Snakes on a Plane
Snakes on a Plane is a 2006 American action thriller film directed by David R. Ellis and starring Samuel L. Jackson, it was released by New Line Cinema on August 2006, in North America. The film was written by David Dalessandro, John Heffernan, Sebastian Gutierrez and follows the events of hundreds of snakes being released on a passenger plane in an attempt to kill a trial witness; the film gained a considerable amount of attention before its release, forming large fanbases online and becoming an Internet phenomenon, due to the film's title and premise. In response to the Internet fan base, New Line Cinema incorporated feedback from online users into its production, added five days of reshooting. Before and after the film was released, it was parodied and alluded to on television shows and films, fan-made videos, video games, various forms of literature. Released in the United States and United Kingdom on August 18, 2006, the film received mixed to positive reviews. Despite the immense Internet buzz, the film's gross revenue did not live up to expectations, earning US$15.25 million in its opening weekend.
The film grossed US$62 million worldwide before its release on home video on January 2, 2007. After witnessing California-based gang boss Eddie Kim brutally beat U. S. Prosecutor Daniel Hayes to death in Hawaii, Sean Jones is escorted by FBI agents Neville Flynn and John Sanders on a Boeing 747-400 to testify in a trial in Los Angeles. Despite increased security for the flight, Kim arranges for a time-release crate full of venomous snakes to be placed in the cargo hold in an attempt to bring down the plane before it reaches Los Angeles International Airport. To ensure the snakes attack the passengers without the need for provocation, he has one of his henchmen disguised as an airport ground employee spray the passengers' leis with a special pheromone which makes the snakes aggressive; the crate opens midway through the flight and the snakes make their way through the cabin. A couple having sex in a bathroom, a man using another bathroom are the first killed; the plane's captain, Sam McKeon and fixes an electrical short, but is killed by the viper that caused it.
Co-pilot Rick, unaware of the snake, believes Sam has suffered a heart attack and continues toward LAX. Some of the snakes attack Rick, while fending them off he accidentally releases the oxygen masks throughout the plane, causing several snakes to drop into the cabin with them. Numerous passengers, including Agent Sanders, are killed; the surviving passengers, who have made their way to the front of the plane, put up blockades of luggage in a desperate attempt to stop the snakes. Rick is attacked and the plane starts to dip downwards, causing a food trolley to crash through the luggage blockade; the passengers flee to the upstairs first class cabin before blocking the stairwell with an inflatable liferaft. Agent Flynn and Flight Attendant Claire regain control of the plane. Rick retakes the controls and has Flynn go into the cargo hold to restore the air conditioning/ventilation system. Agent Flynn contacts FBI Special Agent Hank Harris on the ground, who gets in touch with ophiologist Dr. Steven Price, Customs' main source for animal smuggling cases.
Based on pictures of the reptiles emailed to him via a passenger's mobile phone, Price believes a Los Angeles snake dealer known for illegally importing exotic and dangerous snakes to be responsible. After a shootout, the dealer is bitten by one of his snakes and Harris withholds the antivenom if he does not give them details; the dealer reveals that Kim hired him to obtain the snakes and adds how the latter managed to smuggle them on board the plane. Price injects the injured dealer with the antivenom and commandeers his supply of antivenom for the victims on the plane based on the list given to him, while Harris gives orders to have Eddie Kim arrested on multiple counts of murder and attempted murder. Harris contacts Flynn. However, Flynn discovers that the cockpit is filled with snakes and Rick is dead. After a brief discussion, Three Gs' bodyguard, agrees to land the plane based on prior flight experience. After everyone gets prepared, Flynn shoots out two windows with his pistol, causing the plane to depressurize.
The snakes are blown out of the lower floor of the plane. Flynn and Troy take the controls of the plane and Troy reveals that his flight experience was from a video game flight simulator. Despite his lack of real-world experience, after Troy makes an emergency landing, the plane makes it to the terminal; the passengers leave the antivenom is given to those who need it. Just as Flynn and Sean are about to disembark the plane, a final snake jumps out and bites Sean in the chest. Flynn draws his gun and shoots the snake, paramedics rush to Sean, unharmed due to his wearing a ballistic vest; as a token of gratitude, Sean takes Flynn to Bali and teaches him how to surf. The story is credited to David Dalessandro, a University of Pittsburgh administrator and first-time Hollywood writer, he developed the concept in 1992 after reading a nature magazine article about Indonesian brown tree snakes climbing onto planes in cargo during World War II. He wrote the screenplay about the brown tree snake loose on a plane, titling the film Venom.
