River engineering is the process of planned human intervention in the course, characteristics, or flow of a river with the intention of producing some defined benefit. People have intervened in the natural course and behaviour of rivers since before recorded history—to manage the water resources, to protect against flooding, or to make passage along or across rivers easier. From Roman times, rivers have been used as a source of hydropower. From the late 20th century, river engineering has had environmental concerns broader than immediate human benefit and some river engineering projects have been concerned with the restoration or protection of natural characteristics and habitats. Hydromodification encompasses the systematic response to alterations to riverine and non-riverine water bodies such as coastal waters and lakes; the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency has defined hydromodification as the "alteration of the hydrologic characteristics of coastal and non-coastal waters, which in turn could cause degradation of water resources."
River engineering has resulted in unintended systematic responses. The river engineering discipline now strives to repair hydromodified degradations and account for potential systematic response to planned alterations by considering fluvial geomorphology. Fluvial geomorphology is the study of. Fluvial geomorphology is the cumulation of a number of sciences including open channel hydraulics, sediment transport, physical geology, riparian ecology. River engineering attempts to understand fluvial geomorphology, implement a physical alteration, maintain public safety; the size of rivers above any tidal limit and their average freshwater discharge are proportionate to the extent of their basins and the amount of rain which, after falling over these basins, reaches the river channels in the bottom of the valleys, by which it is conveyed to the sea. The basin of a river is the expanse of country bounded by a watershed over which rainfall flows down towards the river traversing the lowest part of the valley, whereas the rain falling on the far slope of the watershed flows away to another river draining an adjacent basin.
River basins vary in extent according to the configuration of the country, ranging from the insignificant drainage areas of streams rising on high ground near the coast and flowing straight down into the sea, up to immense tracts of great continents, where rivers rising on the slopes of mountain ranges far inland have to traverse vast stretches of valleys and plains before reaching the ocean. The size of the largest river basin of any country depends on the extent of the continent in which it is situated, its position in relation to the hilly regions in which rivers arise and the sea into which they flow, the distance between the source and the outlet into the sea of the river draining it; the rate of flow of rivers depends upon their fall known as the gradient or slope. When two rivers of different sizes have the same fall, the larger river has the quicker flow, as its retardation by friction against its bed and banks is less in proportion to its volume than is the case with the smaller river.
The fall available in a section of a river corresponds to the slope of the country it traverses. Accordingly, in large basins, rivers in most cases begin as torrents with a variable flow, end as flowing rivers with a comparatively regular discharge; the irregular flow of rivers throughout their course forms one of the main difficulties in devising works for mitigating inundations or for increasing the navigable capabilities of rivers. In tropical countries subject to periodical rains, the rivers are in flood during the rainy season and have hardly any flow during the rest of the year, while in temperate regions, where the rainfall is more evenly distributed throughout the year, evaporation causes the available rainfall to be much less in hot summer weather than in the winter months, so that the rivers fall to their low stage in the summer and are liable to be in flood in the winter. In fact, with a temperate climate, the year may be divided into a warm and a cold season, extending from May to October and from November to April in the Northern hemisphere respectively.
The only exceptions are rivers which have their sources amongst mountains clad with perpetual snow and are fed by glaciers. But these rivers are liable to have their flow modified by the influx of tributaries subject to different conditions, so that the Rhone below Lyon has a more uniform discharge than most rivers, as the summer floods of the Arve are counteracted to a great extent by the low stage of the Saône flowing into the Rhone at Lyon, which has its floods in the winter when the Arve, on the contrary, is low. Another serious obstacle encountered in river engineering consists in the large quantity of detritus they bring down in flood-time, derived from the disintegration of the surface layers of the hills and slopes in the upper parts of the valleys by glaciers and rain; the power of a current to transport materia
Clearwater County, Minnesota
Clearwater County is a county in the state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 8,695, its county seat is Bagley. Clearwater County is home to the source of the Mississippi River. Parts of the Red Lake and White Earth Indian reservations extend into the county; the Red Lake River flows out of Red Lake and courses westward across the top of Clearwater County on its way to discharge into the Red River at Grand Forks, North Dakota. The Clearwater River flows west-southwesterly across the central part of the county on its way to discharge into the Red Lake River; the county terrain consists of wooded rolling hills, dotted with ponds. The terrain slopes to the north, with the highest point on the lower west boundary, at 1,781' ASL; the county has a total area of 1,030 square miles, of which 999 square miles is land and 31 square miles is water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Bagley have ranged from a low of −5 °F in January to a high of 79 °F in July, although a record low of −53 °F was recorded in February 1996 and a record high of 103 °F was recorded in August 1976.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 0.64 inches in December to 4.62 inches in June. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 8,423 people, 3,330 households, 2,287 families in the county; the population density was 8.43/sqmi. There were 4,114 housing units at an average density of 4.12/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 89.26% White, 0.19% Black or African American, 8.58% Native American, 0.25% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.24% from other races, 1.47% from two or more races. 0.77% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 43.6% were of Norwegian, 15.6% German, 6.5% Swedish, 6.2% American ancestry. There were 3,330 households out of which 30.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.80% were married couples living together, 7.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.30% were non-families. 27.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.02.
