Chernobyl Exclusion Zone
The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Zone of Alienation is an designated exclusion zone around the site of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor disaster. It is commonly known as the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, the 30 Kilometre Zone, or The Zone. Established by the Soviet Armed Forces soon after the 1986 disaster, it existed as an area of 30 km radius from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant designated for evacuation and placed under military control, its borders have since been altered to cover a larger area of Ukraine. The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone borders a separately administered area, the Polesie State Radioecological Reserve, to the north in Belarus; the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone is managed by an agency of the State Emergency Service of Ukraine, while the power plant and its sarcophagus are administered separately. The Exclusion Zone covers an area of 2,600 km2 in Ukraine surrounding the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant where radioactive contamination from nuclear fallout is highest and public access and inhabitation are restricted.
Other areas of compulsory resettlement and voluntary relocation not part of the restricted exclusion zone exist in the surrounding areas and throughout Ukraine. In February 2019, it was revealed that talks have been underway to redraw the boundaries of the Exclusion Zone to reflect the declining radioactivity of the Zone's outer areas; the Exclusion Zone's purpose is to restrict access to hazardous areas, reduce the spread of radiological contamination, conduct radiological and ecological monitoring activities. Today, the Exclusion Zone is one of the most radioactively contaminated areas in the world and draws significant scientific interest for the high levels of radiation exposure in the environment, as well as increasing interest from tourists. Geographically, it includes the northernmost raions of the Zhytomyr oblasts of Ukraine, and geographically, the zone is the heartland of the Polesia region. This predominantly rural woodland and marshland area was once home to 120,000 people living in the cities of Chernobyl and Pripyat as well as 187 smaller communities, but is now uninhabited.
All settlements remain designated on geographic maps but marked as нежил. – "uninhabited". The woodland in the area around Pripyat was a focal point of partisan resistance during the Second World War, experience of which allowed evacuated residents to evade guards and return. In the woodland near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant stood the'Partisan's Tree' or'Cross Tree', used to hang captured partisans; the tree fell down due to age in 1996 and a memorial now stands at its location. The Exclusion Zone was established soon after the Chernobyl disaster on 2 May 1986, when a Soviet government commission headed by Nikolai Ryzhkov decided on a "rather arbitrary" area of a 30-kilometre radius from Reactor 4 as the designated evacuation area; the 30 km Zone was divided into three subzones: the area adjacent to Reactor 4, an area of 10 km radius from the reactor, the remaining 30 km zone. Protective clothing and available facilities varied between these subzones. In 1986, after updated maps of the contaminated areas were produced, the zone was split into three areas to designate further evacuation areas based on the revised dose limit of 100 mSv. the "Black Zone", to which evacuees were never to return the "Red Zone" where evacuees might return once radiation levels normalized the "Blue Zone" where children and pregnant women were evacuated starting in the summer of 1986Special permission for access and full military control was put in place in 1986.
Although evacuations were not immediate, 91,200 people were evacuated from these zones. In November 1986, control over activities in the zone was given to the new production association Kombinat. Based in the evacuated city of Chernobyl, the association's responsibility was to operate the power plant, decontaminate the 30 km zone, supply materials and goods to the zone, construct housing outside the new town of Slavutych for the power plant personnel and their families. In March 1989, a "Safe Living Concept" was created for people living in contaminated zones beyond the Exclusion Zone in Belarus and Russia. In October 1989, the Soviet government requested assistance from the International Atomic Energy Agency to assess the "Soviet Safe Living Concept" for inhabitants of contaminated areas. "Throughout the Soviet period, an image of containment was achieved through selective resettlements and territorial delineations of contaminated zones." In February 1991, the law On The Legal Status of the Territory Exposed to the Radioactive Contamination resulting from the ChNPP Accident was passed, updating the borders of the Exclusion Zone and defining obligatory and voluntary resettlement areas, areas for enhanced monitoring.
The borders were based on soil deposits of strontium-90, caesium-137, plutonium as well as the calculated dose rate as identified by the National Commission for Radiation Protection of Ukraine. Responsibility for monitoring and coordination of activities in the Exclusion Zone was given to the Ministry of Chernobyl Affairs. In-depth studies were conducted from 1992–93, culminating the updating of the 1991 law followed by further evacuations from the Polesia area. A numb
La Senda Verde
La Senda Verde is a non-government organization dedicated to environmental education and the care of sick and abandoned wildlife. It is a run animal refuge in the Yungas area of Bolivia; the organization is co-founded by Vicky Ossio and Marcelo Levy in 2003. Yungas Road leads to the La Senda Verde animal refuge, it is a popular tourist destination starting in the 1990s, drawing 25,000 thrillseekers. This is one of the few routes that connects the Amazon rainforest region of northern Bolivia, or Yungas, to its capital city. Upon leaving La Paz, the road first ascends to around 4,650 metres at La Cumbre Pass, before descending to 1,200 metres at the town of Coroico, transiting from cool Altiplano terrain to rainforest as it winds through steep hillsides and atop cliffs. Laws in Bolivia forbid the return of certain endangered animals back into the wild. However, the same law does not prevent animals living in semi-captivity, where the animals fulfil a pedagogic role as the refuge hosts both school and university groups.