He soon revised it, expanding upon the premise to include a plague of assorted venomous snakes, then—crediting the film Aliens—revised it once again to include "lots of them loose in the fuselage of a plane." Dalessandro's third draft of Venom was turned down by more than 30 Hollywood studios in 1995. In 1999, a producer for MTV/Paramount showed interest in the script, followed up by New Line Studios, w
Dubbing, mixing, or re-recording is a post-production process used in filmmaking and video production in which additional or supplementary recordings are "mixed" with original production sound to create the finished soundtrack. The process takes place on a dub stage. After sound editors edit and prepare all the necessary tracks – dialogue, automated dialogue replacement, Foley, music – the dubbing mixers proceed to balance all of the elements and record the finished soundtrack. Dubbing is sometimes confused with ADR known as "additional dialogue replacement", "automated dialogue recording" and "looping", in which the original actors re-record and synchronize audio segments. Outside the film industry, the term "dubbing" refers to the replacement of the actor's voices with those of different performers speaking another language, called "revoicing" in the film industry. In the past, dubbing was practiced in musicals when the actor had an unsatisfactory singing voice. Today, dubbing enables the screening of audiovisual material to a mass audience in countries where viewers do not speak the same language as the performers in the original production.
Films and sometimes video games are dubbed into the local language of a foreign market. In foreign distribution, dubbing is common in theatrically released films, television films, television series and anime. Automated Dialog Replacement is the process of re-recording dialogue by the original actor after the filming process to improve audio quality or reflect dialogue changes. In India the process is known as "dubbing", while in the UK, it is called "post-synchronisation" or "post-sync"; the insertion of voice actor performances for animation, such as computer generated imagery or animated cartoons, is referred to as ADR although it does not replace existing dialogue. The ADR process may be used to: remove extraneous sounds such as production equipment noise, wind, or other undesirable sounds from the environment. Replace foul language for TV broadcasts of the movie. In conventional film production, a production sound mixer records dialogue during filming. During post-production, a supervising sound editor, or ADR supervisor, reviews all of the dialogue in the film and decides which lines must be re-recorded.
ADR is recorded during an ADR session. The actor the original actor from the set, views the scene with the original sound attempts to recreate the performance. Over the course of multiple takes, the actor performs the lines while watching the scene; the ADR process does not always take place in a post-production studio. The process may be recorded with mobile equipment. ADR can be recorded without showing the actor the image they must match, but by having them listen to the performance, since some actors believe that watching themselves act can degrade subsequent performances. Sometimes, a different actor than the original actor on set is used during ADR. One famous example is the Star Wars character Darth Vader portrayed by David Prowse. Other examples include: Ray Park, who acted as Darth Maul from Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace had his voice dubbed over by Peter Serafinowicz Frenchmen Philippe Noiret and Jacques Perrin, who were dubbed into Italian for Cinema Paradiso Austrian bodybuilder Arnold Schwarzenegger, dubbed for Hercules in New York Argentine boxer Carlos Monzón, dubbed by a professional actor for the lead in the drama La Mary Gert Frobe, who played Auric Goldfinger in the James Bond film Goldfinger, dubbed by Michael Collins Andie MacDowell's Jane, in Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes, dubbed by Glenn Close Tom Hardy, who portrayed Bane in The Dark Knight Rises, re-dubbed half of his own lines for ease of viewer comprehension Harvey Keitel was dubbed by Roy Dotrice in post production for Saturn 3 Dave Coulier dubbed replacement of swear words for Richard Pryor in multiple TV versions of his movies An alternative method to dubbing, called "rythmo band", has been used in Canada and France.
