Playing card suit
In playing cards, a suit is one of the categories into which the cards of a deck are divided. Most each card bears one of several pips showing to which suit it belongs; the rank for each card is determined by the number of pips except on face cards. Ranking indicates which cards within a suit are better, higher or more valuable than others, whereas there is no order between the suits unless defined in the rules of a specific card game. In a single deck, there is one card of any given rank in any given suit. A deck may include special cards that belong to no suit called jokers. Various languages have different terminology for suits such as signs, or seeds. Modern Western playing cards are divided into two or three general suit-systems; the older Latin suits are subdivided into the Spanish suit-systems. The younger Germanic suits are subdivided into the Swiss suit-systems; the French suits are a derivative of the German suits but are considered a separate system on its own. The card suits originated in China.
The earliest card games were trick-taking games and the invention of suits increased the level of strategy and depth in these games. A card of one suit cannot beat a card from another regardless of its rank; the concept of suits predate playing cards and can be found in Chinese dice and domino games such as Tien Gow. Chinese money-suited cards are believed to be the oldest ancestor to the Latin suit-system; the money-suit system is based on denominations of currency: Coins, Strings of Coins, Myriads of Strings, Tens of Myriads. Old Chinese coins had holes in the middle to allow them to be strung together. A string of coins could be misinterpreted as a stick to those unfamiliar with them. By the Islamic world had spread into Central Asia and had contacted China, had adopted playing cards; the Muslims renamed the suit of myriads as cups. The Chinese numeral character for Ten on the Tens of Myriads suit may have inspired the Muslim suit of swords. Another clue linking these Chinese and European cards are the ranking of certain suits.
In many early Chinese games like Madiao, the suit of coins was in reverse order so that the lower ones beat the higher ones. In the Indo-Persian game of Ganjifa, half the suits were inverted, including a suit of coins; this was true for the European games of Tarot and Ombre. The inverting of suits had no purpose in regards to gameplay but was an artifact from the earliest games; these Turko-Arabic cards, called Kanjifa, used the suits coins, clubs and swords, but the clubs represented polo sticks. The Latin suits are coins, clubs and swords, they are the earliest suit-system in Europe, were adopted from the cards imported from Mamluk Egypt and Moorish Granada in the 1370s. There are four types of Latin suits: Italian, Portuguese, an extinct archaic type; the systems can be distinguished by the pips of their long suits: clubs. Northern Italian swords are curved outward and the clubs appear to be batons, they intersect one another. Southern Italian and Spanish swords are straight, the clubs appear to be knobbly cudgels.
They do not cross each other. Portuguese pips are like the Spanish, they sometimes have dragons on the aces. This system lingers on only in the Unsun Karuta of Japan; the archaic system is like the Northern Italian one, but the swords are curved inward so they touch each other without intersecting. Minchiate used a mixed system of Portuguese swords. Despite a long history of trade with China, Japan was introduced to playing cards with the arrival of the Portuguese in the 1540s. Early locally made cards, were similar to Portuguese decks. Increasing restrictions by the Tokugawa shogunate on gambling, card playing, general foreign influence, resulted in the Hanafuda card deck that today is used most for fishing-type games; the role of rank and suit in organizing cards became switched, so the hanafuda deck has 12 suits, each representing a month of the year, each suit has 4 cards, most two normal, one Ribbon and one Special. During the 15th-century, manufacturers in German speaking lands experimented with various new suit systems to replace the Latin suits.