In 2010, Corporación Minera de Bolivia began works on a gold mine in a riverbed of Coroico River. In January 2010, the movement of the river channel caused by backhoes machines flooded some parts of La Senda Verde. In the aftermath, Vicky Ossio, owner of Senda Verde, stated that the damage to the animal shelter has been tremendous. Tourism in Bolivia Animal sanctuary Official website
United States Constitution
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States. The Constitution comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government, its first three articles embody the doctrine of the separation of powers, whereby the federal government is divided into three branches: the legislative, consisting of the bicameral Congress. Articles Four and Six embody concepts of federalism, describing the rights and responsibilities of state governments, the states in relationship to the federal government, the shared process of constitutional amendment. Article Seven establishes the procedure subsequently used by the thirteen States to ratify it, it is regarded as the oldest codified national constitution in force. Since the Constitution came into force in 1789, it has been amended 27 times, including an amendment to repeal a previous one, in order to meet the needs of a nation that has profoundly changed since the eighteenth century. In general, the first ten amendments, known collectively as the Bill of Rights, offer specific protections of individual liberty and justice and place restrictions on the powers of government.
The majority of the seventeen amendments expand individual civil rights protections. Others modify government processes and procedures. Amendments to the United States Constitution, unlike ones made to many constitutions worldwide, are appended to the document. All four pages of the original U. S. Constitution are written on parchment. According to the United States Senate: "The Constitution's first three words—We the People—affirm that the government of the United States exists to serve its citizens. For over two centuries the Constitution has remained in force because its framers wisely separated and balanced governmental powers to safeguard the interests of majority rule and minority rights, of liberty and equality, of the federal and state governments."The first permanent constitution of its kind, adopted by the people's representatives for an expansive nation, it is interpreted and implemented by a large body of constitutional law, has influenced the constitutions of other nations. From September 5, 1774, to March 1, 1781, the Continental Congress functioned as the provisional government of the United States.
Delegates to the First and the Second Continental Congress were chosen through the action of committees of correspondence in various colonies rather than through the colonial or state legislatures. In no formal sense was it a gathering representative of existing colonial governments; the process of selecting the delegates for the First and Second Continental Congresses underscores the revolutionary role of the people of the colonies in establishing a central governing body. Endowed by the people collectively, the Continental Congress alone possessed those attributes of external sovereignty which entitled it to be called a state in the international sense, while the separate states, exercising a limited or internal sovereignty, may rightly be considered a creation of the Continental Congress, which preceded them and brought them into being; the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was the first constitution of the United States. It was drafted by the Second Continental Congress from mid-1776 through late 1777, ratification by all 13 states was completed by early 1781.
The Articles of Confederation gave little power to the central government. The Confederation Congress lacked enforcement powers. Implementation of most decisions, including modifications to the Articles, required unanimous approval of all thirteen state legislatures. Although, in a way, the Congressional powers in Article 9 made the "league of states as cohesive and strong as any similar sort of republican confederation in history", the chief problem was, in the words of George Washington, "no money"; the Continental Congress could print money but it was worthless. Congress couldn't pay it back. No state paid all their U. S. taxes. Some few paid an amount equal to interest on the national debt no more. No interest was paid on debt owed foreign governments. By 1786, the United States would default on outstanding debts. Internationally, the United States had little ability to defend its sovereignty. Most of the troops in the 625-man United States Army were deployed facing – but not threatening – British forts on American soil.