It provides a more precise guide for the actors and technicians, can be used to complement the traditional ADR method. The "band" is a clear 35 mm film leader on which the dialogue is hand-written in India ink, together with numerous additional indications for the actor—including laughs, length of syllables, mouth sounds and mouth openings and closings; the rythmo band is projected in scrolls in perfect synchronization with the picture. Studio time is used more efficiently, since with the aid of scrolling text and audio cues, actors can read more lines per hour than with ADR alone. With ADR, actors can average 10–12 lines per hour, while rythmo band can facilitate the reading of 35-50 lines per hour. However, the preparation of a rythmo band is a time-consuming process involving a series of specialists organized in a production line; this has prevented the technique from being more adopted, but software emulations of rythmo band technology overcome the dis
Sound recording and reproduction
Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, instrumental music, or sound effects. The two main classes of sound recording technology are analog digital recording. Acoustic analog recording is achieved by a microphone diaphragm that senses changes in atmospheric pressure caused by acoustic sound waves and records them as a mechanical representation of the sound waves on a medium such as a phonograph record. In magnetic tape recording, the sound waves vibrate the microphone diaphragm and are converted into a varying electric current, converted to a varying magnetic field by an electromagnet, which makes a representation of the sound as magnetized areas on a plastic tape with a magnetic coating on it. Analog sound reproduction is the reverse process, with a bigger loudspeaker diaphragm causing changes to atmospheric pressure to form acoustic sound waves. Digital recording and reproduction converts the analog sound signal picked up by the microphone to a digital form by the process of sampling.
This lets the audio data be transmitted by a wider variety of media. Digital recording stores audio as a series of binary numbers representing samples of the amplitude of the audio signal at equal time intervals, at a sample rate high enough to convey all sounds capable of being heard. A digital audio signal must be reconverted to analog form during playback before it is amplified and connected to a loudspeaker to produce sound. Prior to the development of sound recording, there were mechanical systems, such as wind-up music boxes and player pianos, for encoding and reproducing instrumental music. Long before sound was first recorded, music was recorded—first by written music notation also by mechanical devices. Automatic music reproduction traces back as far as the 9th century, when the Banū Mūsā brothers invented the earliest known mechanical musical instrument, in this case, a hydropowered organ that played interchangeable cylinders. According to Charles B. Fowler, this "...cylinder with raised pins on the surface remained the basic device to produce and reproduce music mechanically until the second half of the nineteenth century."
The Banū Mūsā brothers invented an automatic flute player, which appears to have been the first programmable machine. Carvings in the Rosslyn Chapel from the 1560s may represent an early attempt to record the Chladni patterns produced by sound in stone representations, although this theory has not been conclusively proved. In the 14th century, a mechanical bell-ringer controlled by a rotating cylinder was introduced in Flanders. Similar designs appeared in barrel organs, musical clocks, barrel pianos, music boxes. A music box is an automatic musical instrument that produces sounds by the use of a set of pins placed on a revolving cylinder or disc so as to pluck the tuned teeth of a steel comb; the fairground organ, developed in 1892, used a system of accordion-folded punched cardboard books. The player piano, first demonstrated in 1876, used a punched paper scroll that could store a long piece of music; the most sophisticated of the piano rolls were hand-played, meaning that the roll represented the actual performance of an individual, not just a transcription of the sheet music.
This technology to record a live performance onto a piano roll was not developed until 1904. Piano rolls were in continuous mass production from 1896 to 2008. A 1908 U. S. Supreme Court copyright case noted that, in 1902 alone, there were between 70,000 and 75,000 player pianos manufactured, between 1,000,000 and 1,500,000 piano rolls produced; the first device that could record actual sounds as they passed through the air was the phonautograph, patented in 1857 by Parisian inventor Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville. The earliest known recordings of the human voice are phonautograph recordings, called phonautograms, made in 1857, they consist of sheets of paper with sound-wave-modulated white lines created by a vibrating stylus that cut through a coating of soot as the paper was passed under it. An 1860 phonautogram of Au Clair de la Lune, a French folk song, was played back as sound for the first time in 2008 by scanning it and using software to convert the undulating line, which graphically encoded the sound, into a corresponding digital audio file.