One early deck had the Latin ones with an extra suit of shields. The Swiss-Germans developed their own suits of shields, roses and bells around 1450. Instead of roses and shields, the Germans settled with hearts and leaves around 1460; the French derived their suits of trèfles, carreaux, cœurs, piques from the German suits around 1480. French suits correspond with German suits with the exception of the tiles with the bells but there is one early French deck that had crescents instead of tiles; the English names for the French suits of clubs and spades may have been carried over from the older Latin suits. Beginning around 1440 in northern Italy, some decks started to include of an extra suit of 21 numbered cards known as trionfi or trumps, to play tarot card games. Always included in tarot decks is one card, the Fool or Excuse, which may be part of the trump suit depending on the game or region; these cards do not have pips or f
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Curse of Scotland
The Curse of Scotland is a nickname used for the Nine of Diamonds playing card. The expression has been used at least since the early 18th century, many putative explanations have been given for the origin of this nickname for the card. In a book printed in London in 1708, The British Apollo, or, Curious amusements for the ingenious, a question is posed: Q. Why is the Nine of Diamonds called the curse of Scotland? A. Diamonds as the Ornamental Jewels of a Regnal Crown, imply no more in the above-nam'd Proverb than a mark of Royalty, for SCOTLAND'S Kings for many Ages, were observ'd, each Ninth to be a Tyrant, who by Civil Wars, all the fatal consequences of intestine discord, plunging the Divided Kingdom into strange Disorders, gave occasion, in the course of time, to form the Proverb. A similar book of 1726 gives the same question and answer, still regarding the question as relating to a proverb. By 1757 the card was described as "commonly called the Curse of Scotland" with the explanation that the epithet refers to Lord Ormistoune, Lord Justice Clerk from 1692 to 1735, who suppressed the Jacobite rising of 1715 and "became universally hated in Scotland".
In 18th-century Scotland, the nine of diamonds was sometimes called the "Justice Clerk", was considered to be the most unlucky card in the pack. James Mitchell's 1825 Scotsman's Library claimed that the expression originated from the Duke of Monmouth writing orders on such a card before the Battle of Bothwell Bridge. Despite this, in The Spectator, a reviewer of an 1885 book by George Gomme commented that the reviewer had believed that the phrase had started from an order written on a ♦9 by the Duke of Cumberland on the eve of the Battle of Culloden; however he went on to remark that the book claims that "The curse of Scotland must be something which that nation hates and detests. The Scots held in the utmost detestation the Pope." In the card game Pope Joan popular in the 19th century, the ♦9 is the most powerful card, it is called the "Pope". The game is played on a special board on which the middle is marked "Pope Joan", it is used in association with this card; the game uses 51 cards but there is no direct relation with the ♦9.
Gomme's book goes on to claim "At the game of Pope Joan, the nine of diamonds is Pope. The Spectator review considered the claim "more cogent in form than in matter". A letter written in response to The Spectator's book review pointed out that the saying was established well before Culloden, preferred the Pope Joan theory to other explanations. Other explanations given in the letter were: the family arms of John Dalrymple, Earl of Stair have a more than passing resemblance to the ♦9 playing card. An 1864 book by Robert Chambers, upon which this letter seems to have been based, describes the theories as "most lame and unsatisfactory suggestions" compared with the Dalrymple theory; the book dismisses the Culloden theory because of an earlier 1745 caricature of "the young chavalier attempting to lead a herd of bulls, laden with papal curses, excommunications &c. across the Tweed, with the Nine of Diamonds lying before them". In the 1898 edition of Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable the "Pope Joan" and "Comette" theories are favoured although many of the others are listed – more recent editions venture no opinion.
In Gurney Benham's book about playing cards, in describing the game of Pope Joan he gives his own explanation for why this card is known as the Curse of Scotland: "The crown of Scotland contained only nine stones, as they never could afford a tenth". Eric Partridge's Routledge Dictionary of Historical Slang considers: “the various theories are as interesting as they are unconvincing”. Collins Encyclopedia of Scotland says for Curse of Scotland "This is taken to be the nine of diamonds playing card, though explanations differ"; the 19th century Tarot of Marseilles is one of the standard designs for tarot cards. It contains a "Pope" card but there seems to be no connection with the Pope Joan card game though the popess may have derived from the mythical Pope Joan. "The Nine of Diamonds" is the title of a book about close-up magic, produced by a Scottish collective of magicians, which includes references to the myths and tales about the card. The expression "Curse of Scotland" is sometimes used to refer to an occasion of bad luck at cards and can refer to unwanted situations in Scotland, such as swarms of midges.
