The Hershey Company
The Hershey Company called Hershey's, is an American company and one of the largest chocolate manufacturers in the world. It manufactures baked products, such as cookies, milk shake and many more, which increase its variety of range, its headquarters are in Hershey, home to Hersheypark and Hershey's Chocolate World. It was founded by Milton S. Hershey in 1894 as the Hershey Chocolate Company, a subsidiary of his Lancaster Caramel Company; the Hershey Trust Company owns a minority stake, but retains a majority of the voting power within the company. Hershey's chocolate is available across the United States, in over 60 countries worldwide, they have three mega distribution centers, with modern labor management systems. In addition, Hershey is a member of the World Cocoa Foundation, it is associated with the Hersheypark Stadium and the Giant Center. After an apprenticeship to a confectioner in 1873, Milton S. Hershey founded a candy shop in Philadelphia; this candy shop was only open for six years, after which Hershey apprenticed with another confectioner in Denver, where he learned to make caramel.
After another failed business attempt in New York, Hershey returned to Pennsylvania, where in 1886 he founded the Lancaster Caramel Company. The use of fresh milk in caramels proved successful, in 1900, after seeing chocolate-making machines for the first time at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Hershey sold his caramel company for $1,000,000, began to concentrate on chocolate manufacturing, stating to people who questioned him, "Caramels are just a fad, but chocolate is a permanent thing." In 1896, Milton built a milk-processing plant so he could create and refine a recipe for milk chocolate candies. In 1899, he developed the Hershey process, less sensitive to milk quality than traditional methods. In 1900, he began manufacturing Hershey's Milk Chocolate Bars called Hershey's Bars or Hershey Bars. In 1903, Hershey began construction of a chocolate plant in his hometown of Derry Church, which came to be known as Hershey, Pennsylvania; the town was an inexpensive place for their families to live.
To increase employee morale, Milton provided leisure activities and created what would become Hersheypark to make sure the citizens enjoyed themselves. The milk chocolate bars manufactured at this plant proved popular, the company grew rapidly. In 1907, he introduced a new candy, bite-sized, flat-bottomed, conical-shaped pieces of chocolate that he named "Hershey's Kiss", they were individually wrapped by hand in squares of aluminum foil, the introduction of machine wrapping in 1921 simplified the process while adding the small paper ribbon to the top of the package to indicate that it was a genuine Hershey product. Today, 80 million of the candies are produced each day. Other products introduced included Mr. Goodbar, containing peanuts in milk chocolate, Hershey's Syrup, semisweet chocolate chips, the Krackel bar containing crisped rice. Labor unrest came to Hershey in the late 1930s as a Congress of Industrial Organizations-backed union attempted to organize the factory workers. A failed sit-down strike in 1937 ended in violence, as loyalist workers and local dairy farmers beat many of the strikers as they attempted to leave the plant.
By 1940, an affiliate of the American Federation of Labor had organized Hershey's workers under the leadership of John Shearer, who became the first president of Local Chapter Number 464 of the Bakery, Tobacco Workers and Grain Millers' International Union. Local 464 still represents the Hershey workforce. Shortly before World War II, Bruce Murrie, son of long-time Hershey's president William F. R. Murrie, struck a deal with Forrest Mars to create a hard sugar-coated chocolate that would be called M&M's. Murrie had 20% interest in the confection, which used Hershey chocolate during the rationing era during World War II. In 1948, Mars became one of Hershey's main competitors. In June 2006, Philadelphia city councilman Juan Ramos called for Hershey's to stop marketing "Ice Breakers Pacs", a kind of mint, due to the resemblance of its packaging to a kind, used for illegal street drugs. In September 2006, ABC News reported that several Hershey chocolate products were reformulated to replace cocoa butter with vegetable oil as an emulsifier.