On April 30, 1877, French poet, humorous writer and inventor Charles Cros submitted a sealed envelope containing a letter to the Academy of Sciences in Paris explaining his proposed method, called the paleophone. Though no trace of a working paleophone was found, Cros is remembered as the earliest inventor of a sound recording and reproduction machine; the first practical sound recording and reproduction device was the mechanical phonograph cylinder, invented by Thomas Edison in 1877 and patented in 1878. The invention soon spread across the globe and over the next two decades the commercial recording and sale of sound recordings became a growing new international industry, with the most popular titles selling millions of units by the early 1900s; the development of mass-production techniques enabled cylinder recordings to become a major new consumer item in industrial countries and the cylinder was the main consumer format from the late 1880s until around 1910. The next major technical development was the invention of the gramophone record credited to Emile Berliner and patented in 1887, though others had demonstrated simi
Voice-over is a production technique where a voice—that is not part of the narrative —is used in a radio, television production, theatre, or other presentations. The voiceover is read from a script and may be spoken by someone who appears elsewhere in the production or by a specialist voice talent. Synchronous dialogue, where the voiceover is narrating the action, taking place at the same time, remains the most common technique in voiceovers. Asynchronous, however, is used in cinema, it is prerecorded and placed over the top of a film or video and used in documentaries or news reports to explain information. Voiceovers are used in video games and on-hold messages, as well as for announcements and information at events and tourist destinations, it may be read live for events such as award presentations. Voiceover is added in addition to any existing dialogue, it is not to be confused with the process of replacing dialogue with a translated version, called dubbing or revoicing. In Herman Melville's Moby Dick, Ishmael narrates the story, he sometimes comments on the action in voiceover, as does Joe Gillis in Sunset Boulevard and Eric Erickson in The Counterfeit Traitor.
Voiceover technique is used to give voices and personalities to animated characters. Noteworthy and versatile voice actors include Mel Blanc, Daws Butler, Don Messick, Paul Frees, June Foray. Charactering techniques in voiceovers are used to give personalities and voice to fictional characters. There has been some controversy with charactering techniques in voiceovers with white radio entertainers who would mimic black speech patterns. Radio made this racial mockery easier to get away with because it was a non-confrontational platform to express anything the broadcasters found fit, it became the ideal medium for voice impersonations. Characterization has always been popular in all forms of media. In the late 1920s radio started to stray away from reporting on musicals and sporting events, radio began to create serial talk shows as well as shows with fictional storylines; the technique of characterization can be a creative outlet to expand on film and radio, but it must be done carefully. In film, the filmmaker places the sound of a human voice over images shown on the screen that may or may not be related to the words that are being spoken.
Voiceovers are sometimes used to create ironic counterpoint. Sometimes they can be random voices not directly connected to the people seen on the screen. In works of fiction, the voiceover is by a character reflecting on his or her past, or by a person external to the story who has a more complete knowledge of the events in the film than the other characters. Voiceovers are used to create the effect of storytelling by a character/omniscient narrator. For example, in The Usual Suspects, the character of Roger "Verbal" Kint has voiceover segments as he is recounting details of a crime. Classic voiceovers in cinema history can be heard in The Naked City. Sometimes, voiceover can be used to aid continuity in edited versions of films, in order for the audience to gain a better understanding of what has gone on between scenes; this was done when the film Joan of Arc, starring Ingrid Bergman, turned out to be far from the box-office and critical hit, expected, it was edited down from 145 minutes to 100 minutes for its second run in theaters.
The edited version, which circulated for years, used narration to conceal the fact that large chunks of the film had been cut out. In the full-length version, restored in 1998 and released on DVD in 2004, the voiceover narration is heard only at the beginning of the film. Film noir is associated with the voiceover technique; the golden age of first-person narration was during the 1940s. Film noir used male voiceover narration but there are a few rare female voiceovers. In radio, voiceovers are an integral part of the creation of the radio program; the voiceover artist might be used to remind listeners of the station name or as characters to enhance or develop show content. During the 1980s, the British broadcasters Steve Wright and Kenny Everett used voiceover artists to create a virtual "posse" or studio crew who contributed to the programmes, it is believed. The American radio broadcaster Howard Stern has used voiceovers in this way; the voiceover has many applications in non-fiction as well. Television news is presented as a series of video clips of newsworthy events, with voiceover by the reporters describing the significance of the scenes being presented.
