Alberta Union of Provincial Employees
The Alberta Union of Provincial Employees is a Canadian trade union operating solely in the province of Alberta. With approximately 81,000 members as of December 2013, it is Alberta’s largest union, most of AUPE’s members are employed in the public sector. The vast majority of AUPE’s members come under one of two pieces of legislation, the Alberta Labour Relations Code and the Public Service Employees Relations Act, one small unit comes under federal Canadian labour legislation. As of 2014, AUPE has 33 locals and administers more than 120 separate collective agreements, AUPE had its origins in the Civil Service Association of Alberta, founded in 1919 to represent “civil servants, ” as direct employees of the Alberta government were known. It became a union with the power to bargain collectively in 1977. Membership fell to about 35,000 in 1995, under the leadership of Dan MacLennan, a Calgary jail guard who was elected in 1997, AUPE rebuilt itself and saw its membership soar past 60,000. At its annual convention in 2006, delegates voted to formally disaffiliate AUPE from NUPGE, and by association the Canadian Labour Congress, AUPE remains active in the union movement and in provincial issues in Alberta.
In the fall of 2007, it undertook a campaign to press for changes in Alberta’s labour laws. Despite those bans, AUPE members have taken illegal strike action on several occasions to press their demands for collective agreements. The past president of AUPE is Doug Knight, who was elected in a by-election in 2006 after MacLennan left the union to pursue a career in the private sector, dramatic growth continued under Knight, with membership reaching 67,000 in June 2007. The current president of AUPE is Guy Smith, who was elected in October 2009, the unions present Executive Secretary Treasurer is Jason Heistad, who was elected in October 2013. AUPE members pay dues of 1. 25% of their base pay. Members do not pay dues on shift or weekend differential pay, AUPE began life on March 26,1919, when a small group of Alberta government employees held a founding meeting in north Edmonton’s First Presbyterian Church. They agreed to incorporate the Civil Service Association of Alberta, and they adopted a crest that declared, “Unity Strength Protection.
”These workers were putting their necks on the line. Many MLAs saw their act as one of insubordination, worthy of firing, but they acted in response to a World War I pay cut, an unfair “patriotic” taxation of government employees, and the fact that all plum jobs were filled by political favourites. The CSA held its first annual convention in February 1921 at a total cost of $202.65, eighteen delegates and 11 Provincial Executive members attended. They chose a Public Works employee, W. T. Aiken, despite the attitudes of some politicians, civil servants were in those days highly respected and valued in society. From the start, the CSA’s leaders made progress, in response to their concerns about patronage, the government appointed a Civil Service Commissioner in 1923
Canadian Union of Postal Workers
The Canadian Union of Postal Workers is a public sector trade union representing postal workers employed at Canada Post as well as private sector workers outside Canada Post. According to a number of analyses, With a radical leadership, the union has approximately 54,000 members and has a long history of militancy originating in 1965 when the union was formed out of the old Canadian Postal Employees Association. CUPWs first major strike was a wildcat strike in 1965 and is the largest illegal strike involving government employees. The action succeeded in winning the right to collective bargaining for all public sector employees, other major industrial actions included a strike in 1968 and a campaign of walkouts in 1970 that resulted in above average wage increases. Further strikes in 1974 and 1975 succeeded in gaining job security in the face of new technology at the post office, a 1978 strike resulted in CUPW president Jean-Claude Parrot being jailed when the union defied back-to-work legislation passed by the Canadian parliament.
CUPWs defiance of the law caused a rift between it and the more conservative Canadian Labour Congress. In 1981, after strike, CUPW became the first federal civil service union in Canada to win the right to maternity leave for its members. In 1981, Canada Post was transformed from a government department to a crown corporation and it was hoped that by becoming a crown corporation governed by the Canada Labour Code, relations between Canada Post and its union would improve. In 2003, CUPW successfully completed the organizing of approximately 6,000 Rural and this collective agreement is separate from the CUPW collective bargaining agreement. The two collective agreements have major differences and these differences stem from the RSMCs formerly being contractors as opposed to employees of Canada Post. Also in 2003 saw the first of many rollbacks for the Urban Postal Unit when the contract that was reached included the elimination of severance pay, members ratified the Urban Mail Operations agreement by a vote of 65. 4%.