According to the company, this change was made to reduce the costs of producing the products instead of raising their prices or decreasing the sizes. Some consumers complained that the taste was different, but the company stated that in the company-sponsored blind taste tests, about half of consumers preferred the new versions; as the new versions no longer met the Food and Drug Administration's official definition of "milk chocolate", the changed items were relabeled from stating they were "milk chocolate" and "made with chocolate" to "chocolate candy" and "chocolaty."In April 2014, the Hershey chocolate plant on East Chocolate Avenue in Hershey Pennsylvania was demolished to make way for mixed-use development. A 2016 attempt to sell Hershey to Mondelez International was scuttled because of objections by the Hershey Trust. Harry Burnett Reese invented Reese's Peanut Butter Cups after founding the H. B. Reese Candy Company in 1923. Reese died on May 1956 in West Palm Beach, Florida leaving the company to his six sons.
On July 2, 1963 the H. B. Reese Candy Company was acquired by the Hershey Chocolate Corporation in a tax free stock-for-stock merger
The Mosaic Company
The Mosaic Company is a Fortune 500 company based in Plymouth, Minnesota which mines phosphate and potash, is the largest U. S. producer of potash and phosphate fertilizer. The Mosaic Company was formed in October 2004 by a merger between IMC Global, a fertilizer company formed in 1909, Cargill's crop nutrition division, it is a combined producer and marketer of concentrated phosphate and potash with a customer base which includes wholesalers, retail dealers and individual growers worldwide. Its headquarters are in Plymouth, Minnesota and it employs 15,000 people in eight countries. On October 26, 2018, Mosaic announced that it would be relocating their headquarters to Tampa, Florida. Mosaic has 10.4 million tonnes of operational potash capacity. Mosaic operates five potash mines. Esterhazy K3 is in development and has started to supply K1 and K2 surface facilities with ore. Product from its Canadian mines is exported through Canpotex, an export association of Canadian potash producers. Potash mines are located in: Carlsbad, New Mexico Belle Plaine, Saskatchewan Colonsay, Saskatchewan Esterhazy, Saskatchewan K1 Esterhazy, Saskatchewan K2 Esterhazy, Saskatchewan K3 Mosaic has 16.8 million tonnes of operational capacity for finished concentrated phosphates.
Mosaic is the largest producer of finished phosphate products with an annual capacity greater than the next two largest producers combined. It has a global distribution network made up of plants, port facilities and sales offices. In 2013 Mosaic produced 7.6 million tons of concentrated phosphate crop nutrients and over 15 million tons of phosphate rock production. In October, 2013, Mosaic reached an agreement to purchase the phosphate operations of CF Industries for 1.4 billion dollars, which eliminates the need for Mosaic to spend an additional billion dollars to build a new processing facility in Hardee County, Florida to process the rock from their mines in that area. Phosphate mines are located in the Bone Valley Formation of the Peace River watershed in Central Florida: Fort Meade, Florida Hopewell, Florida Four Corners, Florida Wingate, Florida Mosaic owns a 25% stake of the Ma'aden Wa'ad Al Shamal Phosphate Company joint venture in Saudi Arabia. With the completion of the Vale Fertilizantes acquisition in January, 2018, an additional 5 Brazilian phosphate rock mines, 4 chemical plants and an additional 40% economic interest in the Miski Mayo mine were purchased.
2018 January: Mosaic completes acquisition of Vale Fertilizantes.2015 August: Joc O'Rourke succeeds Jim Prokopanko as Mosaic's President and CEO.2014 December: Mosaic acquires Archer Daniels Midland Company's fertilizer distribution business in Brazil and Paraguay. July: Cargill acquired Mosaic's Hersey, Michigan salt plant.2013 November: Mosaic closed the potash operations at their Hersey, Michigan facility.2011 May: Mosaic and Cargill complete the transaction to split off and distribute Cargill's stake in Mosaic. January: Mosaic and Cargill agree to split off and orderly distribute Cargill's stake in Mosaic.2007 January: Jim Prokopanko succeeds Fritz Corrigan as President and CEO of Mosaic.2006 July: Jim Prokopanko named Mosaic Chief Operating Officer.2004 October: The Mosaic Company begins trading on the New York Stock Exchange. June: Mosaic announced as the chosen name for the newly formed company. January: The crop nutrition business of Cargill, Inc. and IMC Global enter into a definitive agreement to form a new crop nutrition company.