The county population contained 26.00% under the age of 18, 7.60% from 18 to 24, 24.60% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, 17.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 101.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,517, the median income for a family was $39,698. Males had a median income of $29,338 versus $20,417 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,694. About 11.00% of families and 15.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.90% of those under age 18 and 18.20% of those age 65 or over. North Clearwater South Clearwater In past decades, Clearwater County functioned as a swing precinct, but no Democratic Party candidate has carried the county since 1996. National Register of Historic Places listings in Clearwater County MN Clearwater County government website City of Bagley website
A distributary, or a distributary channel, is a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. They are a common feature of river deltas; the phenomenon is known as river bifurcation. The opposite of a distributary is a tributary. Distributaries occur as a stream nears a lake or an ocean, but they can occur inland as well, such as on alluvial fans or when a tributary stream bifurcates as it nears its confluence with a larger stream. In some cases, a minor distributary can divert so much water from the main channel that it can become the main route. Common terms to name individual river distributaries in English-speaking countries are arm and channel, they may refer to a distributary that does not rejoin the channel it has branched from, or to one that does. In Australia, the term anabranch is used to refer to a distributary that diverts from the main course of the river and rejoins it later. In North America an anabranch is called a braided stream. In Louisiana, the Atchafalaya River is an important distributary of the Mississippi River.
Because the Atchafalaya takes a steeper route to the Gulf of Mexico than the main channel, over several decades it has captured more and more of the Mississippi's flow, after the Mississippi meandered into the Red River of the South. The Old River Control Structure, a dam which regulates the outflow from the Mississippi into the Atchafalaya, was completed by the Army corps of engineers in 1963, it is intended to prevent the Atchafalaya from capturing the main flow of the Mississippi and stranding the ports of Baton Rouge and New Orleans. In British Columbia, the Fraser River has numerous sloughs and side-channels which may be defined as distributaries, its final stretch has three main distributaries: the North Arm and the South Arm, a few smaller ones adjoining them. Examples of inland distributaries: Teton River—a tributary of Henrys Fork in Idaho—splits into two distributary channels, the North Fork and South Fork, which join Henrys Fork miles apart. Parting of the Waters National Landmark within Wyoming's Teton Wilderness on the Continental Divide where North Two Ocean Creek splits into two distributaries, Pacific Creek and Atlantic Creek, which flow into their respective oceans.
Kings River has deposited a large alluvial fan at the transition from its canyon in the Sierra Nevada mountains to the flat Central Valley. Distributaries flow north into the Pacific Ocean via the San Joaquin River and south into an endorheic basin surrounding Tulare Lake; the Qu'Appelle River, in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, is a distributary of the South Saskatchewan River. Its flow is controlled by the Qu'Appelle River Dam; this dam forms the southern arm of Lake Diefenbaker. The Casiquiare is an inland distributary of the upper Orinoco, which flows southward into the Rio Negro and forms a unique natural canal between the Orinoco and Amazon river systems, it is the largest river on the planet. The IJssel, the Waal and the Nederrijn are the three principal distributaries of the Rhine; these are formed by two separate bifurcations within the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta. The Akhtuba River is a major distributary of the Volga; the bifurcation occurs close to, but before, the Volga Delta. The Tärendö River in northern Sweden is an inland distributary, far from the mouth of the river.
