donations, and cost 10,000 rubles in gold, the purchase agreement and a full list of donations are today kept in the city archives of Moscow and St. Petersburg. The plans for the building were produced by a Russian architect of Polish descent, although his plan did not follow the councils latter condition, it was accepted.
The plan provided seating for up to 5,000 worshippers, groundbreaking was in 1899, and construction took place from 1901 to 1911. The construction cost was 290,000 roubles in gold, much of which was donated by members of the Polish parish of Moscow, More funding came from Catholic parishes throughout Russia and Byelorussia. The church was consecrated on 21 December 1911 as the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception of the Holy Virgin Mary and it soon obtained the status of a chapel in the Peter and Paul parish. The consecration received extensive coverage in the Russian and Polish press, with a plenty of conning turrets and towers with crosses. The new cathedral makes a deep impression, looks impressive and eminent, Not the slightest stylistic flaw could be seen or detected
House with Chimaeras or Horodecki House is an Art Nouveau building located in the historic Lypky neighborhood of Kyiv, the capital of Ukraine. Situated across the street from the President of Ukraines office at No,10, Bankova Street, the building has been used as a presidential residence for official and diplomatic ceremonies since 2005. The street in front of the building is closed off to all automobile traffic, the Polish architect Władysław Horodecki originally constructed the House with Chimaeras for use as his own upmarket apartment building during the period of 1901–1902. When the building was vacated, its interior and exterior decor were fully reconstructed and restored according to Horodecki original plans. The building derives its name from the ornate decorations depicting exotic animals and hunting scenes. The name does not refer to the chimaera of mythology, Horodecki unique architectural style earned him praise as the Antoni Gaudí of Kyiv. A House with Chimaeras was designed by the Polish architect Władysław Horodecki in 1901–1902, Horodecki was born in 1863 into a prosperous Polish szlachta family in the Podillia region.
After finishing the Imperial Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg in 1890, he moved to Kyiv, nicholas Roman Catholic Cathedral to the Karaim Kenesa and what today is the National Art Museum of Ukraine. Besides architecture, Horodecki was interested in hunting, which explains why his building features many animals. Horodecki financed the construction with borrowed money, with the intent for it to be an apartment building. Each floor formed a single apartment, connected by an elevator, Horodecki himself occupied the fourth floor of the building, measuring at about 380 m2. Horodecki bought the first lot of land on February 1,1901, Construction of the exterior walls was finished by August 21, and the roof installed and all masonry work was completed on September 13. Due to the economic hardships within the Russian Empire, the completion of the building was delayed, in May 1903, only one apartment on the lowest level and Horodeckis own apartment were occupied. The total cost of the land and construction amounted to 133,000 rubles, in total,1,550 m2 of land were used for construction of the building and cost a total of 15,640 rubles.
The projected annual profit from the rentals was 7,200 rubles, a cowshed was located on the premises due to Horodeckis insistence on fresh in-house milk, though it was specifically placed in a way that the smell of the cows would not disturb the tenants. On a lot adjacent to the building, an alpine garden. Due to financial mismanagement which included his Safari hunting hobby, in July 1912, in 1916, the house belonged to the Blahodatinskoe sugar factory. In 1918, the ownership changed again, to Samuel Nemets
It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,000,000 square kilometres, it is the fifth-largest continent, for comparison, Antarctica is nearly twice the size of Australia. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km in thickness, Antarctica, on average, is the coldest and windiest continent, and has the highest average elevation of all the continents. Antarctica is a desert, with precipitation of only 200 mm along the coast. The temperature in Antarctica has reached −89.2 °C, though the average for the quarter is −63 °C. Anywhere from 1,000 to 5,000 people reside throughout the year at the research stations scattered across the continent. Organisms native to Antarctica include many types of algae, fungi, protista, where it occurs, is tundra. The continent, remained neglected for the rest of the 19th century because of its hostile environment, lack of easily accessible resources.