Hot chocolate known as drinking chocolate, as chocolate tea in Nigeria, is a heated drink consisting of shaved chocolate, melted chocolate or cocoa powder, heated milk or water, a sweetener. Hot chocolate may be topped with whipped cream or marshmallows. Hot chocolate made with melted chocolate is sometimes called drinking chocolate, characterized by less sweetness and a thicker consistency; the first chocolate drink is believed to have been created by the Mayans around 2,500-3,000 years ago, a cocoa drink was an essential part of Aztec culture by 1400 AD, by which they referred to as xocōlātl. The drink became popular in Europe after being introduced from Mexico in the New World and has undergone multiple changes since then; until the 19th century, hot chocolate was used medicinally to treat ailments such as liver and stomach diseases. Hot chocolate is consumed throughout the world and comes in multiple variations, including the spiced chocolate para mesa of Latin America, the thick cioccolata calda served in Italy and chocolate a la taza served in Spain, the thinner hot cocoa consumed in the United States.
Prepared hot chocolate can be purchased from a range of establishments, including cafeterias, fast food restaurants and teahouses. Powdered hot chocolate mixes, which can be added to boiling water or hot milk to make the drink at home, are sold at grocery stores and online. Arachaelogists have found evidence that Mayan chocolate consumption occurred as early as 500 BC, there is speculation that chocolate predates the Mayans. To make the chocolate drink, served cold, the Maya ground cocoa seeds into a paste and mixed it with water, chili peppers, other ingredients, they poured the drink back and forth from a cup to a pot until a thick foam developed. Chocolate was available to Maya of all social classes, although the wealthy drank chocolate from "large spouted vessels" that were buried with elites. An early Classic period Mayan tomb from the site of Rio Azul, had vessels with the Maya glyph for cacao on them with residue of a chocolate drink; because sugar was yet to come to the Americas, xocōlātl was said to be an acquired taste.
What the Spaniards called xocōlātl was said to be a drink consisting of a chocolate base flavored with vanilla and other spices, served cold. The drink tasted bitter as opposed to sweetened modern hot chocolate; as to when xocōlātl was first served hot, sources conflict on when and by whom. However, Jose de Acosta, a Spanish Jesuit missionary who lived in Peru and Mexico in the 16th century, described xocōlātl as: Loathsome to such as are not acquainted with it, having a scum or froth, unpleasant taste, yet it is a drink much esteemed among the Indians, where with they feast noble men who pass through their country. The Spaniards, both men and women, that are accustomed to the country, are greedy of this Chocolate, they say they make diverse sorts of it, some hot, some cold, some temperate, put therein much of that "chili". Within Mesoamerica many drinks were made from cacao beans, further enhanced by ﬂowers like vanilla to add flavor; this was a tribute to the Aztecs. The Aztecs, or Mexica, required conquered people to provide them with chocolate.
Cups, cacao beans, as well as others things they acquired were listed in The Essential Codex Mendoza. Cacao became used as a currency throughout Mesoamerica; the Aztecs used chocolate to show high status: it was a bad omen for someone low or common to drink chocolate. Europeans' first recorded contact with chocolate wasn't until 1502 on Columbus's fourth voyage. After defeating Montezuma's warriors and demanding that the Aztec nobles hand over their valuables, Cortés returned to Spain in 1528, bringing cocoa beans and chocolate drink making equipment with them. At this time, chocolate still only existed in the bitter drink invented by the Mayas. Sweet hot chocolate and bar chocolate were yet to be invented. After its introduction to Europe, the drink gained popularity; the court of King Charles V soon adopted the drink, what was only known as "chocolate" became a fashionable drink popular with the Spanish upper class. Additionally, cocoa was given as a dowry when members of the Spanish Royal Family married other European aristocrats.