Television networks such as The History Channel and the Discovery Channel make extensive use of voiceovers. On NBC, the television show Starting Over used Sylvia Villagran as the voiceover narrator to tell a story. Live sports broadcasts are shown as extensive voiceovers by sports commentators over video of the sporting event. Game shows made extensive use of voiceovers to introduce contestants and describe available or awarded prizes, but this technique has diminished as shows have moved toward predominantly cash prizes; the most prolific have included Don Pardo, Johnny Olson, John Harlan, Jay Stewart, Gene Wood and Johnny Gilbert. Voiceover commentary by a leading critic, historian, or by the production personnel themselves is ofte
Samuel L. Jackson
Samuel Leroy Jackson is an American actor and film producer. A recipient of critical acclaim and numerous accolades and awards, Jackson is the actor whose films have made the highest total gross revenue, he came to prominence in the early 1990s with films such as Goodfellas, Jungle Fever, Patriot Games, Amos & Andrew, True Romance, Jurassic Park and his collaborations with director Quentin Tarantino including Pulp Fiction, Jackie Brown, Django Unchained, The Hateful Eight. He is a prolific actor, having appeared in over 100 films, including Die Hard with a Vengeance, A Time to Kill, The Long Kiss Goodnight, The Negotiator, Deep Blue Sea, Shaft, XXX, Snakes on a Plane, Kong: Skull Island and the Star Wars prequel trilogy. With Jackson's permission, his likeness was used for the Ultimate version of the Marvel Comics character Nick Fury, he has subsequently played Fury in the Marvel Cinematic Universe films Iron Man, Iron Man 2, Captain America: The First Avenger, The Avengers, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Avengers: Infinity War, Captain Marvel and will reprise his role in Spider-Man: Far From Home, as well as the TV show Marvel's Agents of S.
H. I. E. L. D. Jackson has provided his voice to several animated films, television series and video games, including the roles of Lucius Best / Frozone in Pixar Animation Studios' films The Incredibles and Incredibles 2, Mace Windu in Star Wars: The Clone Wars, Whiplash in Turbo, Afro Samurai in the anime television series Afro Samurai, Frank Tenpenny in the video game Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas. Jackson is married to LaTanya Richardson, with whom he has Zoe. Jackson is ranked as the highest all-time box office star with over $5.15 billion total US box office gross, an average of $70.5 million per film. The worldwide box office total of his films is over $12 billion, he became the top-grossing actor in October 2011. Jackson was born in Washington, D. C. the son of Elizabeth and Roy Henry Jackson. He grew up as an only child in Tennessee, his father lived away from the family in Kansas City and died from alcoholism. Jackson met his father only twice during his life. Jackson was raised by his mother, a factory worker and a supplies buyer for a mental institution, by his maternal grandparents and extended family.
According to DNA tests, Jackson descends from the Benga people of Gabon. Jackson graduated from Riverside High School in Chattanooga. Between the third and 12th grades, he trumpet in the school orchestra. Jackson played the flute and piccolo. During childhood, he had a stuttering problem. While he learned to "pretend to be other people who didn't stutter" and use the curse word motherfucker as an affirmation word, he still has days where he stutters. Intent on pursuing a degree in marine biology, he attended Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia. After joining a local acting group to earn extra points in a class, Jackson found an interest in acting and switched his major. Before graduating in 1972, he co-founded the "Just Us Theatre". After the 1968 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. Jackson attended the funeral in Atlanta as one of the ushers. Jackson flew to Memphis to join an equal rights protest march. In a Parade interview Jackson revealed: "I was angry about the assassination, but I wasn't shocked by it.
I knew that change was going to take something different – not sit-ins, not peaceful coexistence."In 1969, Jackson and several other students held members of the Morehouse College board of trustees hostage on the campus, demanding reform in the school's curriculum and governance. The college agreed to change its policy, but Jackson was charged with and convicted of unlawful confinement, a second-degree felony. Jackson was suspended for two years for his criminal record and his actions, he would return to the college to earn his Bachelor of Arts in Drama in 1972. While he was suspended, Jackson was employed as a social worker in Los Angeles. Jackson decided to return to Atlanta, where he met with Stokely Carmichael, H. Rap Brown, others active in the Black Power movement. Jackson revealed in the same Parade interview that he began to feel empowered with his involvement in the movement when the group began buying guns. However, before Jackson could become involved with any significant armed confrontation, his mother sent him to Los Angeles after the FBI told her that he would die within a year if he remained with the Black Power movement.