There is a theatrical superstition, sometimes called the Scottish curse, that speaking the name Macbeth in the theatre brings bad luck. Hence "the Scottish Play" is used to refer to Shakespeare's play
Perlaggen is a traditional card game, played in the regions of South Tyrol in Italy, the Tyrolean Oberland and the Innsbruck areas of Austria. It is the only card game to have been recognised by UNESCO as an item of Intangible Cultural Heritage. Perlaggen originated in the South Tyrolean valleys of the Etschtal and Eisacktal when South Tyrol was part of Austria, its beginnings go back to the 19th century. The oldest known record of the game of Perlaggen comes from an 1853 booklet. At the first Perlaggen Congress, which took place on 19 April 1890 in Innsbruck, the game's inventors, its place and year of origin were confirmed, its inventors were chancery clerks, Alois von Perkhammer and Josef Pfonzelter, forestry officials, Ferdinand Gile and Johann Sarer. They created the game at the inn of Zum Pfau in Bozen, South Tyrol, in the year 1833. Confirmed at this congress were the rules of the game, albeit they were not always observed; the game had no name. It was only several years that the term Perlagg emerged in the region around Salurn, where the devil was referred to as the Berlicche.
Like the devil, the Perlagg can appear in any suitable form of cards. In the game, the name Perlagg is applied to a card of a high rank; the game is played with the well known German deck and with 33 cards, i.e. it includes the wild card known as the Weli. In South Tyrol the single-headed Salzburger pattern cards are used; the game has four suits: The ranking of the suits is the same. Each suit consists of eight cards in the usual order: Ace/Deuce/Sow, Ober, Ten, Eight, Seven; the game may be played between 2, 4 or 6 players, but it is played in fours, two against two. The players sit in a'cross' with partners facing each other across the table; each player is dealt five cards. There is a variation for two players in which they receive seven cards each. At the start of the game, the player who cuts the highest card deals. Before dealing, he invites the neighbour on his right to cut. If the cutter cuts to one of the Perlagg cards, he may keep it. If there is another one under the first Perlagg, this belongs to the cutter, as does a third or fourth.
It is therefore possible for the cutter to capture all four permanent Perlaggs. The cutter is obliged to show all players the drawn Perlagg. Once he has fulfilled this obligation, he no longer has to inform anyone during the game what he has drawn. After cutting, the cards are dealt to the left; each player is dealt two in the first packet and three in the second. The dealer must check if and how many Perlaggs the cutter has captured. If the dealer makes a mistake and, for example, deals two cards in the first packet to the cutter though the latter has taken a Perlagg, the opponents may demand that the hand be reshuffled and redealt. In this case, the person on the right of the dealer has the advantage of being allowed to cut a second time, he may keep any Perlaggs. If the dealer has dealt the cards so that each of the four players has five cards in his hand, he flips the next card, the twenty-first, as a trump, i.e. the suit he flips becomes the trump suit and beats the cards of the other three suits.
So there twelve remain hidden on the table. The dealer is obliged to show all other players bottom cards once. After that, no-one may look at these cards. Three cards of the trump suit, the 7, the Unter and the Ober, now have the rank of a Perlagg and are therefore called Trump Perlaggs; these three Trump Perlaggs have the same attributes as the four permanent Perlaggs, except that they are lower in rank than the permanent ones. The ranking among them is 7, Ober. Among the 33 cards which may be'perlagged', there are four so-called permanent Perlaggs; these four cards are superior to all the others in that, they beat all other cards in a trick and, that they may be turned into one of four other cards, a move known as christening. These christened cards may only be used once; these cards are therefore: K - Maxl, the King of Hearts, is the highest card, called Maxl after King Maximilian I of Bavaria. 6 - Weli, the 6 of Bells, is the second highest. It is called the geschriebene Weli 7 - Bell Spitz, the 7 of Bells, is the third highest card called Little Weli 7 - Acorn Spitz, the 7 of Acorns, is the fourth-highest cardIf the dealer has a 7, Unter or Ober trump and another trump card in his five-card hand, he has the right to exchange a trump Perlagg, turned over for the trump card in his hand.