In 1895, the first confirmed landing was conducted by a team of Norwegians, Antarctica is a de facto condominium, governed by parties to the Antarctic Treaty System that have consulting status. Twelve countries signed the Antarctic Treaty in 1959, and thirty-eight have signed it since then, the treaty prohibits military activities and mineral mining, prohibits nuclear explosions and nuclear waste disposal, supports scientific research, and protects the continents ecozone. Ongoing experiments are conducted by more than 4,000 scientists from many nations, the name Antarctica is the romanised version of the Greek compound word ἀνταρκτική, feminine of ἀνταρκτικός, meaning opposite to the Arctic, opposite to the north. Aristotle wrote in his book Meteorology about an Antarctic region in c.350 B. C, marinus of Tyre reportedly used the name in his unpreserved world map from the 2nd century A. D. Before acquiring its present geographical connotations, the term was used for locations that could be defined as opposite to the north.
For example, the short-lived French colony established in Brazil in the 16th century was called France Antarctique, the first formal use of the name Antarctica as a continental name in the 1890s is attributed to the Scottish cartographer John George Bartholomew. Antarctica has no population and there is no evidence that it was seen by humans until the 19th century. Explorer Matthew Flinders, in particular, has credited with popularising the transfer of the name Terra Australis to Australia. Cook came within about 120 km of the Antarctic coast before retreating in the face of ice in January 1773. The first confirmed sighting of Antarctica can be narrowed down to the crews of ships captained by three individuals, according to various organisations, ships captained by three men sighted Antarctica or its ice shelf in 1820, von Bellingshausen, Edward Bransfield, and Nathaniel Palmer
The Borodino-class battlecruisers were a group of four battlecruisers ordered by the Imperial Russian Navy before World War I. Also referred to as the Izmail class, they were laid down in December 1912 at Saint Petersburg for service with the Baltic Fleet, construction of the ships was delayed as many domestic factories were overloaded with orders and some components had to be ordered from abroad. Three of the four ships were launched in 1915 and the fourth in 1916, work on the gun turrets lagged, and it became evident that Russian industry would not be able to complete the ships during the war. The Russian Revolution of 1917 put a stop to their construction, although some consideration was given to finishing the hulls that were nearest to completion, they were all eventually sold for scrap by the Soviet Union. Preliminary bids for the ships were solicited from private builders, but the bids proved to be very high, leading to a reconsideration of the requirements. A new specification was issued on 1 July 1911 by the Naval General Staff for a ship with a speed of only 26.5 knots and with armour increased to 254 mm.
Armaments were increased to nine 14-inch guns in three non-superfiring triple-gun turrets, based on a rumor that the Germans were increasing the caliber of their guns. The Naval Ministry solicited new bids on 8 September from 23 shipbuilders and foreign, a number of designs were rejected for not meeting the revised criteria. The eventual winner was a design by the Admiralty Works in Saint Petersburg, the Duma approved construction in May 1912, before the design was finalised, and allocated 45.5 million rubles for each ship. Orders were placed on 18 September 1912 for a pair of each from the New Admiralty Shipyard. The first pair was to be ready for trials on 14 July 1916, full-scale armour trials revealed serious weaknesses in the proposed protection scheme. The trials employed the obsolete ironclad Chesma, modified with armour protection identical to that used by the Gangut-class battleships under construction. The deck and turret roof armour proved to be too thin, the design of the Borodino-class ships was modified as a consequence, which slowed their construction.
Deck armour was reinforced with extra plates, the roofs were increased to a thickness of 150 mm. To compensate for the weight, the rear conning tower was removed entirely. The launching of the first pair of ships was postponed by six months because of these changes, the outbreak of the First World War in 1914 caused further delays as a number of components had been ordered from foreign manufacturers. The Borodino-class ships were 223.85 metres long overall and they had a beam of 30.5 metres and a draught of 8.81 metres at full load. The ships displaced 32,500 long tons normally, and 36,646 long tons at, high-tensile steel was used throughout the hull with mild steel used only in areas that did not contribute to structural strength
Anton Pavlovich Chekhov was a Russian playwright and short story writer, who is considered to be among the greatest writers of short fiction in history. His career as a playwright produced four classics and his best short stories are held in esteem by writers. Along with Henrik Ibsen and August Strindberg, Chekhov is often referred to as one of the three figures in the birth of early modernism in the theatre. Chekhov practiced as a medical doctor throughout most of his career, Medicine is my lawful wife, he once said. These four works present a challenge to the ensemble as well as to audiences, because in place of conventional action Chekhov offers a theatre of mood. Chekhov had at first written stories only for financial gain, but as his artistic ambition grew and he made no apologies for the difficulties this posed to readers, insisting that the role of an artist was to ask questions, not to answer them. Anton Chekhov was born on the feast day of St. Anthony the Great 29 January 1860, the third of six surviving children, in Taganrog, a port on the Sea of Azov in southern Russia.