In a 2018 interview with Vogue he denied having been a member of the Black Panther Party. Jackson majored in marine biology at Morehouse College before switching to architecture, he settled on drama after taking a public speaking class and appearing in a version of The Threepenny Opera. Jackson began acting in multiple plays, including A Soldier's Play, he appeared in several television films, made his feature film debut in the blaxploitation independent film Together for Days. After these initial roles, Jackson moved from Atlanta to New York City in 1976 and spent the next decade appearing in stage plays, including the premiers of The Piano Lesson and Two Trains Running at the Yale Repertory Theater. Jackson developed addictions to alcohol and cocaine, which prevented him from procee
Foley is the reproduction of everyday sound effects that are added to film and other media in post-production to enhance audio quality. These reproduced sounds can be anything from the swishing of clothing and footsteps to squeaky doors and breaking glass; the best Foley art is so well integrated into a film. It helps to create a sense of reality within a scene. Without these crucial background noises, movies feel unnaturally uncomfortable. Foley artists recreate; the props and sets of a film do not react the same way acoustically as their real life counterparts. Foley sounds are used to enhance the auditory experience of the movie. Foley can be used to cover up unwanted sounds captured on the set of a movie during filming, such as overflying airplanes or passing traffic; the term "Foley" means a place, such as Foley-stage or Foley-studio, where the Foley process takes place. What is now called Foley originated as adding sounds added to live broadcasts of radio drama from radio studios around the world in the early 1920s.
Phonograph recordings of the era were not of sufficient quality or flexibility to faithfully reproduce most sound effects on cue, so a sound effects person had to create all sounds for radio plays live. Jack Donovan Foley started working with Universal Studios in 1914 during the silent movie era; when Warner studios released The Jazz Singer, its first film to include sound, Universal knew it needed to stay competitive and called for any employees who had radio experience to come forward. Foley became part of the sound crew that turned Universal's then-upcoming "silent" musical Show Boat into a musical; because microphones of the time could not pick up more than dialogue, other sounds had to be added in after the film was shot. Foley and his small crew projected the film on a screen while recording a single track of audio that captured their live sound effects, their timing had to be perfect, so that footsteps and closing doors synchronized with the actors' motions in the film. Jack Foley created sounds for films until his death in 1967.
His basic methods are still used today. Modern Foley art has progressed. Today, sounds do not have to be recorded live on a single track of audio, they can be captured separately on individual tracks and synchronized with their visual counterpart. Foley studios employ hundreds of props and digital effects to recreate the ambient sounds of their films. Foley complements or replaces sound recorded on set at the time of the filming, known as field recording; the soundscape of most films uses a combination of both. A Foley artist is the person. Foley artists use creativity to make viewers believe that the sound effects are real; the viewers should not be able to realize that the sound was not part of the filming process itself. Foley sounds are added to the film in post production; the need for replacing or enhancing sounds in a film production arises from the fact that often, the original sounds captured during shooting are obstructed by noise or are not convincing enough to underscore the visual effect or action.
For example, fist-fighting scenes in an action movie are staged by the stunt actors and therefore do not have the actual sounds of blows landing. Crashes and explosions are added or enhanced at the post-production stage; the desired effect is to add back to the original soundtrack the sounds that were excluded during recording. By excluding these sounds during field recording, adding them back into the soundtrack during post-production, the editors have complete control over how each noise sounds, its quality, the relative volume. Foley effects add realism to the audio quality for multimedia sources. Foley artists review the film as it runs to figure out what sounds they need to achieve the desired sound and results. Once they gather the material and prepare for use, they practice the sounds; when they accomplish the desired sound, they watch the film and add in the sound effects at the same time. This is similar to the way actors re-record dialogue, lip-syncing to the film image. Scenes where dialogue is replaced using dubbing feature Foley sounds.
Automatic dialogue replacement is the process. This is done by a machine that runs the voice sounds with the film forward and backward to get the sound to run with the film; the objective of the ADR technique is to add sound effects into the film after filming, so the voice sounds are synchronized. Many sounds are not added at the time of filming, microphones might not capture a sound the way the audience expects to hear it; the need for Foley rose when studios began to distribute films internationally, dubbed in other languages. As dialogue is replaced, all sound effects recorded at the time of the dialogue are lost as well. Foley is created by the sound artist mimicking the actual sound source in a recording studio. There are many little sound effects that happen within any given scene of a movie; the process of recording them all can be time-consuming. Foley art can be broken down into three main categories — feet and specifics; the category entails the sound of footsteps. To make the sound of walking down a staircase, Foley artists stomp their feet on a marble slab while watching the footage.
