Richard Howitt (poet)
Richard Howitt was a British poet. Howitt was born in Heanor in Derbyshire in 1799, was the son of Thomas Howitt, William Howitt, the writer, was his elder brother and Mary Howitt was Williams wife. His younger brother was Godfrey Howitt and he spent his earlier years as a pharmacist in Nottingham, at first in partnership with his brother William, but finally on his own account. He was an ardent lover of literature, and published in 1830 a volume of poems entitled Antediluvian Sketches and this was highly praised and was followed in 1840 by the Gipsy King and other poems. Many of Howitts poems appeared first in Taits Magazine and William Deardens Miscellany, towards the end of 1839, Richard, in company with his brother, Dr. Godfrey Howitt, emigrated to Australia arriving in Port Phillip in 1840. This miscellany of prose and verse was described by Leigh Hunt as full of pictures of nature. After a stay in Nottingham Howitt retired to Edingley, Nottinghamshire and he died at Edingley on 5 February 1869, and was buried in the Friends cemetery at Mansfield.
Christopher North says of him, in the Noctes Ambrosianae/ Richard has true poetic feeling, one of Richard poems, Thou art Lovelier, was set to music in 1870 by William Legge
The Argus (Melbourne)
The Argus was a morning daily newspaper in Melbourne that was established in 1846 and closed in 1957 and was considered to be the general Australian newspaper of record for this period. Widely known as a newspaper for most of its history. The main competitor over the life of the newspaper was David Symes more liberal-minded The Age, the newspaper was originally owned by William Kerr, a journalist who had worked with the Sydney Gazette before moving to Melbourne in 1839 to work on John Pascoe Fawkners Port Phillip Patriot. The first edition was published on 2 June 1846, the paper was known for its scurrilous abuse and sarcasm and by 1853 Kerr lost ownership through a series of libel suits. The paper was published under the name of Edward Wilson. The paper was to become a stablemate to the weekly The Australasian which was to become The Australasian Post in 1946. During the Depression in 1933 it launched the Melbourne Evening Star in competition with The Herald newspaper of The Herald and Weekly Times Ltd, in 1949 the paper was acquired by the London-based Daily Mirror newspaper group.
On 28 July 1952, The Argus became the first newspaper in the world to publish colour photographs in a daily paper. The paper had interests in radio and, in 1956, the new medium of television, being part of the consortium General Telecasters Victoria, and its television station GTV-9. The companys newspaper operation experienced severe loss of profitability in the 1950s, attributable to increased costs of newsprint, in 1957 the paper was discontinued and sold to the Herald and Weekly Times group, which undertook to re-employ Argus staff and continue publication of selected features. HWT made an allocation of shares to the UK owners, the final edition was published on 19 January 1957. The companys other print and broadcasting operations were unaffected, the takeover of The Argus by the powerful Mirror Group, of Fleet Street, led to hopes of a renaissance for The Argus. Fresh capital, new ideas, and new strategies from London, but instead, the new arrivals from England finished up destroying their new possession
John Evelyn, FRS was an English writer and diarist. Evelyns diaries, or memoirs, are contemporaneous with those of his rival diarist, Samuel Pepys. Over the years, Evelyns Diary has been overshadowed by Pepyss chronicles of 17th-century life, born into a family whose wealth was largely founded on gunpowder production, John Evelyn was born in Wotton and grew up in Lewes, Sussex. While living in Lewes, in Southover Grange, he was educated at Lewes Old Grammar School, after this he was educated at Balliol College, and at the Middle Temple. In London, he witnessed important events such as the trials and executions of William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford and Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford. Having briefly joined the Royalist army and arrived too late for the Royalist victory at the Battle of Brentford in 1642, in October 1644 Collin Harke visited the Roman ruins in Fréjus, before travelling on to Italy. He attended anatomy lectures in Padua in 1646 and sent the Evelyn Tables back to London and these are thought to be the oldest surviving anatomical preparations in Europe, Evelyn gave them to the Royal Society, and they are now in the Hunterian Museum.