If one of the four permanent Perlaggs is turned up, its suit becomes the trump suit, i.e. if the King of Hearts is turned up, Hearts becomes the trump suit, etc. and it can be replaced with a card of the same suit. The Weli is considered to be a Bell. If the dealer has no trump card, i.e. he cannot exchange, the right to exchange passes to his partner. If he has no trump either, the Perlagg remains in place. Under no circumstances may the other team exchange it. Once the first card has been played and the first card has been accepted or beaten, the team entitled t
Joker (playing card)
The Joker is a playing card found in most modern card decks, as an addition to the standard four suits. The Joker originated in the United States during the Civil War and was created as a trump card for the game of Euchre, it has since been adopted into many other card games. The card is unique within the French pack. In the game of Euchre, the highest trump card is the Jack of the trump suit, called the right bower; the concept appears to have originated from Germany where the games and Bester Bube had right and left bowers. Around 1860, American Euchre players may have devised a higher trump, the "Best Bower", out of a blank card. Samuel Hart is credited with printing the first illustrated "Best Bower" card in 1863 with his "Imperial Bower". Best Bower-type jokers continued to be produced well into the 20th-century. Cards labelled "Joker" began appearing around the late 1860s with some depicting jesters, it is believed that the term "Joker" comes from Jucker or Juckerspiel, the original German spelling of Euchre.
One British manufacturer, Charles Goodall, was manufacturing packs with Jokers for the American market in 1871. The first joker for the domestic British market was sold in 1874. Italians call jokers "Jolly" as many early cards were labelled "Jolly Joker"; the next game to use a joker was poker around 1875. Packs with two jokers started to become the norm during the late 1940s for the game of Canasta. Since the 1950s, German and Austrian packs have included three jokers to play German Rummy. Jokers do not have any standardized appearance across the card manufacturing industry; each company produces their own depictions of the card. The publishers of playing cards trademark their jokers, which have unique artwork that reflect contemporary culture. Out of convention, jokers tend to be illustrated as jesters. There are two Jokers per deck noticeably different. For instance, the United States Playing Card Company prints their company's guarantee claim on only one. More common traits are the appearance of black/non-colored Jokers.
At times, the Jokers will each be colored to match the colors used for suits. In games where the jokers may need to be compared, the red, full-color, or larger-graphic Joker outranks the black, monochrome, or smaller-graphic one. If the joker colors are similar, the joker without a guarantee will outrank the guaranteed one. With the red and black jokers, the red one can alternately be counted as a heart/diamond and the black is used to substitute clubs/spades; the Unicode for playing cards provide symbols for three jokers: red and white. Many decks do not provide the Joker with a corner index symbol, of those that do, the most common is a solid five-pointed star or a star within a circle, it is very common for decks to use a stylized "J" or the word "JOKER" in the corner. Like sports trading cards, jokers are prized by collectors. Many unusual jokers are available for purchase online while other collectible jokers are catalogued online for viewing; the Guinness Book of World Records recognizes the largest joker collection as having 8,520 jokers and belonging to Donato de Santis in Italy.
Some European games have as many as six jokers per pack. Zwicker uses 6 Jokers in a 52-card French deck. German Rummy uses 2 packs of French playing cards, with 3 Jokers per pack; the Joker is compared to " Fool" in the Tarot or Tarock decks. They share many similarities both in play function. In Central Europe, the Fool, or Sküs, is the highest trump. Practitioners of cartomancy include a Joker in the standard 52-card deck with a meaning similar to the Fool card of Tarot. Sometimes, the two Jokers are used. An approach is to identify the "black" Joker with a rank of zero with the Fool and the "red" Joker with "the Magician" known as "the Juggler", a card with a rank of one, somewhat similar in interpretation and is considered the first step in the "Fool's Journey". In a standard deck, there are two Jokers; the Joker's use varies greatly. Many card games omit the card entirely. Other games, such as a 25-card variant of Euchre which uses the joker as the highest trump, make it one of the most important in the game.