It ends at the Kalix River. The Little Danube in Slovakia branches off from the Danube near Bratislava, flows into the Vah before rejoining the main river near Komárno; the area in the middle is the largest freshwater island in Europe. The Abbey River, Limerick, in Ireland is a distributary arm of the River Shannon, it rejoins the Shannon to form an island upon. The Huai River in China splits into three streams; the main stream passes through the Sanhe Sluice, goes out of the Sanhe river, enters the Yangtze River through Baoying Lake and Gaoyou Lake. On the east bank of Hongze Lake, another stream goes out of Gaoliangjian Gate and enters the Yellow Sea at the port of Bidan through Subei Guan'gai Zongqu, the main irrigation channel of Northern Jiangsu); the third stream leaves the Erhe lock on the northeast bank of Hongze Lake, passes the Huaishuhe River to the north of Lianyungang city, flows into Haizhou Bay through the Hongkou. Kollidam River is a distributary of the Kaveri River. Himalayan rivers including Ganges and Indus plus many tributaries form inland distributaries over vast alluvial fans as they transition from the mountain region to the flat Indo-Gangetic Plain.
These areas are flood-prone, for example the 2008 Bihar flood on the Kosi River. Hoogli River is a Ganges distributary that flows through India, whereas most of the Ganges-Brahmaputra complex enters the sea through Bangladesh. Nara River is a distributary of the Indus River; the Nile River has the Rosetta and the Damietta branches. According to Pliny the Elder it had in ancient times seven distributaries: The Pelusiac The Tanitic The Mendesian The Phatnitic The Sebennytic The Bolbitine The CanopicSee History of the Nile Delta; the Okavango River ends in many distributaries in a large inland delta called the Okavango Delta. It is an example of distributaries. A number of the rivers that flow inland from Australia's Great Dividing Range form distributaries, most of which flow only intermittently during times of high river levels and end in shallow lakes or peter out in the deserts. Yarriambiack Creek, which
Marsh River (Minnesota)
The Marsh River, located in Minnesota, is a 49.9-mile-long tributary of the Red River of the North. It rises less than 600 feet from the Wild Rice River, east of the city of Ada, flows northwest, entering the Red River 2 miles northwest of Shelly; the Marsh River flows within Norman County. Marsh River was named for the wetlands near the stream. List of rivers of Minnesota List of Hudson Bay rivers Minnesota Watersheds U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Marsh River USGS Hydrologic Unit Map - State of Minnesota
Ada is a city in Norman County, United States. The population was 1,707 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat. Minnesota State Highways 9 and 200 are two of the main routes in the city. Ada was laid out in 1874; the town was named for the eldest daughter of William H. Fisher and superintendent of the Saint Paul and Pacific Railroad, who had died aged 6. A post office has been in operation at Ada since 1876. Ada was incorporated in 1881. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.39 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,707 people, 742 households, 436 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,228.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 837 housing units at an average density of 602.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.9% White, 0.2% African American, 1.1% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 1.4% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.6% of the population.
There were 742 households of which 29.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.2% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.2% were non-families. 37.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.96. The median age in the city was 43.9 years. 24.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 45.5% male and 54.5% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,657 people, 749 households, 432 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,234.4 people per square mile. There were 835 housing units at an average density of 622.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.44% White, 0.06% African American, 0.66% Native American, 0.54% Asian, 1.03% from other races, 1.27% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.78% of the population.
There were 749 households out of which 26.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.2% were married couples living together, 5.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.2% were non-families. 39.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 24.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.98. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.5% under the age of 18, 5.9% from 18 to 24, 25.0% from 25 to 44, 20.0% from 45 to 64, 24.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.9 male. The median income for a household in the city was $29,583, the median income for a family was $43,162. Males had a median income of $30,924 versus $23,088 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,921. About 7.0% of families and 13.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.5% of those under age 18 and 21.5% of those age 65 or over.
Ada and neighboring community Borup are served by the Ada-Borup Schools. Both the elementary and high schools are located in Ada, following the closing of the Borup site in 2010; the elementary building serves PreK-6 students and was built in 1978. The district covers over 345 square miles and serves 530 students; the Ada-Borup Schools boast a graduation rate near 98%, as well as a diverse offering of courses including "College in the High School" classes. Further, Ada-Borup Secondary was awarded a bronze medal by U. S. News & World Report for three consecutive years, recognizing it among the nation's top high schools. Ada is home to annual Norman County Fair. Held the last full weekend in June the fair is a gathering place for the whole county; the Thomas Carnival along with many food stands come together for this annual event. 4-H, FFA bring their exhibits to display. There is entertainment daily in the Tommy Roesch Memorial Stage; the Fun in the Flatlands celebration is held each fall during the second weekend in September.