On June 3,2011, CUPW began labour actions against Canada Post with a series of rotating strikes, on June 14,2011 at 1159pm EST, Canada Post announced a lockout of CUPW members. The lockout ended June 27,2011, after Parliament passed a law rendering illegal any further work stoppage, cUPWs last collective agreement was signed in 2012 and expired January 31,2016. The RSMC collective bargaining agreement expired in December 2015, in 1989, the Canadian Labour Relations Board forced most Canada Post employees under one union. After a vote, CUPW was chosen to be the union representing the combined bargaining unit. However, three trade unions remain at Canada Post. The CUPW put forward several proposals to the Canadian Postmasters but, to date. The union represents different types of workers within Canada Post divided into four groups, Group 1, Inside workers - postal clerks, Group 2, Outside workers - letter carriers and Motorized Service Carriers - originally from the Letter Carriers Union of Canada
Memphis is a city in the southwestern corner of the U. S. state of Tennessee and the county seat of Shelby County. The city is located on the fourth Chickasaw Bluff, south of the confluence of the Wolf, Memphis had a population of 653,450 in 2013, making it the largest city in the state of Tennessee. It is the largest city on the Mississippi River, the third largest in the greater Southeastern United States, the greater Memphis metropolitan area, including adjacent counties in Mississippi and Arkansas, had a 2014 population of 1,317,314. This makes Memphis the second-largest metropolitan area in Tennessee, surpassed by metropolitan Nashville, Memphis is the youngest of Tennessees major cities, founded in 1819 as a planned city by a group of wealthy Americans including judge John Overton and future president Andrew Jackson. A resident of Memphis is referred to as a Memphian, and the Memphis region is known, particularly to media outlets, as Memphis and the Mid-South. Occupying a substantial bluff rising from the Mississippi River, the site of Memphis has been a location for human settlement by varying cultures over thousands of years.
The historic Chickasaw Indian tribe, believed to be their descendants, French explorers led by René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle and Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto would encounter the Chickasaw in that area, in the 16th century. J. D. L. Chickasaw Bluffs, located on the Mississippi River at the present day location of Memphis and the United States vied for control of this site, which was a favorite of the Chickasaws. The United States gained the right to navigate the Mississippi River, the Spanish dismantled the fort, shipping its lumber and iron to their locations in Arkansas. Captain Isaac Guion led an American force down the Ohio River to claim the land, by this time, the Spanish had departed. The forts ruins went unnoticed twenty years when Memphis was laid out as a city, the city of Memphis was founded on May 22,1819 by John Overton, James Winchester and Andrew Jackson. They named it after the ancient capital of Egypt on the Nile River, Memphis developed as a trade and transportation center in the 19th century because of its flood-free location high above the Mississippi River.
Located in the delta region along the river, its outlying areas were developed as cotton plantations. The cotton economy of the antebellum South depended on the labor of large numbers of African-American slaves. Through the early 19th century, one million slaves were transported from the Upper South, Many were transported by steamboats along the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. This gave planters and cotton brokers access to the Atlantic Coast for shipping cotton to England, the citys demographics changed dramatically in the 1850s and 1860s under waves of immigration and domestic migration. Due to increased immigration since the 1840s and the Great Famine, ethnic Irish made up 9.9 percent of the population in 1850, but 23.2 percent in 1860, when the total population was 22,623. They had encountered considerable discrimination in the city but by 1860 and they gained many elected and patronage positions in the Democratic Party city government, and an Irish man was elected as mayor before the Civil War
May 1968 events in France
The volatile period of civil unrest in France during May 1968 was punctuated by demonstrations and massive general strikes as well as the occupation of universities and factories across France. At the height of its fervor, it brought the economy of France to a virtual halt. May 68 had a impact on French society that would be felt for decades to come. It is considered to this day as a cultural and moral turning point in the history of the country, as Alain Geismar—one of the leaders of the time—later pointed out, the movement succeeded as a social revolution, not as a political one. The unrest began with a series of student occupation protests against capitalism and traditional institutions, values and it spread to factories with strikes involving 11 million workers, more than 22% of the total population of France at the time, for two continuous weeks. It was the largest general strike ever attempted in France, the student occupations and wildcat general strikes initiated across France were met with forceful confrontation by university administrators and police.
De Gaulle went to a French military base in Germany, and after returning dissolved the National Assembly, Violence evaporated almost as quickly as it arose. Workers went back to their jobs, and when the elections were held in June. In February 1968, the French Communists and French Socialists formed an electoral alliance, the universitys administration called the police, who surrounded the university. After the publication of their wishes, the left the building without any trouble. After this first record some leaders of what was named the Movement of 22 March were called together by the committee of the university. Following months of conflicts between students and authorities at the Paris University at Nanterre, the shut down the university on May 2,1968. Students at the Sorbonne University in Paris met on May 3 to protest against the closure and the threatened expulsion of several students at Nanterre. More than 20,000 students and supporters marched towards the Sorbonne, still sealed off by the police, who charged, wielding their batons, as soon as the marchers approached.