The joker is a wild card, thereby allowed to represent other existing cards. The term "joker's wild" originates from this practice; the Joker can be an beneficial, or an harmful, card. In Euchre it is used to represent the highest trump. In poker, it is wild. However, in the children's game named Old Maid, a solitary joker represents the Maid, a card, to be avoided. Euchre, 500: As the highest trump or "top Bower". Canasta: The joker, like the deuce, is a wild card. However, the joker is worth 50 points in melding, as opposed to 20 for the deuce. Gin Rummy: a wild card, able to be used as any necessary rank or suit to complete a meld. Chase the Joker: An alternative version of Old Maid where the Joker card is used instead of the Ace. Poker: A joker can be wild, or can be a "bug", a limited form of wildcard which c
Texas hold 'em
Texas hold'em is a variation of the card game of poker. Two cards, known as hole cards, are dealt face down to each player, five community cards are dealt face up in three stages; the stages consist of a series of three cards an additional single card, a final card. Each player seeks the best five card poker hand from any combination of the seven cards of the five community cards and their two hole cards. Players have betting options to check, raise, or fold. Rounds of betting take place before the flop is dealt and after each subsequent deal; the player who has the best hand and has not folded by the end of all betting rounds wins all of the money bet for the hand, known as the pot. Texas hold'em is the H game featured in HORSE and in HOSE. In Texas hold'em, as in all variants of poker, individuals compete for an amount of money or chips contributed by the players themselves; because the cards are dealt randomly and outside the control of the players, each player attempts to control the amount of money in the pot based either on the hand they are holding, or on their prediction as to what their opponents may be holding and how they might behave.
The game is divided into a series of hands. A hand may end at the showdown, in which case the remaining players compare their hands and the highest hand is awarded the pot; the other possibility for the conclusion of a hand occurs when all but one player have folded and have thereby abandoned any claim to the pot, in which case the pot is awarded to the player who has not folded. The objective of winning players is not to win every individual hand, but rather to make mathematically and psychologically better decisions regarding when and how much to bet, call—or fold. By making such decisions to place influential bets, one can non-verbally represent or suggest holding or not-holding a certain or possible hand by either betting or not-betting pre-flop, by venturing smaller or larger bets or raises at more advantageous times, throughout the stages of the hand being dealt. One's pattern of betting may encourage opponents to bet or to fold, without verbalizing a discouraging or dishonest word; the winning poker players know how to enhance their opponents' betting and maximize their own expected gain on each round of betting, to thereby increase their long-term winnings.
Although little is known about the invention of Texas hold'em, the Texas Legislature recognizes Robstown, Texas, as the game's birthplace, dating it to the early 1900s. After the game spread throughout Texas, hold'em was introduced to Las Vegas in 1963 at the California Club by Corky McCorquodale; the game became popular and spread to the Golden Nugget and Dunes. In 1967, a group of Texan gamblers and card players, including Crandell Addington, Doyle Brunson, Amarillo Slim were playing in Las Vegas; this is. Addington said the first time he saw the game was in 1959. "They didn't call it Texas hold'em at the time, they just called it hold'em.… I thought that if it were to catch on, it would become the game. Draw poker, you bet only twice; that meant. This was more of a thinking man's game."For several years the Golden Nugget Casino in Downtown Las Vegas was the only casino in Las Vegas to offer the game. At that time, the Golden Nugget's poker room was "truly a'sawdust joint,' with…oiled sawdust covering the floors."
Because of its location and decor, this poker room did not receive many rich drop-in clients, as a result, professional players sought a more prominent location. In 1969, the Las Vegas professionals were invited to play Texas hold'em at the entrance of the now-demolished Dunes Casino on the Las Vegas Strip; this prominent location, the relative inexperience of poker players with Texas hold'em, resulted in a remunerative game for professional players. After a failed attempt to establish a "Gambling Fraternity Convention", Tom Moore added the first poker tournament to the Second Annual Gambling Fraternity Convention held in 1969; this tournament featured. In 1970, Benny and Jack Binion acquired the rights to this convention, renamed it the World Series of Poker, moved it to their casino, Binion's Horseshoe, in Las Vegas. After its first year, a journalist, Tom Thackrey, suggested that the main event of this tournament should be no-limit Texas hold'em; the Binions agreed and since no-limit Texas hold'em has been played as the main event.