The festival includes a parade, Pioneer Days at Prairie Village, old time demonstrations, kids' games, food stands, a craft show, a produce market, a car show and more. Ada hosts an Old-Fashioned Family Christmas each December, with highlights including a parade, opportunities for children to visit Santa and Mrs. Claus, free family movies at Ada's historic Orpheum Theatre, an old-time snowmobile show. Ada official website Ada Chamber of Commerce Ada Photo Gallery Ada-Borup Schools Norman County Fair
Red River Valley
The Red River Valley is a region in central North America, drained by the Red River of the North. Forming the border between Minnesota and North Dakota when these territories were admitted as states in the United States, this fertile valley has been important to the economies of these states and to Manitoba, Canada; the population centers of Moorhead, Minnesota and Grand Forks, North Dakota, Winnipeg, Manitoba developed in the valley as settlement by ethnic Europeans increased in the late nineteenth century. Completion of major railroads, availability of cheap lands, extinguishing of Indian land claims attracted many new settlers; some developed large-scale agricultural operations known as bonanza farms, which concentrated on wheat commodity crops. Paleogeographic Lake Agassiz laid down the Red River Valley Silts; the valley was long an area of habitation by various indigenous cultures, including the historic Ojibwe and Métis peoples. The river flows north through a wide ancient lake plain to Lake Winnipeg.
The geography and seasonal conditions can produce devastating floods, with several recorded since the mid-20th century. French fur traders had relations with First Nations and Native Americans throughout the Great Lakes region, they lived with the tribes and married or had relations with native women. By the mid-17th century, the Métis, descendants of these Frenchmen and Cree tribes people, settled in the Red River valley; the Métis established an ethnicity and culture, as many continued a tradition as hunters and traders involved in the fur trade. They were farmers in this area; the British took over French territory east of the Mississippi River following its victory in the Seven Years' War. In the early 19th century, the lucrative fur trade attracted continuing interest, Lord Selkirk established the Red River Colony. In 1803 the United States acquired former French territory west of the Mississippi River in the Louisiana Purchase from France; this included some of the Red River Valley. The U.
S. government uses the term Red River Valley to describe the sections of northwestern Minnesota and northeastern North Dakota to which it secured title following the Anglo-American Convention of 1818 that settled the northern boundary of the US and Canada. This land became part as the second article of the 1818 treaty declared the 49th parallel to be the official border between the U. S. and Canada up to the Rocky Mountains. The land acquired under the treaty had an area of 29,066,880 acres, comprising 1.3 percent of total U. S. land area. Centered on the Red River of the North, these lands had been under the control of Great Britain. West of the Red River Valley, the territory of the Louisiana Purchase, which the US acquired from France, extends north of the 49th parallel; the US ceded this to Britain in exchange for gaining the Red River Valley. These northernmost parts of the Louisiana Purchase are one of the few North American territories ceded by the United States to a foreign power; the four factors make the Red River Valley so prone to flooding: Synchrony of Discharge with Spring Thaw: The Red River flows northward.
The spring thaw proceeds northward. As a result, runoff from the southern portion of the valley joins the fresh melt-off waters from northerly areas along the Red River. In the northern part of the Valley, this can result in devastating floods if the effects occur at the same time. Ice Jams: These are produced because of the northward-flowing river system. Ice is moving from the southern Valley and freshly-broken ice is moving from the central and northern Valley; these two meet steadily. Glacial Lake Plain: The floor of Glacial Lake Agassiz is one of the flattest expanses of land in the world. Here, the Red River has cut a winding valley; as a result of this, when the river floods on this plain, a devastating event can occur. The areal coverage of the waters can become dramatic. Being 9,300 years old, the Red River has not yet carved a large valley-floodplain system on the surrounding geography. Thus, the large lake plain becomes the floodplain to this river. Decrease in Gradient Downstream: The gradient, or slope, of the Red River averages 5 inches per mile of length.
In the region of Drayton-Pembina, the gradient is only 1.5 inches per mile. The water tends to pool in this area during flood season; the region can become a shallow lake. Treaty of 1818 Pembina Region Red River Colony Sheyenne River Shellmouth Reservoir Portage Diversion Red River Floodway Old Crossing Treaty Métis people RiverWatchOnline: Red River History
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti