The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Crater Mountain is located in the North Cascades of Washington state. It is the 29th highest mountain in the Pasayten Wilderness; the Jerry Glacier resides in the cirque on the upper north slopes of the mountain. The crater-like summit of the mountain is not of volcanic origin. Crater Mountain is grouped in the sub-range Hozameen Range which includes Hozomeen Mountain and Jack Mountain; the mountain is composed of Metavolcanic rock and Metasedimentary rock from the Hozameen Group. Most predominate is Greenstone from the Jurassic to Permian periods. Crater Mountain is carved from greenstone of the Hozomeen Terrane, once the basaltic floor of the ancient Methow Ocean; the mountain's name derives from the craterlike shape of its summit, carved from the ancient metamorphosed basalt by modern cirque glaciers. The rugged battlements of the greenstone viewed from the highway rest above phyllite of the Little Jack terrane, exposed in the lower slopes of the mountain. Crater Mountain is located in the marine west coast climate zone of western North America.
Most weather fronts originate in the Pacific Ocean, travel northeast toward the Cascade Mountains. As fronts approach the North Cascades, they are forced upward by the peaks of the Cascade Range, causing them to drop their moisture in the form of rain or snowfall onto the Cascades; as a result, the west side of the North Cascades experiences high precipitation during the winter months in the form of snowfall. Due to its temperate climate and proximity to the Pacific Ocean, areas west of the Cascade Crest rarely experience temperatures below 0 °F or above 80 °F. During winter months, weather is cloudy, due to high pressure systems over the Pacific Ocean that intensify during summer months, there is little or no cloud cover during the summer; because of maritime influence, snow tends to be wet and heavy, resulting in high avalanche danger
Mount Bosavi is a mountain in the Southern Highlands province, Papua New Guinea. It is the collapsed cone of an extinct volcano on the Great Papuan Plateau, part of the Kikori River basin; the crater is 4 km wide and 1 km deep. Part of the mountain is included in the Sulamesi Wildlife Management Area, established in 2006, it forms part of the proposed UNESCO World Heritage Site Kikori River Basin/Great Papuan Plateau. The people living just north of the mountain refer to themselves as Bosavi kalu and divide into four culturally identical but linguistically marked groups, the Kaluli, Ologo and Wisesi. Collectively they are referred to as Bosavi kalu. A 2009 expedition by an international team of scientists and a television crew from the BBC Natural History Unit filming Lost Land of the Volcano, a BBC wildlife documentary, discovered more than 40 undescribed species, including 16 frogs, at least 3 fish, several insects and spiders, a bat, a giant rat, measuring 82 cm in length and weighing 1.5 kg.
Mount Bosavi is the type locality for Pseudohydromys pumehanae, a described species of moss-mouse. Hammond World Travel Atlas. Union, N. J.: Hammond World Atlas Corporation. 2005. ISBN 0-8437-1982-6. Feld, Steven. Sound and Sentiment: Birds, Weeping and Song in Kaluli Expression. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Footnotes Satellite view from the European Space Agency WWF page of Libano and Sulamesi Wildlife Management Areas, including map WWF pictures from Mt. Bosavi and region Seacology Mt. Bosavi Rainforest Conservation Project Seacology "Mount Bosavi, Papua New Guinea" on Peakbagger
Rich Mountain (Georgia)
Rich Mountain, elevation 4,040 feet, is the highest point in the Rich Mountain Wilderness of the Chattahoochee National Forest in Gilmer County, Georgia. It is the second-highest peak in Gilmer County. Rich Mountain is the namesake peak of the Rich Mountains, a circular-shaped range of mountains located in northeastern Gilmer County. Rich Mountain is located at the center of this range, with ridges and valleys radiating outward from the mountain. Many of these mountains are covered in black porter's loam; the vegetation in the area consists of second-growth hardwood forests. The mountain is located 9 miles northeast of Ellijay. Big Bald Mountain, the highest point in Gilmer County, is located about 1.4 miles northeast of Rich Mountain. U. S. Route 76 runs to the west of the mountain. Rich Mountain's summit is located inside the Rich Mountain Wilderness, as well as the Rich Mountain Wildlife Management Area. With an elevation of 4,040 feet, Rich Mountain is the second tallest mountain in Gilmer County and the highest point of the Rich Mountain Wilderness.
It is the 21st tallest mountain in the state of Georgia, if using a 160 feet prominence rule. The Civilian Conservation Corps built a fire tower on Rich Mountain's summit during the Great Depression. No trails pass over Rich Mountain's summit. However, hikers can climb to the summit by hiking off-trail from Rich Mountain Road, a former logging road running through the Rich Mountains. List of mountains in Georgia Georgia's Named Summits 100 highest peaks in Georgia Georgia peaks over 4,000 feet Topographical map of Rich Mountain
Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the enabling laws of each country or the regulations of the international organizations involved; the term "protected area" includes Marine Protected Areas, the boundaries of which will include some area of ocean, Transboundary Protected Areas that overlap multiple countries which remove the borders inside the area for conservation and economic purposes. There are over 161,000 protected areas in the world with more added daily, representing between 10 and 15 percent of the world's land surface area. By contrast, only 1.17% of the world's oceans is included in the world's ~6,800 Marine Protected Areas. Protected areas are essential for biodiversity conservation providing habitat and protection from hunting for threatened and endangered species. Protection helps maintain ecological processes that cannot survive in most intensely managed landscapes and seascapes.
Protected areas are understood to be those in which human occupation or at least the exploitation of resources is limited. The definition, accepted across regional and global frameworks has been provided by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in its categorisation guidelines for protected areas; the definition is as follows: A defined geographical space, recognized and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values. The objective of protected areas is to conserve biodiversity and to provide a way for measuring the progress of such conservation. Protected areas will encompass several other zones that have been deemed important for particular conservation uses, such as Important Bird Areas and Endemic Bird Areas, Centres of Plant Diversity and Community Conserved Areas, Alliance for Zero Extinction Sites and Key Biodiversity Areas among others. A protected area or an entire network of protected areas may lie within a larger geographic zone, recognised as a terrestrial or marine ecoregions, or a crisis ecoregions for example.
As a result, Protected Areas can encompass a broad range of governance types. Indeed, governance of protected areas has emerged a critical factor in their success. Subsequently, the range of natural resources that any one protected area may guard is vast. Many will be allocated for species conservation whether it be flora or fauna or the relationship between them, but protected areas are important for conserving sites of cultural importance and considerable reserves of natural resources such as. Of all global terrestrial carbon stock, 15.2% is contained within protected areas. Protected areas in South America hold 27% of the world's carbon stock, the highest percentage of any country in both absolute terms and as a proportion of the total stock. Rainforests: 18.8% of the world's forest is covered by protected areas and sixteen of the twenty forest types have 10% or more protected area coverage. Of the 670 ecoregions with forest cover, 54% have 10% or more of their forest cover protected under IUCN Categories I – VI.
Mountains: Nationally designated protected areas cover 14.3% of the world's mountain areas, these mountainous protected areas made up 32.5% of the world's total terrestrial protected area coverage in 2009. Mountain protected area coverage has increased globally by 21% since 1990 and out of the 198 countries with mountain areas, 43.9% still have less than 10% of their mountain areas protected. Annual updates on each of these analyses are made in order to make comparisons to the Millennium Development Goals and several other fields of analysis are expected to be introduced in the monitoring of protected areas management effectiveness, such as freshwater and marine or coastal studies which are underway, islands and drylands which are in planning. Through its World Commission on Protected Areas, the IUCN has developed six Protected Area Management Categories that define protected areas according to their management objectives, which are internationally recognised by various national governments and the United Nations.
The categories provide international standards for defining protected areas and encourage conservation planning according to their management aims. IUCN Protected Area Management Categories: Category Ia — Strict Nature Reserve Category Ib — Wilderness Area Category II — National Park Category III — Natural Monument or Feature Category IV — Habitat/Species Management Area Category V — Protected Landscape/Seascape Category VI – Protected Area with sustainable use of natural resources Protected areas are cultural artifacts, their story is entwined with that of human civilization. Protecting places and resources is by no means a modern concept, whether it be indigenous communities guarding sacred sites or the convention of European hunting reserves. Over 2000 years ago, royal decrees in India protected certain areas. In Europe and powerful people protected hunting grounds for a thousand years. Moreover, the idea of protection of special places is universal: for example, it occurs among the communities in the Pacific and in parts of Africa.
The oldest le
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia. Its capital, located along its southeastern coast, is Port Moresby; the western half of New Guinea forms the Indonesian provinces of West Papua. At the national level, after being ruled by three external powers since 1884, Papua New Guinea established its sovereignty in 1975; this followed nearly 60 years of Australian administration, which started during World War I. It became an independent Commonwealth realm in 1975 with Elizabeth II as its queen, it became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations in its own right. Papua New Guinea is one of the most culturally diverse countries in the world, it is one of the most rural, as only 18 per cent of its people live in urban centres. There are 851 known languages in the country. Most of the population of more than 8 million people lives in customary communities, which are as diverse as the languages.
The country is one of the world's least explored and geographically. It is known to have numerous groups of uncontacted peoples, researchers believe there are many undiscovered species of plants and animals in the interior. Papua New Guinea is classified as a developing economy by the International Monetary Fund. Strong growth in Papua New Guinea's mining and resource sector led to the country becoming the sixth-fastest-growing economy in the world in 2011. Growth was expected to slow once major resource projects came on line in 2015. Mining remains a major economic factor, however. Local and national governments are discussing the potential of resuming mining operations at the Panguna mine in Bougainville Province, closed since the civil war in the 1980s–1990s. Nearly 40 per cent of the population lives a self-sustainable natural lifestyle with no access to global capital. Most of the people still live in strong traditional social groups based on farming, their social lives combine traditional religion including primary education.