At the time, chocolate was expensive in Europe because the cocoa beans only grew in South America. Sweet-tasting hot chocolate was invented, leading hot chocolate to become a luxury item among the European nobility by the 17th century; when the first Chocolate House opened in 1657, chocolate was still expensive, costing 50 to 75 pence a pound. At the time, hot chocolate was mixed with spices for flavor. In the late 17th century, Hans Sloane, president of the Royal College of Physicians, visited Jamaica. There, he tried chocolate and considered it "nauseous", but found it became more palatable when mixed with milk; when he returned to England, he brought the recipe with him. The aristocratic nature of the drink led to chocolate being referred to as "the drink of the gods" in 1797; the Spanish began to use jicaras made of porcelain in place of the hollowed gourds used by the natives. They further tinkered with the recipes by using spices such as cinnamon, black pepper and sesame. Many of these things were used to try to recreate the flavor of the native flowers which they could not ea
Provimi is a company specializing in animal nutrition and related products. In the 1930s it started selling a product under the name Provimi, a mixture of three basic elements in every animal feed and this is where the present name is derived from: Proteins and Minerals; the company is of Dutch origin and headquartered in Rotterdam. Provimi was founded near Rotterdam, the Netherlands in 1927, where it started up as a trading company for Dutch farmers. In 1971, the American agricultural company Central Soya bought Provimi. In 1988, Central Soya was taken over by Eridania Béghin-Say Group, a large French agribusiness conglomerate. In the years to follow, Provimi went through a period of internal and worldwide external expansion until 2001, when the Eridania Béghin-Say Group was broken into four companies, one of, Provimi. In 2002, Provimlux, a holding company jointly controlled by funds advised by CVC Capital Partners and PAI Partners, acquired the 53.66% majority shareholding of Provimi. After the subsequent execution of a standing offer, Provimlux held 74.05% of Provimi, which remained listed on Euronext.
In the years to follow, Provimi continued its external growth. In April 2007, Permira bought the majority of Provimi's shares from CVC Capital Partners and PAI Partners; the Provimi Group was delisted from the Euronext Stock Exchange in Paris on 6 November 2009 and is wholly owned by KoroFrance SAS, a company indirectly controlled by investment funds managed or advised by Permira Advisers LLP. In November 2011 the company was acquired by Cargill for €1.5 billion. Group's Review Provimi, June 2007 Official website Media related to Provimi at Wikimedia Commons
Nestlé S. A. is a Swiss transnational food and drink company headquartered in Vevey, Switzerland. It is the largest food company in the world, measured by revenues and other metrics, since 2014, it ranked No. 64 on the Fortune Global 500 in 2017 and No. 33 on the 2016 edition of the Forbes Global 2000 list of largest public companies. Nestlé's products include baby food, medical food, bottled water, breakfast cereals and tea, dairy products, ice cream, frozen food, pet foods, snacks. Twenty-nine of Nestlé's brands have annual sales of over CHF1 billion, including Nespresso, Nescafé, Kit Kat, Nesquik, Stouffer's, Maggi. Nestlé has 447 factories, operates in 189 countries, employs around 339,000 people, it is one of the main shareholders of the world's largest cosmetics company. Nestlé was formed in 1905 by the merger of the Anglo-Swiss Milk Company, established in 1866 by brothers George and Charles Page, Farine Lactée Henri Nestlé, founded in 1866 by Henri Nestlé; the company grew during the First World War and again following the Second World War, expanding its offerings beyond its early condensed milk and infant formula products.
The company has made a number of corporate acquisitions, including Crosse & Blackwell in 1950, Findus in 1963, Libby's in 1971, Rowntree Mackintosh in 1988, Klim in 1998, Gerber in 2007. Nestlé has a primary listing on the SIX Swiss Exchange and is a constituent of the Swiss Market Index, it has a secondary listing on Euronext. Nestlé's origins date back to the 1860s, when two separate Swiss enterprises were founded that would form the core of Nestlé. In the succeeding decades, the two competing enterprises aggressively expanded their businesses throughout Europe and the United States. In 1866, Charles Page and George Page, brothers from Lee County, Illinois, USA, established the Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Company in Cham, Switzerland, their first British operation was opened at Chippenham, Wiltshire, in 1873. In 1867, in Vevey, Henri Nestlé soon began marketing it; the following year saw Daniel Peter begin seven years of work perfecting his invention, the milk chocolate manufacturing process.