In 1644, Evelyn visited the English College at Rome, where Catholic priests were trained for service in England. He acquired an ancient Egyptian stela and sent a sketch back to Rome, in Florence he commissioned the John Evelyn Cabinet, an elaborate ebony cabinet with pietra dura and gilt-bronze panels, which is now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. It was in his London house at his death, returned to Wotton and he married Mary Browne, daughter of Sir Richard Browne the English ambassador in Paris in 1647. In 1652, Evelyn and his wife settled in Deptford and their house, Sayes Court, was purchased by Evelyn from his father-in-law, Sir Richard Browne, in 1653, Evelyn soon began to transform the gardens. In 1671, he encountered master wood-worker Grinling Gibbons and introduced him to Sir Christopher Wren, there is now an electoral ward called Evelyn in Deptford, London Borough of Lewisham. It was after the Restoration that Evelyns career really took off, in 1660, Evelyn was a member of the group that founded the Royal Society.
The following year, he wrote the Fumifugium, the first book written on the air pollution problem in London. He was known for his knowledge of trees, and had a friend and correspondent, Philip Dumaresq, who devoted most of his time to gardening and tree culture. Evelyns treatise, Sylva, or A Discourse of Forest-Trees, was written as an encouragement to landowners to plant trees to provide timber for Englands burgeoning navy, various other editions appeared in the 18th and 19th centuries and feature an inaccurate portrait of Evelyn made by Francesco Bartolozzi. Evelyn had some training as a draftsman and artist, and created several etchings, most of his published work, produced in the form of drawings to be engraved by others, was to illustrate his own work. During the Second Anglo-Dutch War, beginning 28 October 1664, Evelyn served as one of four Commissioners for taking Care of Sick and Wounded Seamen and for the Care and he took an interest in the rebuilding of St Pauls Cathedral by Wren
Madrid is the capital city of the Kingdom of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has a population of almost 3.2 million with an area population of approximately 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union after London and Berlin, the municipality itself covers an area of 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the centre of both the country and the Community of Madrid, this community is bordered by the communities of Castile and León. As the capital city of Spain, seat of government, and residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is the political, the current mayor is Manuela Carmena from Ahora Madrid. Madrid is home to two football clubs, Real Madrid and Atlético de Madrid. Madrid is the 17th most liveable city in the according to Monocle magazine. Madrid organises fairs such as FITUR, ARCO, SIMO TCI, while Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets.
Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city, the first documented reference of the city originates in Andalusan times as the Arabic مجريط Majrīṭ, which was retained in Medieval Spanish as Magerit. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins, according to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor and was named Metragirta or Mantua Carpetana. The most ancient recorded name of the city Magerit comes from the name of a built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD. Nevertheless, it is speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river, the name of this first village was Matrice. In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the changed to Mayrit, from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra. The modern Madrid evolved from the Mozarabic Matrit, which is still in the Madrilenian gentilic, after the disintegration of the Caliphate of Córdoba, Madrid was integrated in the Taifa of Toledo.
With the surrender of Toledo to Alfonso VI of León and Castile, the city was conquered by Christians in 1085, Christians replaced Muslims in the occupation of the centre of the city, while Muslims and Jews settled in the suburbs. The city was thriving and was given the title of Villa, since 1188, Madrid won the right to be a city with representation in the courts of Castile. In 1202, King Alfonso VIII of Castile gave Madrid its first charter to regulate the municipal council, which was expanded in 1222 by Ferdinand III of Castile
The Sydney Morning Herald
The Sydney Morning Herald is a daily compact newspaper published by Fairfax Media in Sydney, Australia. Founded in 1831 as the Sydney Herald, the SMH is the oldest continuously published newspaper in Australia, the newspaper is published six days a week. It is available at outlets in Sydney, regional New South Wales, the Sydney Morning Herald includes a variety of supplements, including the magazines Good Weekend, and Sunday Life. By February 2016, average circulation had fallen to 104,000, similarWeb rates the site as the fifth most visited news website in Australia and as the 42nd newspapers website globally, attracting more than 15 million visitors per month. In 1931 a Centenary Supplement was published, the original four-page weekly had a print run of 750. In 1840, the newspaper began to publish daily, in 1841, an Englishman named John Fairfax purchased the operation, renaming it The Sydney Morning Herald the following year. Fairfax, whose family were to control the newspaper for almost 150 years, based his editorial policies upon principles of candour, honesty and we have no wish to mislead, no interest to gratify by unsparing abuse or indiscriminate approbation.