These societies and clans are explicitly acknowledged by the Papua New Guinea Constitution, which expresses the wish for "traditional villages and communities to remain as viable units of Papua New Guinean society" and protects their continuing importance to local and national community life. The nation is an observer state in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations or ASEAN since 1976, has filed its application for full membership status, it is the Commonwealth of Nations. Archaeological evidence indicates that humans first arrived in Papua New Guinea around 42,000 to 45,000 years ago, they were descendants of migrants out of Africa, in one of the early waves of human migration. Agriculture was independently developed in the New Guinea highlands around 7000 BC, making it one of the few areas in the world where people independently domesticated plants. A major migration of Austronesian-speaking peoples to coastal regions of New Guinea took place around 500 BC; this has been correlated with the introduction of pottery and certain fishing techniques.
In the 18th century, traders brought the sweet potato to New Guinea, where it was adopted and became part of the staples. Portuguese traders had introduced it to the Moluccas; the far higher crop yields from sweet potato gardens radically transformed traditional agriculture and societies. Sweet potato supplanted the previous staple and resulted in a significant increase in population in the highlands. Although by the late 20th century headhunting and cannibalism had been eradicated, in the past they were practised in many parts of the country as part of rituals related to warfare and taking in enemy spirits or powers. In 1901, on Goaribari Island in the Gulf of Papua, missionary Harry Dauncey found 10,000 skulls in the island's long houses, a demonstration of past practices. According to Marianna Torgovnick, writing in 1991, "The most documented instances of cannibalism as a social institution come from New Guinea, where head-hunting and ritual cannibalism survived, in certain isolated areas, into the Fifties and Seventies, still leave traces within certain social groups."Little was known in Europe about the island until the 19th century, although Portuguese and Spanish explorers, such as Dom Jorge de Menezes and Yñigo Ortiz de Retez, had encountered it as early as the 16th century.
Traders from Southeast Asia had visited New Guinea beginning 5,000 years ago to collect bird-of-paradise plumes. The country's dual name results from its complex administrative history before independence; the word papua is derived from an old local term of uncertain origin. "New Guinea" was the name coined by the Spanish explorer Yñigo Ortiz de Retez. In 1545, he noted the resemblance of the people to those he had earlier seen along the Guinea coast of Africa. Guinea, in its turn, is etymologically derived from the Portuguese word Guiné; the name is one of several toponyms sharing similar etymologies meaning "land of the blacks" or similar meanings, in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants. In the nineteenth century, Germany ruled the northern half of the country for some decades, beginning in 1884, as a colony named German New Guinea. In 1914 after the outbreak of World War I, Australian forces landed and captured German New Guinea in a small military campaign and occupied it throughout the war.
After the war, in which Germany and the Central Pow
Lake Kutubu is a lake in the Southern Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea. It lies to the east of the Kikori River, into which it drains, it is about 50 km southwest of the provincial capital. It is one of the few lakes in the country that occurs in a depression in the rugged interior mountains, it is the second-largest lake in Papua New Guinea, after Lake Murray, and, at 800 m above sea level, the largest upland lake. The area of the lake is 49.24 km², while the total catchment area is 250 km². Lake Kutubu and Lake Sentani form an ecoregion on the WWF's Global 200; the lake has a few islands, the largest of, Wasemi Island in its northern part. The water of Lake Kutubu is clear, the lake reaches a depth of 70 m, it is fed by several streams, most of its contents come from underground sources. The catchment is inhabited by two main ethnic groups, the Foe to the south and the Fasu to the north. Thirty-three villages lie in the catchment area, with a total estimated population of 10,885; the lake gave its name to the nearby Kutubu Oil Project, Papua New Guinea's first commercial oilfield development, operated by Oil Search Limited, which began production in 1992.
The development has supported the local economy, caused a general in-migration to the area, ecological problems resulting from rapid population growth, including pollution, forest destruction and overfishing. A proposed gas pipeline and road are expected to exacerbate these problems unless they are well-managed. Lake Kutubu includes 13 endemic fish species, making it the most unusual lacustrine habitat for fishes in the New Guinea-Australia region; the endemic fish species are: Kutubu tandan Lake Kutubu rainbowfish Kutubu hardyhead Adamson's grunter Black mogurnda Lake Kutubu mogurnda Mogurnda maccuneae Mogurnda mosa Blotched mogurnda Variegated mogurnda Striped mogurnda Two undescribed species of Glossogobius Additionally, the Parastacid crayfish Cherax papuanus is endemic to the lake. Because of its biodiversity and ecological significance, the area has been designated a "Wetland of International Significance" by the Ramsar Convention; the area included in this designation matches the Lake Kutubu Wildlife Management Area.
The area is undergoing study by the World Wildlife Fund and the drafting of a catchment management plan has commenced, anticipated to become a model for other catchments in Papua New Guinea. The project is to be completed by December 2007; the Lake Kutubu area is included in the tentatively listed Kikori River Basin - Great Papuan Plateau World Heritage Site. Lake Kutubu Catchment Management Plan: Project Inception Report includes topographic map on Page 12 Map of Lake Kutubu catchment produced by WWF Lake Kutubu - newest Ramsar site in Papua New Guinea Wetlands documentation page