Nestlé was the crucial co-operation that Peter needed to solve the problem of removing all the water from the milk added to his chocolate and thus preventing the product from developing mildew. Henri Nestlé retired in 1875 but the company, under new ownership, retained his name as Société Farine Lactée Henri Nestlé. In 1877, Anglo-Swiss added milk-based baby foods to their products. In 1879, Nestlé merged with milk chocolate inventor Daniel Peter. In 1904, François-Louis Cailler, Charles Amédée Kohler, Daniel Peter, Henri Nestlé participated in the creation and development of Swiss chocolate, marketing the first chocolate – milk Nestlé. In 1905, the companies merged to become the Nestlé and Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Company, retaining that name until 1947 when the name'Nestlé Alimentana SA' was taken as a result of the acquisition of Fabrique de Produits Maggi SA and its holding company, Alimentana SA, of Kempttal, Switzerland. Maggi was a major manufacturer of related foodstuffs; the company's current name was adopted in 1977.
By the early 1900s, the company was operating factories in the United States, the United Kingdom and Spain. The First World War created demand for dairy products in the form of government contracts, and, by the end of the war, Nestlé's production had more than doubled. In January 1919, Nestlé bought two condensed milk plants in Oregon from the company Geibisch and Joplin for $250,000. One was in Bandon, they expanded them processing 250,000 pounds of condensed milk daily in the Bandon plant. Nestlé felt the effects of the Second World War immediately. Profits dropped from US$20 million in 1938 to US$6 million in 1939. Factories were established in developing countries in Latin America; the war helped with the introduction of the company's newest product, Nescafé, which became a staple drink of the US military. Nestlé's production and sales rose in the wartime economy. After the war, government contracts dried up, consumers switched back to fresh milk. However, Nestlé's management responded streamlining operations and reducing debt.
The 1920s saw Nestlé's first expansion into new products, with chocolate-manufacture becoming the company's second most important activity. Louis Dapples was CEO till 1937 when succeeded by Édouard Muller till his death in 1948; the end of World War II was the beginning of a dynamic phase for Nestlé. Growth accelerated and numerous companies were acquired. In 1947 Nestlé merged with a manufacturer of seasonings and soups. Crosse & Blackwell followed in 1950, as did Findus, Libby's, Stouffer's. Diversification came with a shareholding in L'Oreal in 1974. In 1977, Nestlé made its second venture outside the food industry, by acquiring Alcon Laboratories Inc. In the 1980s, Nestlé's improved bottom line allowed the company to launch a new round of acquisitions. Carnation was acquired for $3 billion in 1984 and brought the evaporated milk brand, as well as Coffee-Mate and Friskies to Nestlé. In 1986 Nestlé Nespresso S. A. was founded. The confectionery company Rowntree Mackintosh was acquired in 1988 for $4.5 billion, which brought brands such as Kit Kat and Aero.
The first half of the 1990s proved to be favourable for Nestlé. Trade barriers crumbled, world markets developed into more or less integrat
Robin Hood Flour
Robin Hood Flour is a brand of flour made by the Horizon Milling division of Cargill. The brand is marketed to the food service and industrial section by Horizon Milling and the consumer retail sector by The J. M. Smucker Company. Established as a brand of the Moose Jaw Milling Company by miller Donald Mclean in 1900. New Prague Flouring Mill, owned by Francis Atherton Bean of Minneapolis, purchased the mill in 1909; the company manufactured flour under the brand names Keynote and Robin Hood. Another product was Radium Flour. After it's discovery at the end of the 19th centuty, radium became something of a sensation. Radium was added to cosmetics and water. Through a series of acquisitions and restructurings, the company became International Multifoods Corporation in 1970; the Moose Jaw mill closed in 1966 due to excess capacity. The newer Saskatoon mill continues to manufacture the Robin Hood brand flour. In June 2004, The J. M. Smucker Company purchased three milling facilities in Canada from International Multifoods, including the Robin Hood brand.
In 2006, Smuckers announced the sale of the milling facilities in Canada for US$78 million to Horizon Milling G. P. A unit of Cargill. Under the agreement Horizon Milling owns and operates the Canadian mills in Saskatoon and Burlington that manufacture Robin Hood branded products. Horizon Milling markets Robin Hood products directly to the food service and industrial sector in Canada, US and Caribbean. Smuckers continues to market Robin Hood products to the retail market. Arthur H. Hider Robin Hood Flour Canada Site
1971 Iraq poison grain disaster
The 1971 Iraq poison grain disaster was a mass methylmercury poisoning incident that began in late 1971. Grain treated with a methylmercury fungicide and never intended for human consumption was imported into Iraq as seed grain from Mexico and the United States. Due to a number of factors, including foreign-language labelling and late distribution within the growing cycle, this toxic grain was consumed as food by Iraqi residents in rural areas. People suffered from paresthesia and vision loss, symptoms similar to those seen when Minamata disease affected Japan; the recorded death toll was 459 people. The 1971 poisoning was the largest mercury poisoning disaster when it occurred, with cases peaking in January and February 1972 and stopping by the end of March. Reports after the disaster recommended tighter regulation, better labelling and handling of mercury-treated grain, wider involvement of the World Health Organization in monitoring and preventing poisoning incidents. Investigation confirmed the particular danger posed to young children.
The properties of mercury make it an effective fungicide. Methylmercury had been banned in Sweden in 1966, the first country to do so, the United Kingdom followed in 1971. Previous mercury-poisoning incidents had occurred in Iraq in 1956 and 1960. In 1956, there had been around 200 cases, 70 deaths. Among the recommendations made after the 1960 incident had been to colour any toxic grain for easy identification. Before the 1971 incident, around 200–300 cases of methylmercury poisoning had been reported worldwide. Drought had reduced harvests in 1969, affecting 500,000 people, in 1970. Saddam Hussein, as the government's no. 2 behind Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, decided to import mercury-coated seed grain for the late 1971 planting season. Hussein himself may have worked in the Department of Agriculture in the aftermath of the 1960 incident; some 95,000 tonnes of grain, coloured a pink-orange hue, were shipped to Iraq from the United States and Mexico. The wheat arrived in Basra on SS Trade Carrier between 16 September and 15 October, barley between 22 October and 24 November 1971.
Iraq's government chose a high-yield wheat seed developed in Mexico by Norman Borlaug. The seeds contained an average of 7.9 μg/g of mercury, with some samples containing up to nearly twice that. The decision to use mercury-coated grain has been reported as made by the Iraqi government, rather than the supplier, Cargill; the three Northern governorates of Ninawa and Erbil together received more than half the shipments. Contributing factors to the epidemic included the fact that distribution started late, much grain arrived after the October–November planting season. Farmers holding grain ingested it instead. Distribution was hurried and open, with grain being distributed free of charge or with payment in kind; some farmers sold their own grain. This left them dependent on tainted grain for the winter. Many Iraqis were either unaware of the significant health risk posed, or chose to ignore the warnings. Farmers were to certify with a thumbprint or signature that they understood the grain was poison, but according to some sources, distributors did not ask for such an indication.
Warnings on the sacks were in Spanish and English, not at all understood, or included the black-and-white skull and crossbones design, which meant nothing to Iraqis. The long latent period may have granted farmers a false sense of security, when animals fed the grain appeared to be fine; the red dye washed off the grain. Hence, washing may have given only the appearance of removing the poison. Mercury was ingested through the consumption of homemade bread and other animal products obtained from livestock given treated barley, vegetation grown from soil contaminated with mercury, game birds that had fed on the grain and fish caught in rivers and lakes into which treated grain had been dumped by the farmers. Ground seed dust inhalation was a contributing factor in farmers during grinding. Consumption of ground flour through homemade bread is thought to have been the major cause, since no cases were reported in urban areas, where government flour supplies were commercially regulated; the effect of mercury took some time – the latent period between ingestion and the first symptoms was between 16 and 38 days.
Paresthesia was the predominant symptom in less serious cases. Worse cases included ataxia, blindness or reduced vision, death resulting from central nervous system failure. Anywhere between 20 and 40 mg of mercury has been suggested as sufficient for paresthesia. On average, individuals affected consumed 20 kg or so of bread; the hospital in Kirkuk received large numbers of patients with symptoms that doctors recognised from the 1960 outbreak. The first case of alkylmercury poisoning was admitted to hospital on 21 December. By 26 December, the hospital had issued a specific warning to the government. By January 1972, the government had started to warn the populace about eating the grain, although dispatches did not mention the large numbers ill; the Iraqi Army soon ordered disposal of the grain and declared the death penalty for anyone found selling it. Farmers dumpe