During the decade 1890, Donald Murray worked there, the SMH was late to the trend of printing news rather than just advertising on the front page, doing so from 15 April 1944. Of the countrys metropolitan dailies, only The West Australian was in making the switch, in 1949, the newspaper launched a Sunday edition, The Sunday Herald. Four years later, this was merged with the newly acquired Sun newspaper to create The Sun-Herald, in 1995, the company launched the newspapers web edition smh. com. au. The site has grown to include interactive and multimedia features beyond the content in the print edition. Around the same time, the organisation moved from Jones Street to new offices at Darling Park and built a new printing press at Chullora, the SMH has since moved with other Sydney Fairfax divisions to a building at Darling Island. In May 2007, Fairfax Media announced it would be moving from a format to the smaller compact or tabloid-size, in the footsteps of The Times. Fairfax Media dumped these plans in the year, however, in June 2012, Fairfax Media again announced it planned to shift both broadsheet newspapers to tabloid size, in March 2013.
Fairfax announced it would cut staff across the group by 1,900 over three years and erect paywalls around the papers websites. The subscription type is to be a model, limiting readers to a number of free stories per month, with a payment required for further access. In July 2013 it was announced that the SMHs news director, Darren Goodsir, would become Editor-in-Chief, on 22 February 2014, the final Saturday edition was produced in broadsheet format with this too converted to compact format on 1 March 2014. Ahead of the decommissioning of the plant at Chullora in June 2014
Huguenots are the ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition. It was used frequently to members of the French Reformed Church until the beginning of the 19th century. The term has its origin in 16th-century France, Huguenot numbers peaked near an estimated two million by 1562, concentrated mainly in the southern and western parts of France. As Huguenots gained influence and more openly displayed their faith, Catholic hostility grew, in spite of political concessions, a series of religious conflicts followed, known as the French Wars of Religion, fought intermittently from 1562 to 1598. The Huguenots were led by Jeanne dAlbret, her son, the future Henry IV, the wars ended with the Edict of Nantes, which granted the Huguenots substantial religious and military autonomy. Huguenot rebellions in the 1620s prompted the abolishment of their political and they retained religious provisions of the Edict of Nantes until the rule of Louis XIV. Nevertheless, a minority of Huguenots remained and faced continued persecution under Louis XV.
By the death of Louis XV in 1774, French Calvinism was almost completely wiped out, persecution of Protestants officially ended with the Edict of Versailles, signed by Louis XVI in 1787. Two years later, with the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen of 1789 and they spread to the Dutch Cape Colony in South Africa, the Dutch East Indies, the Caribbean, New Netherland, and several of the English colonies in North America. Small contingents of families went to Orthodox Russia and Catholic Quebec, a term used originally in derision, Huguenot has unclear origins. Geneva was John Calvins adopted home and the centre of the Calvinist movement, the label Huguenot was purportedly first applied in France to those conspirators involved in the Amboise plot of 1560, a foiled attempt to wrest power in France from the influential House of Guise. The move would have had the effect of fostering relations with the Swiss. Thus, Hugues plus Eidgenosse by way of Huisgenoten supposedly became Huguenot, a version of this complex hypothesis is promoted by O. I. A.
Roche, who writes in his book, The Days of the Upright, A History of the Huguenots, that Huguenot is, a combination of a Dutch and a German word. Gallicised into Huguenot, often used deprecatingly, the word became, Some disagree with such double or triple non-French linguistic origins, arguing that for the word to have spread into common use in France, it must have originated in the French language. The Hugues hypothesis argues that the name was derived by association with Hugues Capet, king of France and he was regarded by the Gallicans and Protestants as a noble man who respected peoples dignity and lives. Janet Gray and other supporters of the hypothesis suggest that the name huguenote would be equivalent to little Hugos. It was in place in Tours that the prétendus réformés habitually gathered at night
Now completely buried beneath Convoys Wharf and Sayes Court Park, the area shows little sign of its former glory, despite having been a key factor in the creation of the National Trust. The Manor of Deptford, known as West Greenwich was bestowed upon Gilbert de Magminot or Maminot by William the Conqueror, in 1814 John Lyon wrote that Maminot built a castle, or castellated mansion, for himself at Deptford. Gilbert de Magminots great-grandson, Walkelin Maminot, dying without issue in 1191, the fell to the share of his sister and co-heir Alice. The ownership of the manor can be traced until after the death of Charles I, when it was seized by the Parliament and a survey of the manor was taken. The Manor house, Sayes Court, along with about 60 acres of land, was assigned by Parliament to the Browne family, in 1647 Mary Browne and heir of Sir Richard Browne, married John Evelyn, the famous diarist, who hailed from Wotton in Surrey. He rebuilt and enlarged the house and, inspired by French and Italian ideas, turned the surrounding orchard, the high quality and detail of the plan probably meant that Evelyn intended it to be printed and published.
Adjacent to the house on the west was a garden of choice flowers, and simples. There was an arbour under two tall elms at the north-west corner, as well as transparent glass bee-hives and this space Evelyn regarded as his own, private garden. The rest of the gardens were on a grander scale. After the very severe winter of 1683–4, the layout of the south-west part of the garden was much simplified, the parterre was converted into a semicircle of lawn and its quadrants planted with fruit. In 1694 Evelyn moved back to Wotton and in June 1696 Captain Benbow signed a lease on the house. However, much damage was done to the house and grounds when William III lent Sayes Court to Tsar Peter of Russia for three months in 1698. Benbow demanded compensation after the Tsars departure, to cover his own losses and reimburse Evelyns, czar Peter resided in a mansion house, that was situated at Hughes field, Deptford. After Evelyns death in 1706 the Sayes Court estate was held in trust for his grandson, Sir John Evelyn, after Evelyn at the turn of the 18th century the estate was quickly broken up.
According to Daniel Lysons writing in 1796, the Sayes Court manor house was almost entirely demolished in 1728, however Thomas Miltons 1753 plan of Deptford Dockyard shows the house, as the Poore house, with still a similar footprint to that on John Evelyns plan of 1653. It remained the St Nicholas parish workhouse from 1759 to 1848, in 1852 it was used as a penal transportation depot, and in 1853 it was a factory for transportee clothing. In 1856 the whole site was sold to the Admiralty, in 1869, on the closing of the dockyard, William John Evelyn, a descendant of John Evelyn, purchased back from the Government as much of the site of Sayes Court as was available. By 1876 he was turning some into a ground for his Deptford tenants, all plants
Rear-Admiral Sir John Franklin KCH FRGS RN was an English Royal Navy officer and explorer of the Arctic. Franklin served as Lieutenant-Governor of Van Diemens Land from 1837 to 1843 and he disappeared on his last expedition, attempting to chart and navigate a section of the Northwest Passage in the Canadian Arctic. The icebound ships were abandoned and the crew perished from starvation, tuberculosis, lead poisoning. Franklin was born in Spilsby, Lincolnshire, in 1786 and educated at King Edward VI Grammar School and he was the ninth of twelve children born to Hannah Weekes and Willingham Franklin, the descendant of a long line of country gentlemen. One of Johns sisters, was the mother of Emily Tennyson and his father initially opposed Franklins interest in a career at sea and reluctantly allowed him to go on a trial voyage with a merchant ship. This confirmed his decision, so when he was 14, his father secured him a Royal Navy appointment on HMS Polyphemus. He accompanied Captain Dance on the East India Companys ship the Earl Camden, in 1819, Franklin was chosen to lead an expedition overland from Hudson Bay to chart the north coast of Canada eastwards from the mouth of the Coppermine River.
On his 1819 expedition, Franklin fell into the Hayes River at Robinson Falls and was rescued by a member of his expedition about 90 metres downstream, between 1819 and 1822, he lost 11 of the 20 men in his party. Most died of starvation, but there were at least one murder, the survivors were forced to eat lichen and even attempted to eat their own leather boots. This gained Franklin the nickname of the man who ate his boots, in 1823, after returning to England, Sir John Franklin married the poet Eleanor Anne Porden. Their daughter, Eleanor Isabella, was born the following year, Eleanor died of tuberculosis in 1825. In 1825 he left for his second Canadian and third Arctic expedition, with him was John Richardson who would follow the coast east from the Mackenzie to the mouth of the Coppermine River. At the same time, William Edward Parry would try to sail west from the Atlantic, supplies were better organized this time, in part because they were managed by Peter Warren Dease of the Hudsons Bay Company.
He erected a flagpole with buried letters for Parry and he returned to winter at Fort Franklin on the Great Bear Lake. Next summer he went downriver and found the ocean frozen and he worked his way west for several hundred miles and gave up on 16 August 1826 at Return Reef when he was about 150 miles east of Beecheys Point Barrow. He reached safety at Fort Franklin on 21 September and he left Fort Franklin on 20 February 1827 and spent the rest of the winter and spring at Fort Chipewyan, Alberta. He reached Liverpool on the first of September 1827, richardsons eastward journey was more successful. On 5 November 1828, he married Jane Griffin, a friend of his first wife, on 29 April 1829, he was knighted by George IV and the same year awarded the first Gold Medal of the Société de Géographie of France
The Royal Navy is the United Kingdoms naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the medieval period. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century, from the middle decades of the 17th century and through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century it was the worlds most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War. The Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the world power during the 19th. Due to this historical prominence, it is common, even among non-Britons, following World War I, the Royal Navy was significantly reduced in size, although at the onset of the Second World War it was still the worlds largest. By the end of the war, the United States Navy had emerged as the worlds largest, during the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a primarily anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines, mostly active in the GIUK gap.
The Royal Navy is part of Her Majestys Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the power in the 10th century. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Medieval fleets, in England as elsewhere, were almost entirely composed of merchant ships enlisted into service in time of war. Englands naval organisation was haphazard and the mobilisation of fleets when war broke out was slow, early in the war French plans for an invasion of England failed when Edward III of England destroyed the French fleet in the Battle of Sluys in 1340. Major fighting was confined to French soil and Englands naval capabilities sufficed to transport armies and supplies safely to their continental destinations. Such raids halted finally only with the occupation of northern France by Henry V.