While the crowd dispersed, some began to create out of whatever was at hand, while others threw paving stones. The police responded with tear gas and charged the crowd again, high school student unions spoke in support of the riots on 6 May. Negotiations broke down, and students returned to their campuses after a report that the government had agreed to reopen them. The students now had a near revolutionary fervor, on Friday,10 May, another huge crowd congregated on the Rive Gauche
Memphis sanitation strike
The Memphis sanitation strike began in February 1968 in Memphis, Tennessee. They did not turn out for work on the following day and they sought to join the American Federation of State and Municipal Employees Local 1733. Memphiss mayor, Henry Loeb, declared the strike illegal and refused to meet with black leaders. Heavily redacted files released in 2012 suggest that FBI monitored the strike, on Monday February 12, most of the citys sanitation and sewage workers did not show up for work. Some of those who did show up walked off when they found out about the apparent strike, mayor Loeb, refused to meet with the strikers. The workers marched from their hall to a meeting at the City Council chamber, there. Loeb led the workers to an auditorium, where he asked them to return to work. They laughed and booed him, applauded union leaders who spoke, at one point, Loeb grabbed the microphone from AFSCME International organizer Bill Lucy and shouted Go back to work. Storming out of the soon after. By 15 February, piles of trash were noticeable, and Loeb began to hire strikebreakers and these individuals were white and traveled with police escorts.
They were not well received by the strikers, and the strikers assaulted the strikebreakers in some cases, as of 21 February 1968, the sanitation workers established a daily routine of meeting at noon with nearly a thousand strikers and marching from Clayborn Temple to downtown. The marchers faced police brutality in the forms of mace, tear gas, Rev. Lawsons comments embody the message behind the iconic placards from the sanitation workers’ strike, I Am A Man. On the evening of 26 February, Clayborn Temple held over a thousand supporters of the movement, Rev. Ralph Jackson charged the crowd to not rest until justice and jobs prevailed for all black Americans. That night they raised $1,600 from to support the Movement, — Sanitation Workers’ Prayer recited by Reverend Malcolm Blackburn The local news media were generally favorable to Loeb, portraying union leaders as meddling outsiders. The Commercial Appeal wrote editorials praising the mayor for his toughness and television stations generally portrayed the mayor as calm and reasonable, and the protesters and organizers as unruly and disorganized.
The Tri-State Defender, an African American newspaper, and The Souwester and these publications emphasized the brutality of the police reactions to the protestors. From the beginning, strikers refused to erase the racial dimension of the issues at hand, various speakers from the NAACP addressed the strikers in the union hall. Many of these leaders, including Rev. Samuel Kyles, opposed the alliance with union leaders who seemed to be riding the strikers coattails
A black cat is a domestic cat with black fur that may be a mixed or specific breed. The Cat Fanciers Association recognizes 22 cat breeds that can come with black coats. The Bombay breed is exclusively black, all-black fur pigmentation is slightly more prevalent in male cats than female cats. Their high melanin pigment content causes most black cats to have yellow eyes, any cat whose fur is a single color, including black, is known as a solid or self. A solid black cat may be black, grayish black. Most solid-colored cats result from a gene that suppresses the tabby pattern. Sometimes the tabby pattern is not completely suppressed, faint markings may appear in certain lights, a cat having black fur with white roots is known as a black smoke. Black cats can rust in sunlight, the coat turning a lighter brownish shade, in addition to the Bombay, the Cat Fanciers Association allows solid black as a color option in 21 other breeds. The color description for those breeds is, dense coal black, free from any tinge of rust on the tips.