His father, Pavel Yegorovich Chekhov, the son of a serf and his Ukrainian wife, were from the village Vilkhovatka near Kobeliaky. A director of the choir, devout Orthodox Christian, and physically abusive father. Chekhovs mother, was an excellent storyteller who entertained the children with tales of her travels with her cloth-merchant father all over Russia and our talents we got from our father, Chekhov remembered, but our soul from our mother. Despotism and lying so mutilated our childhood that its sickening and frightening to think about it, remember the horror and disgust we felt in those times when Father threw a tantrum at dinner over too much salt in the soup and called Mother a fool. Chekhov attended the Greek School in Taganrog and the Taganrog Gymnasium and he sang at the Greek Orthodox monastery in Taganrog and in his fathers choirs. In 1876, Chekhovs father was declared bankrupt after overextending his finances building a new house, to avoid debtors prison he fled to Moscow, where his two eldest sons and Nikolay, were attending university.
The family lived in poverty in Moscow, Chekhovs mother physically and emotionally broken by the experience, Chekhov was left behind to sell the familys possessions and finish his education. Chekhov remained in Taganrog for three years, boarding with a man called Selivanov who, like Lopakhin in The Cherry Orchard, had bailed out the family for the price of their house. Chekhov had to pay for his own education, which he managed by private tutoring and selling goldfinches and he sent every ruble he could spare to his family in Moscow, along with humorous letters to cheer them up. Chekhov enjoyed a series of affairs, one with the wife of a teacher. In 1879, Chekhov completed his schooling and joined his family in Moscow, Chekhov now assumed responsibility for the whole family
Bezhin Meadow is a 1937 Soviet film famous for having been suppressed and believed destroyed before its completion. Pavlik Morozov was immortalized in school programs, music, however, blamed the failure of Bezhin Meadow on government interference and policies, extending all the way to Joseph Stalin himself. In the wake of the failure, Eisenstein publicly recanted his work as an error. Individuals were arrested during and after the ensuing debacle, Bezhin Meadow was long thought lost in the wake of World War II bombings. In the 1960s, however and partial prints of the film were found, from these, rich in religious symbolism, the film and its history became the focus of academic study. In spite of the failure of Bezhin Meadow, Eisenstein would rebound to win Soviet acclaim and awards, because Bezhin Meadow was repeatedly edited, re-shot, and changed to satisfy the Soviet government authorities, several versions of the film were created. Samokhin grows progressively more frustrated by his sons actions and success, Stepok reports Samokhins crimes to the Soviet government authorities, and is in turn slain by his own father for betraying his family.
The other Young Pioneers break into the church, singing songs. A re-editing of the opens with images of orchards and blue sky. It is next revealed that Stepoks mother has been beaten to death by his father, in a dark hut, Samokhin complains that his son has a greater loyalty to the Soviet than his own family, as Stepok enters from the bright day outside. His father quotes from the Bible, If the son betrays his father, Samokhin is arrested for arson, and Stepok leaves with a Communist functionary. The other arsonists take refuge in the church, and are soon arrested. The arsonists are nearly lynched, but are saved from the villagers wrath by Stepok, the villagers transform the church into a clubhouse, symbolically ridiculing religion or the clergy. In some versions, the destruction of the church was replaced with a scene of fighting the arsonists fire. In the film, the fire was started when the arsonists threw dried sunflowers, I did not give my own flesh and blood. After Stepoks death, the same aforementioned Communist official carries him off, joined by other children, the film, as mentioned by Shumyatsky and Eisenstein, is rich in religious iconography and the symbolic struggle between good and evil.
Bezhin Meadow, in its various unreleased versions, was Dedicated to the memory of Pavlik Morozov. Eisenstein would remove any references to Turgenevs fiction, aside from the title
Laika, c.1954 – November 3, 1957) was a Soviet space dog who became one of the first animals in space, and the first animal to orbit the Earth. Laika, a dog from the streets of Moscow, was selected to be the occupant of the Soviet spacecraft Sputnik 2 that was launched into outer space on November 3,1957. Some scientists believed humans would be unable to survive the launch or the conditions of outer space, Laika died within hours from overheating, possibly caused by a failure of the central R-7 sustainer to separate from the payload. On April 11,2008, Russian officials unveiled a monument to Laika, a small monument in her honour was built near the military research facility in Moscow that prepared Laikas flight to space. It features a dog standing on top of a rocket and she appears on the Monument to the Conquerors of Space in Moscow. After the success of Sputnik 1 in October 1957, Nikita Khrushchev, the Soviet leader, wanted a spacecraft launched on November 7,1957, the 40th anniversary of the October Revolution.
Construction had already started on a more sophisticated satellite, but it would not be ready until December, meeting the November deadline meant building a new craft. Khrushchev specifically wanted his engineers to deliver a space spectacular, a mission that would repeat the triumph of Sputnik 1, planners settled on an orbital flight with a dog. To satisfy Khrushchevs demands, they expedited the orbital canine flight for the November launch, according to Russian sources, the official decision to launch Sputnik 2 was made on October 10 or 12, leaving less than four weeks to design and build the spacecraft. Sputnik 2, was something of a rush job, aside from the primary mission of sending a living passenger into space, Sputnik 2 contained instrumentation for measuring solar irradiance and cosmic rays. The craft was equipped with a system consisting of an oxygen generator and devices to avoid oxygen poisoning. A fan, designed to activate whenever the temperature exceeded 15 °C, was added to keep the dog cool.
Enough food was provided for a flight, and the dog was fitted with a bag to collect waste. A harness was designed to be fitted to the dog, and there were chains to restrict her movements to standing, sitting, or lying down, an electrocardiogram monitored heart rate and further instrumentation tracked respiration rate, maximum arterial pressure, and the dogs movements. Laika was found as a stray wandering the streets of Moscow, Soviet scientists chose to use Moscow strays since they assumed that such animals had already learned to endure conditions of extreme cold and hunger. This specimen was an eleven-pound mongrel female, approximately three years old, another account reported that she weighed about 6 kg. Soviet personnel gave her several names and nicknames, among them Kudryavka, Laika, the Russian name for several breeds of dogs similar to the husky, was the name popularized around the world. The American press dubbed her Muttnik as a pun on Sputnik and her true pedigree is unknown, although it is generally accepted that she was part husky or other Nordic breed, and possibly part terrier
Its capital and most populous city is Minsk. Over 40% of its 207,600 square kilometres is forested and its strongest economic sectors are service industries and manufacturing. In the aftermath of the 1917 Russian Revolution, Belarus declared independence as the Belarusian Peoples Republic, the Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia became a founding constituent republic of the Soviet Union in 1922 and was renamed as the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. Belarus lost almost half of its territory to Poland after the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1921, during WWII, military operations devastated Belarus, which lost about a third of its population and more than half of its economic resources. The republic was redeveloped in the post-war years, in 1945 the Byelorussian SSR became a founding member of the United Nations, along with the Soviet Union and the Ukrainian SSR. The parliament of the declared the sovereignty of Belarus on 27 July 1990. Alexander Lukashenko has served as the president since 1994.
Belarus has been labeled Europes last dictatorship by some Western journalists, Lukashenko continued a number of Soviet-era policies, such as state ownership of large sections of the economy. Though not directly espousing communism like the five remaining communist countries of China, Laos and North Korea, in 2000 Belarus and Russia signed a treaty for greater cooperation, with some hints of forming a Union State. Over 70% of Belaruss population of 9.49 million resides in urban areas, more than 80% of the population is ethnic Belarusian, with sizable minorities of Russians and Ukrainians. Since a referendum in 1995, the country has had two official languages and Russian, the Constitution of Belarus does not declare any official religion, although the primary religion in the country is Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Belarus is the only European country to retain capital punishment in both law and practice, the name Belarus is closely related with the term Belaya Rus, i. e. White Rus. There are several claims to the origin of the name White Rus, an alternate explanation for the name comments on the white clothing worn by the local Slavic population.