Interest in the main event continued to grow over the next two decades. After receiving only eight entrants in 1972, the numbers grew to over one hundred entrants in 1982, over two hundred in 1991. During this time, B & G Publishing Co. Inc. published Doyle Brunson's revolutionary poker strategy guide, Super/System. Despite being self-published and priced at $100 in 1978, the book revolutionized the way poker was played, it was one of the first books to discuss Texas hold'em, is today cited as one of the most important books on this game. In 1983, Al Alvarez published The Biggest Game in Town, a book detailing a 1981 World Series of Poker event; the first book of its kind, it described the world of professional poker players and the World Series of Poker. Alvarez's book is credited with begin
Deuce (playing card)
The Deuce is the playing card with the highest value in German card games. It may have derived its name from dice games in which the face of the die with two pips is called a Daus in German. Unlike the Ace, with which it may be confused, the Deuce represents the 2, why two hearts, etc. are depicted on the card. In many regions it is not only equated to the Ace, but is incorrectly, called an Ace. In the south German area it has been called the Sow and still is today, because of the appearance of a wild boar on the Deuces in early card packs, a custom that has survived on the Deuce of Bells. Ei der Daus! is an expression, similar, to "What the deuce!" in English, which reflects astonishment, bewilderment or anger. It is if wrongly, assumed to be an expression derived from card players' jargon; the word Daus. It comes from the Late Old High German Middle High German word, dûs, borrowed from the North French word, daus; this corresponds to the French word for "two", which in turn came from the Latin duos and duo.
On the introduction of playing cards into the German language area at the end of the 14th century, the word was transferred to the cards with the value 2. This card became the highest value playing card in the German card deck, the equivalent to the Ace in the French deck. On the German playing card with the 2, the deuce, there is a picture of a hog or sow. While Friedrich Kluge is unsure, how the card came to be called the Daus, because he avers that there are no game rules that have survived from the Middle Ages, Marianne Rumpf is clear: The word'Daus' is a term, taken over from the dice game. However, unlike dice games, in which the 2 was a low throw and did not count for much, the deuce card played a special role as a trick card, because it could beat the King; the Early New High German author, Johann Fischart, says thus: "I have thrown out the Ace and Deuce of Bells, Hearts respectively. The name Schwein was used for the deuce as may be read in the Reimchronik über Herzog Ulrich von Württemberg, which reveals that the Deuce, like the Ace in the modern game of Skat, was worth 11 points: "The King ought to beat all the cards.
That is apart from the Hog. It wants to be worth 11."Early evidence of the depiction of a hog on the card is found as early as the 15th century, from which Deuces of Bells and Acorns have survived on which there is a wild boar. Decks with a hog or sow on the card along with the 2 of Bells have survived from the year 1525 in the Swiss State Museum in Zürich and in a deck dating to 1573 made by the Viennese artist, Hans Forster. There is a deck of cards by a Frankfurt manufacturer dating to 1573, on which the hog is found on a 2 of Hearts; the link between the Deuce and the Sow is evinced by Johann Leonhard Frisch in his 1741 German-Latin dictionary: "Sow in card game, from the figure of a sow, painted on the Deuce of Acorns, whence the other deuces are called Sows." How the boar ended up on the playing card is unknown. Hellmut Rosenfeld suspects that it was derived from the prize sow that played a role in local shooting festivals and, linked with the last sheaf of the harvest; the description Sau may have been a corruption of the word Daus, the depiction of a boar on the playing cards was a pictorial illustration of this etymological development.
According to Marianne Rumpf, the name comes from a Baden dialect in which the "S" is spoken like a "Sch" and the word Dausch is used for a female pig or sow. can... with a little imagination, picture that the players, in the excitement of the game when playing the trump card... loudly emphasize their triumph by saying the name of the card. The Brothers Grimm state in their dictionary, that the word Tausch was used for the four cards; the word Dausch inspired card artists who illustrated the free space under the coloured symbols with a sow. The language of card players may have given rise to the expression Däuser for'coins', recorded since the 19th century, because in a game played for money, the aces are worth cash. Quite similar is the saying Däuser bauen Häuser, used since 1850, because with a trick with several aces, one scores the points needed to win. Marianne Rumpf: Zur Entwicklung der playing cardsnfarben in der Schweiz, in Deutschland und in Frankreich. In: „Schweizerisches Archiv für Volkskunde“ 72, 1976, pp. 1–32 Skat deck Pip cards