The exceptions are, Oriental – Ebony, dense coal black, free from any tinge of rust on tips or smoke undercoat. One level tone from nose to tip of tail, the folklore surrounding black cats varies from culture to culture. The Scots believe that a strange black cats arrival to the home signifies prosperity, in Celtic mythology, a fairy known as the Cat Sìth takes the form of a black cat. Black cats are considered good luck in the rest of Britain. Furthermore, it is believed that a lady who owns a cat will have many suitors. In Western history, black cats have often looked upon as a symbol of evil omens, specifically being suspected of being the familiars of witches. Most of Europe considers the cat a symbol of bad luck, particularly if one walks across the path in front of a person. In Germany, some believe that black cats crossing a path from right to left, is a bad omen. But from left to right, the cat is granting favorable times, in the United Kingdom it is commonly considered that a black cat crossing a persons path is a good omen
West Virginia /ˌwɛst vərˈdʒɪnjə/ is a state located in the Appalachian region of the Southern United States. It is bordered by Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest, Pennsylvania to the north, West Virginia is the 9th smallest by area, is ranked 38th in population, and has the second lowest household income of the 50 United States. The capital and largest city is Charleston, West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20,1863, and was a key Civil War border state. The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers classify West Virginia as part of the Southern United States, the unique position of West Virginia means that it is often included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, and the Southeastern United States. It is the state that is entirely within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its historically significant logging and coal mining industries and it is one of the most densely karstic areas in the world, making it a choice area for recreational caving and scientific research.
The karst lands contribute to much of the states cool trout waters and it is known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, hiking, mountain biking, and hunting. Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various mound builder cultures survive, especially in the areas of Moundsville, South Charleston. The artifacts uncovered in these give evidence of village societies and they had a tribal trade system culture that crafted cold-worked copper pieces. The Iroquois drove out other American Indian tribes from the region to reserve the upper Ohio Valley as a ground in the 1670s. Siouan language tribes such as the Moneton had recorded in the area previously. West Virginia was originally part of the British Virginia Colony from 1607 to 1776, residents of the western and northern counties set up a separate government under Francis Pierpont in 1861, which they called the restored government. Most voted to separate from Virginia and the new state was admitted to the Union in 1863, in 1864 a state constitutional convention drafted a constitution, which was ratified by the legislature without putting it to popular vote.
West Virginia abolished slavery and temporarily disfranchised men who had held Confederate office or fought for the Confederacy, West Virginias history has been profoundly affected by its mountainous terrain and vast river valleys, and rich natural resources. These were all factors driving its economy and the lifestyles of its residents, a 2010 analysis of a local stalagmite revealed that Native Americans were burning forests to clear land as early as 100 BC. Some regional late-prehistoric Eastern Woodland tribes were involved in hunting and fishing, practicing the slash. Another group progressed to the more time-consuming, advanced companion crop fields method of gardening, continuing from ancient indigenous people of the state, field space and time was given to tobacco growing through to early historic. Maize did not make a contribution to the diet until after 1150 BP
The Marikana massacre, which took place between 10 August and 20 September 2012, was the single most lethal use of force by South African security forces against civilians since 1960. The shootings have been described as a massacre in the South African media and have compared to the Sharpeville massacre in 1960. The incident took place on the 25-year anniversary of a nationwide South African miners strike, controversy emerged after it was discovered that most of the victims were shot in the back, and many victims were shot far from police lines. On 18 September, a mediator announced a resolution to the conflict, stating the striking miners had accepted a 22% pay rise, the Marikana massacre started as a wildcat strike at a mine owned by Lonmin in the Marikana area, close to Rustenburg, South Africa in 2012. Also, during the incident, at least 78 additional workers were injured. The total number of injuries during the remains unknown. In response to the Lonmin strikers, there were a wave of strikes across the South African mining sector.
The first incidents of violence were reported to have started on 11 August after NUM leaders opened fire on NUM members who were on strike and this violence was followed by the death of another eight strikers and security personnel who were killed in the following three days. The Bench Marks Foundation argued, The benefits of mining are not reaching the workers or the surrounding communities, lack of employment opportunities for local youth, squalid living conditions and growing inequalities contribute to this mess. It claimed the workers were exploited and this was a motivation for the violence and it criticised the high profits when compared with the low wages of the workers. Trade and Industry Minister Rob Davies described the conditions in the mines as appalling and it was reported by Al Jazeera that the conditions in the mine led to seething tensions as a result of dire living conditions, union rivalry, and company disinterest. Platinum is the main metal exploited in the Marikana mine, on 10 August 2012, rock drillers initiated a wildcat strike in pursuit of a pay raise to 12,500 South African rand per month, a figure which amounted to tripling of their monthly salaries.