Foley studios carry many different types of shoes and several different types of floors to create footstep sounds. These floors, known as Foley Pits, vary from marble squares to rock pits. Creating just the right sound of footsteps can enhance
Television, sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome, or in color, in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television program, or the medium of television transmission. Television is a mass medium for advertising and news. Television became available in crude experimental forms in the late 1920s, but it would still be several years before the new technology would be marketed to consumers. After World War II, an improved form of black-and-white TV broadcasting became popular in the United States and Britain, television sets became commonplace in homes and institutions. During the 1950s, television was the primary medium for influencing public opinion. In the mid-1960s, color broadcasting was introduced in most other developed countries; the availability of multiple types of archival storage media such as Betamax, VHS tape, local disks, DVDs, flash drives, high-definition Blu-ray Discs, cloud digital video recorders has enabled viewers to watch pre-recorded material—such as movies—at home on their own time schedule.
For many reasons the convenience of remote retrieval, the storage of television and video programming now occurs on the cloud. At the end of the first decade of the 2000s, digital television transmissions increased in popularity. Another development was the move from standard-definition television to high-definition television, which provides a resolution, higher. HDTV may be transmitted in various formats: 1080p, 720p. Since 2010, with the invention of smart television, Internet television has increased the availability of television programs and movies via the Internet through streaming video services such as Netflix, Amazon Video, iPlayer and Hulu. In 2013, 79 % of the world's households owned; the replacement of early bulky, high-voltage cathode ray tube screen displays with compact, energy-efficient, flat-panel alternative technologies such as LCDs, OLED displays, plasma displays was a hardware revolution that began with computer monitors in the late 1990s. Most TV sets sold in the 2000s were flat-panel LEDs.
Major manufacturers announced the discontinuation of CRT, DLP, fluorescent-backlit LCDs by the mid-2010s. In the near future, LEDs are expected to be replaced by OLEDs. Major manufacturers have announced that they will produce smart TVs in the mid-2010s. Smart TVs with integrated Internet and Web 2.0 functions became the dominant form of television by the late 2010s. Television signals were distributed only as terrestrial television using high-powered radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the signal to individual television receivers. Alternatively television signals are distributed by coaxial cable or optical fiber, satellite systems and, since the 2000s via the Internet; until the early 2000s, these were transmitted as analog signals, but a transition to digital television is expected to be completed worldwide by the late 2010s. A standard television set is composed of multiple internal electronic circuits, including a tuner for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is called a video monitor rather than a television.
The word television comes from Ancient Greek τῆλε, meaning'far', Latin visio, meaning'sight'. The first documented usage of the term dates back to 1900, when the Russian scientist Constantin Perskyi used it in a paper that he presented in French at the 1st International Congress of Electricity, which ran from 18 to 25 August 1900 during the International World Fair in Paris; the Anglicised version of the term is first attested in 1907, when it was still "...a theoretical system to transmit moving images over telegraph or telephone wires". It was "...formed in English or borrowed from French télévision." In the 19th century and early 20th century, other "...proposals for the name of a then-hypothetical technology for sending pictures over distance were telephote and televista." The abbreviation "TV" is from 1948. The use of the term to mean "a television set" dates from 1941; the use of the term to mean "television as a medium" dates from 1927. The slang term "telly" is more common in the UK; the slang term "the tube" or the "boob tube" derives from the bulky cathode ray tube used on most TVs until the advent of flat-screen TVs.
Another slang term for the TV is "idiot box". In the 1940s and throughout the 1950s, during the early rapid growth of television programming and television-set ownership in the United States, another slang term became used in that period and continues to be used today to distinguish productions created for broadcast on television from films developed for presentation in movie theaters; the "small screen", as both a compound adjective and noun, became specific references to television, while the "big screen" was used to identify productions made for theatrical release. Facsimile transmission systems for still photographs pioneered methods of mechanical scanning of images in the early 19th century. Alexander Bain introduced the facsimile machine between 1843 and 1846. Frederick Bakewell demonstrated a working laboratory version in 1851. Willoughby Smith discovered the photoconductivity of the element selenium in 1873; as a 23-year-old German university student, Paul Julius Gottlieb Nipkow proposed and patented the Nipkow disk in 1884.
This was a spinning disk with a spiral pattern of holes in it, so each hole scanned a line of the image. Although he never built a working model