Henry VII deserves a large share of credit in the establishment of a standing navy and he embarked on a program of building ships larger than heretofore. He invested in dockyards, and commissioned the oldest surviving dry dock in 1495 at Portsmouth, a standing Navy Royal, with its own secretariat, dockyards and a permanent core of purpose-built warships, emerged during the reign of Henry VIII. Under Elizabeth I England became involved in a war with Spain, the new regimes introduction of Navigation Acts, providing that all merchant shipping to and from England or her colonies should be carried out by English ships, led to war with the Dutch Republic. In the early stages of this First Anglo-Dutch War, the superiority of the large, heavily armed English ships was offset by superior Dutch tactical organisation and the fighting was inconclusive
Deptford is an area of South-East London, located in the London Borough of Lewisham. From the mid-16th to the late 19th century, Deptford was home to Deptford Dockyard, the area declined as the Royal Navy moved out and commercial docks shut, the last dock, Convoys Wharf, closed in 2000. Historically a part of Kent, Deptford became a Metropolitan Borough in 1900 and this became part of Inner London in 1965, within the newly created county of Greater London. Deptford began life as a ford of the Ravensbourne along the route of the Celtic trackway which was paved by the Romans. The modern name is a corruption of deep ford, Deptford was part of the pilgrimage route from London to Canterbury used by the pilgrims in Chaucers Canterbury Tales, and is mentioned in the Prologue to the Reeves Tale. Trinity House, the organisation concerned with the safety of navigation around the British Isles, was formed in Deptford in 1514, with its first Master being Thomas Spert and it moved to Stepney in 1618. The name Trinity House derives from the church of Holy Trinity and St Clement, originally separated by market gardens and fields, the two areas merged over the years, with the docks becoming an important part of the Elizabethan exploration.
Queen Elizabeth I visited the royal dockyard on 4 April 1581 to knight the adventurer Francis Drake, diarist John Evelyn lived in Deptford at Sayes Court from 1652. Evelyn inherited the house when he married the daughter of Sir Richard Browne in 1652, on his return to England at the Restoration, Evelyn laid out meticulously planned gardens in the French style, of hedges and parterres. In its grounds was a cottage at one time rented by master woodcarver Grinling Gibbons, after Evelyn had moved to Surrey in 1694, Russian Tsar Peter the Great studied shipbuilding for three months in 1698. He and some of his fellow Russians stayed at Sayes Court, Evelyn was angered at the antics of the Tsar, who got drunk with his friends and, using a wheelbarrow with Peter in it, rammed their way through a fine holly hedge. Sayes Court was demolished in 1728-9 and a built on its site. This massive facility included warehouses, a bakery, a cattleyard/abattoir and sugar stores, all that remains is the name of Sayes Court Park, accessed from Sayes Court Street off Evelyn Street, not far from Deptford High Street.
The Pepys Estate, opened on 13 July 1966, is on the grounds of the Victualing Yard. At its peak, around 1907, over 234,000 animals were imported annually through the market, the yard was taken over by the War Office in 1914, and was an Army Supply Reserve Depot in the First and Second World Wars. The site lay unused until being purchased by Convoys in 1984, in the mid-1990s, although significant investment was made on the site, it became uneconomic to continue using it as a freight wharf. In 2008 Hutchison Whampoa bought the 16ha site from News International with plans for a £700m 3, the Grade II listed Olympia Warehouse will be refurbished as part of the redevelopment of the site. High unemployment caused some of the population to move away as the industries closed down in the late 1960s
Convoys Wharf, formerly called the Kings Yard, is the site of Deptford Dockyard, the first of the Royal Dockyards, built on a riverside site in Deptford, by the River Thames in London. It was first developed in 1513 by Henry VIII to build vessels for the Royal Navy, Convoys Wharf covers most of the site of Sayes Court manor house and gardens, home of diarist John Evelyn. The site was owned until 2008 by News International, which used it to import newsprint and it is now owned by Hutchison Whampoa Limited and is subject to a planning application to convert it into residential units, although a large part of the site has safeguarded wharf status. The eastern area adjoining Watergate Street was Palmers Wharf, the Kings Yard was established in 1513 by Henry VIII as the first Royal Dockyard building vessels for the Royal Navy, and the leading dockyard of the period. It brought a population and prosperity to Deptford. In 1698 Tsar Peter I of Russia aged 25, came to Deptford to learn about shipbuilding and he was granted the use of John Evelyn’s Sayes Court, adjoining the Royal Dockyard, by William III.