A third theory suggests that the old Rus lands that were not conquered by the Tatars had been referred to as white, other sources claim that, before 1267, the land not conquered by the Mongols was considered White Rus. The name Rus is often conflated with its Latin forms Russia and Ruthenia, in some languages, including German and Dutch, the country is generally called White Russia to this day. The Latin term Alba Russia was used again by Pope Pius VI in 1783 to recognize the Society of Jesus there, exclaiming Approbo Societatem Jesu in Alba Russia degentem, approbo. The first known use of White Russia to refer to Belarus was in the century by Englishman Sir Jerome Horsey. During the 17th century, the Russian tsars used White Rus to describe the lands added from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Nikita Vasilyevich Filatov is a Russian professional ice hockey left winger currently playing for Admiral Vladivostok of the Kontinental Hockey League. He has previously played for CSKA Moscow and Salavat Yulaev Ufa of the KHL, prior to 2012, Filatov played in North America for the Ottawa Senators and Columbus Blue Jackets of the National Hockey League, along with their respective affiliates in the American Hockey League. At the 2008 NHL Entry Draft, Filatov was selected sixth overall by the Columbus Blue Jackets, Filatov was the top-ranked European skater by the NHL Central Scouting Bureau. Filatov played two seasons with the Blue Jackets organization, during the 2009–10 season, Filatov was unhappy with his situation in Columbus and was loaned to CSKA Moscow for the remainder of the season. At the 2011 NHL Entry Draft, the Blue Jackets traded him to Ottawa in exchange for a draft pick. In December 2011, the Senators loaned Filatov to CSKA Moscow for the balance of the 2011–12 season, the following season, Filatov signed with Salavat Yulaev.
The Senators chose not to tender Filatov a qualifying offer, making him a free agent, Filatov has represented Russia in international hockey at two World U18 Championships, winning gold and silver medals, and three World Junior Championships, where he has won two bronze medals. He was named to the Tournament All-Star Team at the 2008 World U18 Championships, Filatov played minor and junior hockey in the CSKA Red Army hockey system from the age of 13. At the age of 15 during the 2005–06 season, he made his debut for CSKA-2—the clubs junior team—where he continued to play during the 2006–07 season, in the same season, Filatov made his international debut for Russia at the World Under 18 Championship. During the 2007–08 season, Filatov made his professional Russian Superleague debut with CSKA and he spent the majority of the season playing at the junior level in Russia. With his CSKA junior team, Filatov played in 23 games, scoring 23 goals, after the 2007–08 season, Filatov was subsequently selected sixth overall at the Draft by the Columbus Blue Jackets.
Filatov was the first overall selection in the 2008 Canadian Hockey League Import Draft, Sudbury General Manager Mike Foligno was comfortable with the risks of not knowing whether Filatov would play at junior or professional level when he came to North America. After being drafted by the Blue Jackets, Filatov signed a contract with the club on July 10,2008. His base salary for the contract was $875,000, with clauses that could bring the value as high as $1.35 million per season.5 million for signing Filatov. Medvedev claimed that although the term of the contract had expired, the Blue Jackets and Filatov believed that giving his club 30 days notice was sufficient to terminate the contract. Filatovs contract was one of six reviewed by the International Ice Hockey Federation in an attempt to mediate the disputes between the KHL and NHL, during this investigation, the players were unable to play international hockey sanctioned by the IIHF. In September, the KHL dropped its opposition to Filatovs contract with the Blue Jackets, and he received his transfer.
On October 15,2008, Filatov was called up to the NHL, playing in his first game, for the rest of the 2008–09 season, Filatov split time between the AHL and the NHL
Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia was the youngest daughter of Tsar Nicholas II, the last sovereign of Imperial Russia, and his wife, Tsarina Alexandra Fyodorovna. Anastasia was a sister of Grand Duchess Olga, Grand Duchess Tatiana, and Grand Duchess Maria. She was murdered with her family in a killing by members of the Cheka. Persistent rumors of her possible escape circulated after her death, fueled by the fact that the location of her burial was unknown during the decades of Communist rule and her possible survival has been conclusively disproved. Forensic analysis and DNA testing confirmed that the remains are those of the imperial family, several women falsely claimed to have been Anastasia, the best known impostor is Anna Anderson. Andersons body was cremated upon her death in 1984, but DNA testing in 1994 on available pieces of Andersons tissue, when Anastasia was born, her parents and extended family were disappointed that she was a girl. They hoped for a son who would be apparent to the throne.
