A-side and B-side
The terms A-side and B-side refer to the two sides of 78, 45, 331⁄3 rpm phonograph records, or cassettes, whether singles, extended plays, or long-playing records. The A-side featured the recording that the artist, record producer, or the record company intended to receive the initial promotional effort and receive radio airplay to become a "hit" record; the B-side is a secondary recording that has a history of its own: some artists released B-sides that were considered as strong as the A-side and became hits in their own right. Others took the opposite approach: producer Phil Spector was in the habit of filling B-sides with on-the-spot instrumentals that no one would confuse with the A-side. With this practice, Spector was assured that airplay was focused on the side he wanted to be the hit side. Music recordings have moved away from records onto other formats such as CDs and digital downloads, which do not have "sides", but the terms are still used to describe the type of content, with B-side sometimes standing for "bonus" track.
The first sound recordings at the end of the 19th century were made on cylinder records, which had a single round surface capable of holding two minutes of sound. Early shellac disc records records only had recordings on one side of the disc, with a similar capacity. Double-sided recordings, with one selection on each side, were introduced in Europe by Columbia Records in 1908, by 1910 most record labels had adopted the format in both Europe and the United States. There were no record charts until the 1930s, radio stations did not play recorded music until the 1950s. In this time, A-sides and B-sides existed. In June 1948, Columbia Records introduced the modern 331⁄3 rpm long-playing microgroove vinyl record for commercial sales, its rival RCA Victor, responded the next year with the seven-inch 45 rpm vinylite record, which would replace the 78 for single record releases; the term "single" came into popular use with the advent of vinyl records in the early 1950s. At first, most record labels would randomly assign which song would be an A-side and which would be a B-side.
Under this random system, many artists had so-called "double-sided hits", where both songs on a record made one of the national sales charts, or would be featured on jukeboxes in public places. As time wore on, the convention for assigning songs to sides of the record changed. By the early sixties, the song on the A-side was the song that the record company wanted radio stations to play, as 45 rpm single records dominated the market in terms of cash sales, it was not until 1968, for example, that the total production of albums on a unit basis surpassed that of singles in the United Kingdom. In the late 1960s, stereo versions of pop and rock songs began to appear on 45s; the majority of the 45s were played on AM radio stations, which were not equipped for stereo broadcast at the time, so stereo was not a priority. However, the FM rock stations did not like to play monaural content, so the record companies adopted a protocol for DJ versions with the mono version of the song on one side, stereo version of the same song on the other.
By the early 1970s, double-sided hits had become rare. Album sales had increased, B-sides had become the side of the record where non-album, non-radio-friendly, instrumental versions or inferior recordings were placed. In order to further ensure that radio stations played the side that the record companies had chosen, it was common for the promotional copies of a single to have the "plug side" on both sides of the disc. With the decline of 45 rpm vinyl records, after the introduction of cassette and compact disc singles in the late 1980s, the A-side/B-side differentiation became much less meaningful. At first, cassette singles would have one song on each side of the cassette, matching the arrangement of vinyl records, but cassette maxi-singles, containing more than two songs, became more popular. Cassette singles were phased out beginning in the late 1990s, the A-side/B-side dichotomy became extinct, as the remaining dominant medium, the compact disc, lacked an equivalent physical distinction.
However, the term "B-side" is still used to refer to the "bonus" tracks or "coupling" tracks on a CD single. With the advent of downloading music via the Internet, sales of CD singles and other physical media have declined, the term "B-side" is now less used. Songs that were not part of an artist's collection of albums are made available through the same downloadable catalogs as tracks from their albums, are referred to as "unreleased", "bonus", "non-album", "rare", "outtakes" or "exclusive" tracks, the latter in the case of a song being available from a certain provider of music. B-side songs may be released on the same record as a single to provide extra "value for money". There are several types of material released in this way, including a different version, or, in a concept record, a song that does not fit into the story lin
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Cultural depictions of Elvis Presley
Elvis Presley has inspired artistic and cultural works since he entered the national consciousness. From that point, interest in his personal and public life has never stopped; some scholars have studied many aspects of his profound cultural influence. Billboard historian Joel Whitburn declared Presley the "#1 act of the Rock era"; the following lists cover various media which include items of historic interest, enduring works of high art, recent representations in popular culture. Only people and works with Wikipedia articles are included. For purposes of classification, popular culture music is a separate section from operas and oratorios. Television covers live action series, TV movies and North American animation but not Japanese anime, which appears with manga and graphic novels. 2001 Audi Wackel-Elvis campaign 2015 State Farm "Magic Jingle Elvis" commercial, directed by Roman Coppola Known Andy Warhol's sikscreens featuring the image of Elvis Presley and their current location, including art museums worldwide, as well as prices met, when known.