At the Marikana platinum mine, operated by Lonmin at Nkaneng near Rustenburg,3,000 workers walked off the job on 10 August after Lonmin failed to meet with workers. On 11 August, NUM leaders allegedly opened fire on striking NUM members who were marching to their offices, the killing of two miners was reported in the South African media as a central reason for the breakdown in trust within the union amongst workers. Despite earlier contradictory reports, the clashes on the 11th are now acknowledged to be the first incidents of violence during the strike, between 12 and 14 August, approximately nine people were killed in the area around Marikana. There are conflicting reports on who killed whom during these dates, however, at least four miners, two police officers, and two security guards seem to have been killed during this time. However, submissions to the Farlam Commission dispute this, accusing police of failing to negotiate with strikers, and these workers are subjected to poverty for life. 18 years of democracy, the mineworker is still earning 3,000 under those harsh conditions underground
Air Canada is the flag carrier and largest airline of Canada. The airline, founded in 1937, provides scheduled and charter air transport for passengers and it is the worlds eighth-largest passenger airline by fleet size, and is a founding member of the Star Alliance. Air Canadas corporate headquarters are located in Montréal, while its largest hub is at Toronto Pearson International Airport, Air Canada had passenger revenues of CA$13.8 billion in 2015. The airlines regional service is Air Canada Express, Canadas national airline originated from the Canadian federal governments 1936 creation of Trans-Canada Airlines, which began operating their first transcontinental flight routes in 1938. In 1965, TCA was renamed Air Canada following government approval, after the deregulation of the Canadian airline market in the 1980s, the airline was privatized in 1988. On 4 January 2000, Air Canada acquired their largest rival, in 2003, the airline filed for bankruptcy protection and in the following year emerged and reorganized under the holding company ACE Aviation Holdings Inc.
In 2007,34 million people flew with Air Canada as the celebrated their 70th anniversary. The carriers operating divisions include Air Canada Cargo, Air Canada Express and their subsidiary, Air Canada Vacations, provides vacation packages to over 90 destinations. Together with their partners, the airline operates on average more than 1,530 scheduled flights daily. Air Canadas predecessor, Trans-Canada Airlines, was created by legislation as a subsidiary of Canadian National Railway on 11 April 1937. The newly created Department of Transport under Minister C. D, howe desired an airline under government control to link cities on the Atlantic coast to those on the Pacific coast. Transcontinental routes from Montreal to Vancouver began on 1 April 1939, using 12 Lockheed Model 14 Super Electras, by January 1940, the airline had grown to about 500 employees. Canadian Pacific Airlines suggested in 1942 a merger with TCA, prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King rejected the proposal and introduced legislation regulating TCA as the only airline in Canada allowed to provide transcontinental flights.
With the increase in air travel after World War II, CP Air was granted one coast-to-coast flight, with the development of the ReserVec in 1953, TCA became the first airline in the world to use a computer reservation system with remote terminals. This bill failed but it was resubmitted and passed, with the name change taking effect on 1 January 1965. During the 1970s government regulations ensured Air Canadas dominance over domestic regional carriers, short-haul carriers were each restricted to one of five regions, and could not compete directly with Air Canada and CP Air. CP Air was subject to capacity limits on flights. Air Canadas fares were subject to regulation by the government, in the late 1970s, with reorganization at CNR, Air Canada became an independent Crown corporation
Lisa Sarah MacCormack Raitt, PC MP is a Canadian politician, who is the Conservative Party Member of Parliament for the Ontario riding of Milton. She is a professional administrator turned politician, Raitt served in several portfolios as a minister in the 28th Canadian Ministry of Stephen Harper. Raitt was born Lisa Sarah MacCormack in Sydney, Nova Scotia and her grandmother, Mary Christina Tootsie, was a businesswoman. Raitt was married to Second City alumnus and stay-at-home dad David Raitt and has two sons, John Colin and Billy, they are now divorced. On September 2,2016 she married her partner, Bruce Wood. Raitt graduated from St. Francis Xavier University in Nova Scotia with a bachelor of science degree and she went on to do a masters degree in chemistry, specializing in environmental biochemical toxicology, at the University of Guelph. Raitt possesses an LL. B from Osgoode Hall Law School and that year, she was granted a Dr. Harold G. Fox Scholarship. As a result, she trained with barristers of the Middle Temple in London, United Kingdom, Raitt served as the TPA’s Corporate Secretary and General Counsel, and harbourmaster from April 2001.