Tsar Nicholas II went for a walk to compose himself before going to visit Tsarina Alexandra. One meaning of her name is the breaker of chains or the prison opener, another meaning of the name is of the resurrection, a fact often alluded to in stories about her rumored survival. Anastasias title is most precisely translated as Grand Princess, Grand Duchess became the most widely used translation of the title into English from Russian. The Tsars children were raised as simply as possible, most in the household, including the servants, generally called the Grand Duchess by her first name and patronym, Anastasia Nikolaevna, and did not use her title or style. She was occasionally called by the French version of her name, Anastasie, or by the Russian nicknames Nastya, other family nicknames for Anastasia were Malenkaya, meaning little, or shvibzik, the Russian word for imp. Living up to her nicknames, young Anastasia grew into a vivacious and energetic child, described as short and inclined to be chubby, with blue eyes and strawberry-blonde hair.
Margaretta Eagar, a governess to the four grand duchesses, said one person commented that the toddler Anastasia had the greatest personal charm of any child she had ever seen. While often described as gifted and bright, she was never interested in the restrictions of the room, according to her tutors Pierre Gilliard. Gibbes and ladies-in-waiting Lili Dehn and Anna Vyrubova described Anastasia as lively and her sharp, witty remarks sometimes hit sensitive spots. Anastasias daring occasionally exceeded the limits of acceptable behavior, Anastasia sometimes tripped the servants and played pranks on her tutors. As a child, she would climb trees and refuse to come down, during a snowball fight at the familys Polish estate, Anastasia rolled a rock into a snowball and threw it at her older sister Tatiana, knocking her to the ground
The Battle of Austerlitz, known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of the most important and decisive engagements of the Napoleonic Wars. The battle occurred near the town of Austerlitz in the Austrian Empire, Austerlitz brought the War of the Third Coalition to a rapid end, with the Treaty of Pressburg signed by the Austrians in the month. The battle is cited as a tactical masterpiece, in the same league as other historic engagements like Cannae or Arbela. After eliminating an Austrian army during the Ulm Campaign, French forces managed to capture Vienna in November 1805, the Austrians avoided further conflict until the arrival of the Russians bolstered Allied numbers. Napoleon sent his army north in pursuit of the Allies, and he deployed the French army below the Pratzen Heights and deliberately weakened his right flank, enticing the Allies to launch a major assault there in the hopes of rolling up the whole French line. A forced march from Vienna by Marshal Davout and his III Corps plugged the gap left by Napoleon just in time.
Meanwhile, the heavy Allied deployment against the French right weakened the allied center on the Pratzen Heights, with the Allied center demolished, the French swept through both enemy flanks and sent the Allies fleeing chaotically, capturing thousands of prisoners in the process. The Allied disaster significantly shook the faith of Emperor Francis in the British-led war effort and Austria agreed to an armistice immediately and the Treaty of Pressburg followed shortly after, on 26 December. Pressburg took Austria out of both the war and the Coalition while reinforcing the earlier treaties of Campo Formio and of Lunéville between the two powers, the treaty confirmed the Austrian loss of lands in Italy and Bavaria to France, and in Germany to Napoleons German allies. It imposed an indemnity of 40 million francs on the defeated Habsburgs and allowed the fleeing Russian troops free passage through hostile territories and back to their home soil. Critically, victory at Austerlitz permitted the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine and these achievements, did not establish a lasting peace on the continent.
Prussian worries about growing French influence in Central Europe sparked the War of the Fourth Coalition in 1806, Europe had been in turmoil since the start of the French Revolutionary Wars in 1792. In 1797, after five years of war, the French Republic subdued the First Coalition, an alliance of Austria, Great Britain, Spain, in March 1802, France and Britain agreed to end hostilities under the Treaty of Amiens. For the first time in ten years, all of Europe was at peace, but many problems persisted between the two sides, making implementation of the treaty increasingly difficult. The British government resented having to return the Cape Colony and most of the Dutch West Indian islands to the Batavian Republic, Napoleon was angry that British troops had not evacuated the island of Malta. The tense situation only worsened when Napoleon sent a force to crush the Haitian Revolution. In May 1803, Britain declared war on France, in December 1804, an Anglo-Swedish agreement led to the creation of the Third Coalition.
Having been defeated twice in recent memory by France, and being keen on revenge, before the formation of the Third Coalition, Napoleon had assembled an invasion force, called the Armée dAngleterre around six camps at Boulogne in Northern France