Totals paid for eight of the silkscreens below as of April 3, 2019 total US$280,000,000.i) "Single Elvis", 1963, acquired in 2009 for a price still undetermined by billionaire Eli Broad and owner of The Broad Museum, in Los Angeles, CA, where it is now located. Similar original silkscreens, all from 1963, are located at 1) the Museum Ludwig in Cologne, Germany, 2) the National Gallery of Australia in Parkes, Canberra, 3) the Akron Art Museum, in Akron OH 4) The Andy Warhol Museum in Pittsburgh, PA and 5) the Modern Wing of the Art Institute of Chicago, in Chicago Il. Note: On May 11, 2004, a "Single Elvis " was sold at Christie's in NYC for US$3,367,500 ii) "Elvis I and II", 1963-64, one located at the Art Gallery of Ontario, Ontario, with another at the Berlin Pergamon Museum of Art in Berlin, Germany. Iii) "Double Elvis", 1963, sold in 1989 by the Estate of Albert Grossman, to the New York Museum of Modern Art for US750,000. Another 21 original silkscreens similar to, or resembling the aforementioned are said to exist, including those located at the 1) Seattle Art Museum, in Seattle, WA the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, in Bilbao, Spain.
In March of 2019, it was disclosed that the home had just been purchased by Harry Morton the son of one of its previous owners, the co-founder of the Hard Rock Cafe chain Peter Morton, for US$$25.46 million- See v) below, iv) "Double Elvis", 1963, sold at New York's Sotheby's on May 9, 2012 for US$37.1 million, its buyers being billionaires Jose Mugrabi and Steve Wynn, respectively. Six years on May 17, 2018 at Christie's in New York, Wynn sold it for US$37,000,000, the buyer being the British art dealer Brett Gorvy, co-owner of the Levy-Gorby Gallery in NY, London and Geneva, he in turn confirmed his purchasing of the Double Elvis being done on behalf of one of his clients. Another original quite alike the latter and entitled "Elvis 2 times" 1963, can be found at the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York. V) "Elvis X2", 1963, bought for US$15.7 million. At Christie's on 13 November 2007 and located at the Art Gallery of Ontario in Toronto. Canada- vi) "Triple Elvis", 1963, purchased at Christie's on November 13, 2014 for US$81.9 million by billionaires Doris and Donald Fisher, who lent it to the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art.
Four other similar silkscreens from 1963, can be found at 1) the Richmond Art Museum in Richmond, VA, its original owners being philanthropists Frances and Sydney Lewis. At one point, it was loaned to the Mississippi Museum of Art in Jackson, MS, thereby remain there until July 8, 2018 and 2) the Metropolitan Museum of Art, in New York, this one with two of the figures mixed and a third, isolated. 3) The Luigi e Peppino Agrati Collection, shown at Milan's Italian Gallery in May 2018, its three heads joined at the ears and 4) the Saatchi Gallery, England, the three images so much apart from each other that the middle one only meets the other two at its feet. Vii) "Elvis five" located at The Andy Warhol Museum in Pittsburgh, PA. vii) "Eight Elvises", 1963, a one of a kind large silkscreen sold on 26 October 2008 by Italian art collector Annibale Berlingieri, for US$100 million. It is thought to have been purchased by the House of Thani's Qatari Royal family. Viii) "Elvis eleven times", 1963, the largest Elvis by Warhol in existence, as well as being a unique piece located at The Andy Warhol Museum in Pittsburgh, PA ix) "Campbell's Elvis", 1962, Warhol's first painting in which he superimposed two images onto a single canvas, auctioned at Christie's on 10 November 2010 for US$1.45 million.