She was the first female harbourmaster of a Canadian port, the disputed lands, mostly the infill lands of the Don River delta, constituted around 85% of the THCs land assets as of the early 1990s. The lands had been transferred in two agreements, in 1991 and 1994 in exchange for a permanent subsidy for the THC. Since the TPA was inheriting the role and activities of the THC, the TPA and the City settled out of court in exchange for a promised bridge to the Island Airport across the Western Gap and approximately $50 million. The bridge was never built, instead a pedestrian tunnel under the Western Gap was constructed and completed on July 30,2015, see relinquished the post of harbourmaster to Angus Armstrong in 2004. The ground was broken on 24 August 2004, and CATS operated for six months in 2005, the Rochester firm that initially owned the ferry had a 14-year lease on the use of the terminal that would have paid the City of Toronto $250,000 per year. The terminal was reported to have cost $10.5 million to construct, the lease was terminated in December 2009 after payment of a $90,000 settlement.
The terminal has seen use since except to dock cruise ships. During her time as CEO of the TPA, the Air Canada Jazz service to the Toronto City Centre Airport was discontinued under a legal cloud. In 2006 Raitt jointly filed a libel action for $3.4 million against Community Air. The lawsuit was criticised as a SLAPP type legal tactic meant to silence critics of the airport, the suit was eventually settled out of court when in May 2007 Community Air agreed to retract its statements and apologize
Chicago Teachers Union
The Chicago Teachers Union is a labor union representing teachers, paraprofessionals, and clinicians in the Chicago public school system. The union has consistently fought for improved pay and job security for its members and it has pushed for improvements in the Chicago schools, and since its inception argued that its activities benefited students as well as teachers. The CTU united several teachers organizations in Chicago in the wake of a revolt against banks during the Great Depression. It was chartered in 1937 as Local 1 of the American Federation of Teachers and it was the largest and most active AFT Local until the 1960s. The CTU won collective bargaining rights in 1966 and conducted several strikes during the 1970s and 1980s, in September 2012, the union began its first strike in 25 years. The CTU is affiliated with the Illinois Federation of Teachers, the Chicago Federation of Labor, and it has more than 30,000 members. Current officers come from the Caucus of Rank-and-File Educators, elected in 2010 to replace the longstanding United Progressive Caucus and they are, President Karen Lewis, Vice President Jesse Sharkey, Recording Secretary Michael Brunson and Financial Secretary Maria Moreno.
The CTU originated from the Chicago Teachers Federation, an organization of women elementary school founded in 1897. In its first few years, it ran a campaign to increase teacher pay. In 1900, the CTF elected Catherine Goggin and Margaret Haley as its officers, the CTF launched a successful campaign against corporate tax evasion, the compensation for which was used to pay back salaries upon which the city had reneged. In 1902, the CTF joined the Chicago Federation of Labor and it was the first time that a teachers group had affiliated with a larger labor organization. In 1916, Haley and the CTF helped to found the American Federation of Teachers, such membership, affiliation, or representation is hereby prohibited. This rule, which known as the Loeb rule, further stated that teachers would be fired unless they stated in writing that they did not belong to any such organization. The Loeb rule allowed the city to fire 68 teachers, including the CTF leadership, by 1917, the CTF was forced to withdraw from both the CFL and the AFT.
Subsequent passage of the Otis rule placed education in the hands of a centralized Board of Education, the board was still appointed by city politicians. In the coming years, the city and School Board were accused of rampant corruption, many CPS employees were appointed by the Mayor, and a 1931 study found that Chicago spent more money than any other major city on operations costs outside of education. Chicago teachers became exceptionally militant during the Great Depression, when teachers and many of their students faced extreme poverty, particularly in the inner city, classrooms were undersupplied and overcrowded. Too many city classrooms still resemble enlarged prison cells, according to a 1931 report, the city neglected to pay its teachers on 37 out of 46 paydays
Jeffboat is the largest inland shipbuilder in the United States, located in Jeffersonville, Indiana. It is the second-largest builder of barges and it is most notable for building the General Jackson showboat, the Mississippi Queen steamboat, and the Casino Aztar riverboat casino. Originally named the Howard Shipyards, it had fallen on hard times due to the Great Depression, the United States Navy bought the shipyards in 1942 and gave it to a new company, Jeffersonville Boat & Machine Company. During World War II, it built 123 Landing Ship-Tanks,23 submarine chasers, post-war, the shipyards built customized crafts, but specialized in barges and towboats. In 1957, the name was changed to Jeffboat. Production was stopped from 1986 to 1989, in 2001, a wildcat strike took place, as the workers felt that their union sold them out to the company. A union decertification petition was circulated in the fall of 2006, the petition required 30% of bargaining unit employees to sign to schedule a decertification election.
The election was held on December 7,2006, and the employees voted overwhelmingly to retain Teamsters Local 89 as their union, official IBT Local 89 website 2001, The JeffBoat workers wildcat strike