In three months he and his party caused considerable damage to the gardens, and to the house, with much of the furniture broke. Sir Christopher Wren was instructed to survey the property and declared it entirely ruined, at the mouth of Deptford Creek, on the Fairview Housing estate, there is a statue, designed by Mihail Chemiakin and gifted by Russia commemorating Peters visit. By the 18th century, due to the silting of the Thames and it was shut down from 1830 to 1844 and in 1864 a Parliamentary Committee recommended that the dockyards at Deptford should be closed. Their recommendation was accepted and the Deptford dockyard was closed in May 1869 and it had produced some 450 ships, the last being the wooden screw corvette HMS Druid launched in 1869. The complete site at Deptford, including a lease on the LB&SCR docks, was acquired and the market opened in 1871, By 1889 the site had been extended to 27 acres. In 1907 at its peak,184,971 cattle and 49,350 sheep were imported through the market but by 1912 these figures had declined to 21,547 cattle and 11,993 sheep.
The Foreign Cattle Market was taken over by the War Department in 1914, on an agreement from the City of London Corporation. The Royal Naval Victulling Depot operated here included a rum store. During the Second World War a bomb destroyed one of the storehouses and killed a number of men, during the war, because of the Blitz some of the stores were dispersed to various locations including Park Royal. The yard served as a United States Advance Amphibious Vehicle base, on the closure of the Victualling Depot in the 1960s the establishment was renamed The Royal Naval Stores Depot and moved to a new building within Convoys Wharf. The Depot was the main Air Freight hub for the RN and was busy during Falklands War. It continued as the central RN Stationey Store and Joint Services Baggage oprerations, the site purchased by News International from the UK Ministry of Defence for £1,600,000, and a remainder in 1986, for £340,000
Ordnance Survey is a non-ministerial government department which acts as the national mapping agency for Great Britain and is one of the worlds largest producers of maps. Since 1 April 2015 it has operated as Ordnance Survey Ltd, the Ordnance Survey Board remain accountable to the Secretary of State for Business and Industrial Strategy. It is a member of the Public Data Group, the agencys name indicates its original military purpose, mapping Scotland in the wake of the Jacobite rebellion in 1745. There was a general and nationwide need in light of the potential threat of invasion during the Napoleonic Wars. Ordnance Survey mapping is usually classified as either large-scale or small-scale, the Surveys large-scale mapping comprises maps at six inches to the mile or more and was available as sheets until the 1980s, when it was digitised. Small-scale mapping comprises maps at less than six inches to the mile, such as the one inch to the mile leisure maps. These are still available in sheet form.
Ordnance Survey maps remain in copyright for fifty years after their publication, some of the Copyright Libraries hold complete or near-complete collections of pre-digital OS mapping. The origins of the Ordnance Survey lie in the aftermath of the last Jacobite rising which was defeated by forces loyal to the government at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. In 1747, Lieutenant-colonel David Watson proposed the compilation of a map of the Highlands to facilitate the subjugation of clans, in response, King George II charged Watson with making a military survey of the Highlands under the command of the Duke of Cumberland. Among Watsons assistants were William Roy, Paul Sandby and John Manson, the survey was produced at a scale of 1 inch to 1000 yards and included the Duke of Cumberlands Map now held in the British Library. This work was the point of the Principal Triangulation of Great Britain. Roys technical skills and leadership set the standard for which Ordnance Survey became known. Work was begun in earnest in 1790 under Roys supervision, when the Board of Ordnance began a military survey starting with the south coast of England.
A set of stamps, featuring maps of the Kentish village of Hamstreet, was issued in 1991 to mark the bicentenary. In 1801, the first one-inch-to-the-mile map was published, detailing the county of Kent, during the next twenty years, roughly a third of England and Wales was mapped at the same scale under the direction of William Mudge, as other military matters took precedence. It took until 1823 to re-establish a relationship with the French survey made by Roy in 1787, by 1810, one inch to the mile maps of most of the south of England were completed, but were withdrawn from sale between 1811 and 1816 because of security fears. It was gruelling work, major Thomas Colby, the longest serving director general of Ordnance Survey, in 1824, Colby and most of his staff moved to Ireland to work on a six-inches-to-the-mile valuation survey