X) "Gold Boot Elvis Presley", 1957. In the private collection of actor Tom Lacy of the NBC TV series Law & Order xi) "Red Elvis," 1962, bought in February 2000, for US$2.9 million and adjudicated, after a Connecticut Superior Court ruling, to its original owner, multi millionaire art collector Peter Brant. Xii) "Elvis 21 times", 1962, sold at Sotheby's on May 3, 1993 for a still undis
Elvis (1973 album)
Elvis is the eighteenth studio album by American singer and musician Elvis Presley, released in July 1973. It sold over 1 million copies worldwide. To differentiate it from his eponymous 1956 release it is sometimes called The "Fool" Album, after its first track. In the US "Fool" was issued as the B-side of "Steamroller Blues" from the Aloha from Hawaii Via Satellite album. In the UK the sides were flipped and "Fool" was issued as the A-side, it reached No. 15. The album tracks "Fool" and "Where Do I Go From Here" were recorded in March 1972. "It's Impossible" is a live recording from the Hilton Hotel in Las Vegas from February 1972. The remaining tracks were leftovers from the March and May 1971 recording sessions at RCA's Studio B in Nashville. Three songs feature Presley on piano: "It's Still Here", "I'll Take You Home Again, Kathleen" and "I Will Be True"; these three selections were all released together for a second time as part of the 1980 boxed set, Elvis Aron Presley. The song "Fool" was released in this collection.
Four other songs in this album were reissued in other albums: "It's Impossible", "Padre", " For Lovin' Me" and "Don't Think Twice, It's All Right". After more than 20 years of being out-of-print on vinyl, RCA reissued this album in March 1994 on the CD format, again in 2010 on the Follow that Dream collectors label. Elvis at Discogs APL1-0283 Elvis Guide part of The Elvis Presley Record Research Database
Elvis Aaron Presley was an American singer and actor. Regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century, he is referred to as the "King of Rock and Roll" or "the King". Presley was born in Tupelo and relocated to Memphis, with his family when he was 13 years old, his music career began there in 1954, recording at Sun Records with producer Sam Phillips, who wanted to bring the sound of African-American music to a wider audience. Accompanied by guitarist Scotty Moore and bassist Bill Black, Presley was a pioneer of rockabilly, an uptempo, backbeat-driven fusion of country music and rhythm and blues. In 1955, drummer D. J. Fontana joined to complete the lineup of Presley's classic quartet and RCA Victor acquired his contract in a deal arranged by Colonel Tom Parker, who would manage him for more than two decades. Presley's first RCA single, "Heartbreak Hotel", was released in January 1956 and became a number-one hit in the United States. With a series of successful network television appearances and chart-topping records, he became the leading figure of the newly popular sound of rock and roll.
His energized interpretations of songs and sexually provocative performance style, combined with a singularly potent mix of influences across color lines during a transformative era in race relations, made him enormously popular—and controversial. In November 1956, Presley made his film debut in Love Me Tender. Drafted into military service in 1958, Presley relaunched his recording career two years with some of his most commercially successful work, he held few concerts however, guided by Parker, proceeded to devote much of the 1960s to making Hollywood films and soundtrack albums, most of them critically derided. In 1968, following a seven-year break from live performances, he returned to the stage in the acclaimed television comeback special Elvis, which led to an extended Las Vegas concert residency and a string of profitable tours. In 1973, Presley gave the first concert by a solo artist to be broadcast around the world, Aloha from Hawaii. Years of prescription drug abuse compromised his health, he died in 1977 at his Graceland estate at the age of 42.
Presley is the best-selling solo artist in the history of recorded music. He was commercially successful in many genres, including pop, country and gospel, he won three competitive Grammys, received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award at age 36, has been inducted into multiple music halls of fame. Elvis Presley was born on January 8, 1935, in Tupelo, Mississippi, to Gladys Love Presley in the two-room shotgun house built by his father, Vernon Elvis Presley, in preparation for the birth. Jesse Garon Presley, his identical twin brother, was delivered 35 minutes before stillborn. Presley became close to both parents and formed an close bond with his mother; the family attended an Assembly of God church. On his mother's side Presley's ancestry was Scots-Irish, with some French Norman. Gladys and the rest of the family believed that her great-great-grandmother, Morning Dove White, was Cherokee. Vernon's forebears were of Scottish origin. Gladys was regarded by friends as the dominant member of the small family.
Vernon moved from one odd job to the evincing little ambition. The family relied on help from neighbors and government food assistance. In 1938, they lost their home after Vernon was found guilty of altering a check written by his landowner and sometime employer, he was jailed for eight months, while Elvis moved in with relatives. In September 1941, Presley entered first grade at East Tupelo Consolidated, where his teachers regarded him as "average", he was encouraged to enter a singing contest after impressing his schoolteacher with a rendition of Red Foley's country song "Old Shep" during morning prayers. The contest, held at the Mississippi–Alabama Fair and Dairy Show on October 3, 1945, was his first public performance; the ten-year-old Presley was dressed as a cowboy. He recalled placing fifth. A few months Presley received his first guitar for his birthday. Over the following year, he received basic guitar lessons from two of his uncles and the new pastor at the family's church. Presley recalled, "I took the guitar, I watched people, I learned to play a little bit.
But I would never sing in public. I was shy about it."In September 1946, Presley entered a new school, for sixth grade. The following year, he began bringing his guitar to school on a daily basis, he played and sang during lunchtime, was teased as a "trashy" kid who played hillbilly music. By the family was living in a Black neighborhood. Presley was a devotee of Mississippi Slim's show on the Tupelo radio station WELO, he was described as "crazy about music" by Slim's younger brother, one of Presley's classmates and took him into the station. Slim supplemented Presley's guitar tuition by demonstrating chord techniques; when his protégé was twelve years old, Slim scheduled him for two on-air performances. Presley was succeeded in performing the following week. In November 1948, the family moved to Tennessee. After residing for nearly a year in rooming houses, they were granted a two-bedroom apartment in the public housing complex known as the Lauderdale Courts. Enrolled at L. C. Humes Hig
Surrender (Elvis Presley song)
"Surrender" is a #1 song recorded by Elvis Presley and published by Elvis Presley Music in 1961. It is an adaptation by Doc Pomus and Mort Shuman of the music of a 1902 Neapolitan ballad by Giambattista and Ernesto de Curtis entitled "Torna a Surriento", it hit number one in the US and UK in 1961 and became one of the best selling singles of all time. This was one of 25 songs, it has been recorded by many other artists, including Michael Bublé, The Residents, Il Volo. Elvis Presley - vocals The Jordanaires - backing vocals Scotty Moore - electric guitar Hank Garland - acoustic guitar Bob Moore - double bass D. J. Fontana - drums Buddy Harman - percussion Floyd Cramer - piano Boots Randolph - saxophone The Johnny Mann Singers - 1961 The Residents - 1990 Helmut Lotti - 1995 Michael Bublé - 2002 Anna Calvi - 2011 - the B side of'Blackout' 7-inch single Il Volo - 2012 List of Hot 100 number-one singles of 1961 List of number-one singles from the 1960s Songs by Doc Pomus Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Elvis (1956 album)
Elvis is the second studio album by American rock and roll singer Elvis Presley, released by RCA Victor in October 1956 in mono. Recording sessions took place on September 1, September 2, September 3 at Radio Recorders in Hollywood, with one track left over from the sessions for Presley's debut album at the RCA Victor recording studios on January 30 in New York, it spent four weeks at #1 on the Billboard Top Pop Albums chart that year, making Presley the first recording artist to have both albums go straight to number one in the same year. It was certified Gold on February 17, 1960, Platinum on August 10, 2011, by the Recording Industry Association of America, it was released in UK in 1957 as Elvis Presley No. 2 with a different front cover. It was cataloged as Rock'n' Roll No. 2. RCA Victor producer Steve Sholes had commissioned two new songs for this batch of sessions, "Paralyzed" from Otis Blackwell and "Love Me" from Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller, the authors of both sides of Presley's summer hit of 1956, "Don't Be Cruel" backed with "Hound Dog," the first record to top all three of the Billboard singles charts in existence: pop, R&B, C&W. Presley decided upon three Little Richard covers, selected three new country ballads from regular Everly Brothers writer Boudleaux Bryant and guitarist Chet Atkins, Sun staff musician and engineer Stan Kesler, Aaron Schroeder and Ben Weisman.
The latter two, contracted to Hill and Range, the publishing company of Presley's manager, Colonel Tom Parker, would write dozens of songs for Presley through the 1960s. Included was the song with which Presley won second prize at a fair in Tupelo when he was ten years old, Red Foley's 1941 country song, "Old Shep." With all but one track on the album recorded at a single set of sessions over three days in September and his touring band of Scotty Moore, Bill Black, D. J. Fontana, along with The Jordanaires, managed to recreate the loose feel from Sun Studio days, mixing rhythm and blues and country and western repertoire items as they had on all of his Sun singles, they reinforced this effect by including material echoing his first Sun record: a blues by Arthur Crudup, author of "That's All Right. The sessions were attended by a few outsiders, namely his current girlfriend at the time, actress Natalie Wood and actor Nick Adams, both of whom had starred in Rebel Without a Cause, Presley's favorite James Dean film.
Steve Sholes was the RCA man at the session, handled the paper work and such, but Elvis himself chose the songs, led the session, made all the decisions concerning which take would be the master and so forth. Thus it would be fair to say that for most practical purposes, Elvis himself at this session and throughout his career would continue to do most of the things that a regular record producer would do; the piano player on this album is not registered in the official RCA Victor archives, except for the song "So Glad You're Mine", cut at a previous session in New York. In a 1984 interview conducted by Jan-Erik Kjeseth, Gordon Stoker of the Jordanaires stated that he was the piano player on most of the songs on the album. In an article written by Kjeseth for the Flaming Star magazine, it was argued that the piano player on "Love Me", "Old Shep" and "How's the World Treating You" was Elvis himself. Ernst Jørgensen, writer of Elvis Presley - A Study in Music, seems to be of the same opinion. Kjeseth claims that Elvis played the piano on the single from this session, "Playing for Keeps".
Again, Jørgensen seems to be of the same opinion. Gordon Stoker played the piano on "Rip it Up" and "Anyplace is Paradise". RCA first reissued the original 12 track album on compact disc in 1984; this issue, in reprocessed stereo sound, was withdrawn and the disc was reissued in original monophonic. RCA reissued an expanded edition of the album in 1999, again in 2005. For the 1999 reissue, six bonus tracks were added that were both sides of three singles, altering the running order. Four of the tracks were chart-toppers: "Love Me Tender", "Too Much", the double-sided classic "Hound Dog" and "Don't Be Cruel". Bonus tracks recorded on July 2 at RCA Studios in New York City, in September at Radio Recorders, "Love Me Tender" at 20th Century Fox Stage One during the sessions for Love Me Tender; the 2005 reissue was remastered using DSD technology with the six bonus tracks appended in standard fashion, in the following order: "Playing for Keeps", "Too Much", "Don't Be Cruel", "Hound Dog", "Any Way You Want Me", "Love Me Tender".
This acclaimed latest remaster was the handiwork of audio restorer Kevan Budd, who drew praise for his 2005 remasters of Presley's first and third albums as well as the 2004 upgrade known as Elvis at Sun. These rock-n'roll tapes may have been among those dumped into the Delaware River near RCA Victor's Camden, New Jersey plant in the late 1950s. Elvis Presley – vocals, acoustic guitar, piano on "Old Shep", "Playing For Keeps", "Paralyzed", First In Line, "How's The World Treating You". Scotty Moore – electric guitar Shorty Long – piano on January 30 Gordon Stoker - piano on September 1–3 Bill Black – double bass D. J. Fontana – drums The Jordanaires - backing vocals Notes Chart positions for LPM 1382 from Billboard Top Pop Albums chart. Jorgenson, Ernst. Elvis Presley: A Life In Music - The Complete Recording Sessions, 1998. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-18572-3Miller, Jim, ed; the Rolling Stone Illustrated History of Rock & Roll, re