They had not been paid. Spain closed New Orleans to American commerce. S. officials protested, but to no effect. Barbary pirates began seizing American ships of commerce. If any military crisis required action, the Congress had no credit or taxing power to finance a response. Domestically, the Articles of Confederation was failing to bring unity to the diverse sentiments and interests of the various states. Although the Treaty of Paris was signed between Great Britain and the U. S. and named each of the American states, various states proceeded blithely to violate it. New York and South Carolina prosecuted Loyalists for wartime activity and redistributed their lands. Individual state legislatures independently laid embargoes, negotiated directly with foreign authorities, raised armies, and
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
A zoo is a facility in which all animals are housed within enclosures, displayed to the public, in which they may breed. The term "zoological garden" refers to zoology, the study of animals, a term deriving from the Greek'zoion, "animal," and logia, "study.". The abbreviation "zoo" was first used of the London Zoological Gardens, opened for scientific study in 1828 and to the public in 1857. In the United States alone, zoos are visited by over 180 million people annually; the London Zoo, which opened in 1826, was known as the "Gardens and Menagerie of the Zoological Society of London", it described itself as a menagerie or "zoological forest". The abbreviation "zoo" first appeared in print in the United Kingdom around 1847, when it was used for the Clifton Zoo, but it was not until some 20 years that the shortened form became popular in the song "Walking in the Zoo" by music-hall artist Alfred Vance; the term "zoological park" was used for more expansive facilities in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Washington, D.
C. and the Bronx in New York, which opened in 1847, 1891 and 1899 respectively. New terms for zoos coined in the late 20th century are "conservation park" or "biopark". Adopting a new name is a strategy used by some zoo professionals to distance their institutions from the stereotypical and nowadays criticized zoo concept of the 19th century; the term "biopark" was first coined and developed by the National Zoo in Washington D. C. in the late 1980s. In 1993, the New York Zoological Society changed its name to the Wildlife Conservation Society and rebranded the zoos under its jurisdiction as "wildlife conservation parks"; the predecessor of the zoological garden is the menagerie, which has a long history from the ancient world to modern times. The oldest known zoological collection was revealed during excavations at Hierakonpolis, Egypt in 2009, of a ca. 3500 BCE menagerie. The exotic animals included hippopotami, elephants and wildcats. King Ashur-bel-kala of the Middle Assyrian Empire created zoological and botanical gardens in the 11th century BCE.
In the 2nd century BCE, the Chinese Empress Tanki had a "house of deer" built, King Wen of Zhou kept a 1,500-acre zoo called Ling-Yu, or the Garden of Intelligence. Other well-known collectors of animals included King Solomon of the Kingdom of Israel and Judah, queen Semiramis and King Ashurbanipal of Assyria, King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylonia. By the 4th century BCE, zoos existed in most of the Greek city states; the Roman emperors kept private collections of animals for study or for use in the arena, the latter faring notoriously poorly. The 19th-century historian W. E. H. Lecky wrote of the Roman games, first held in 366 BCE: At one time, bear and a bull, chained together, rolled in fierce combat across the sand... Four hundred bears were killed in a single day under Caligula... Under Nero, four hundred tigers fought with elephants. In a single day, at the dedication of the Colosseum by Titus, five thousand animals perished. Under Trajan... lions, elephants, hippopotami, bulls, stags crocodiles and serpents were employed to give novelty to the spectacle.
Charlemagne had an elephant named Abul-Abbas, given to him by the Abbasid Caliph. Henry I of England kept a collection of animals at his palace in Woodstock which included lions and camels; the most prominent collection in medieval England was in the Tower of London, created as early as 1204 by King John I. Henry III received a wedding gift in 1235 of three leopards from Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, in 1264, the animals were moved to the Bulwark, renamed the Lion Tower, near the main western entrance of the Tower, it was opened to the public during the reign of Elizabeth I in the 16th century. During the 18th century, the price of admission was three half-pence, or the supply of a cat or dog for feeding to the lions; the animals were moved to the London Zoo. Aztec emperor Moctezuma had in his capital city of Tenochtitlan a "house of animals" with a large collection of birds and reptiles in a garden tended by more than 600 employees; the garden was described by several Spanish conquerors, including Hernán Cortés in 1520.
After the Aztec revolt against the Spanish rule, during the subsequent battle for the city, Cortés reluctantly ordered the zoo to be destroyed. The oldest zoo in the world still in existence is the Tiergarten Schönbrunn in Austria, it was constructed by Adrian van Stekhoven in 1752 at the order of the Holy Roman Emperor Francis I, husband of Maria Theresa of Austria, to serve as an imperial menagerie as part of Schönbrunn Palace. The menagerie was reserved for the viewing pleasure of the imperial family and the court, but was made accessible to the public in 1765. In 1775, a zoo was founded in Madrid, in 1795, the zoo inside the Jardin des Plantes in Paris was founded by Jacques-Henri Bernardin, with animals from the royal menagerie at Versailles for scientific research and education; the Kazan Zoo, the first zoo in Russia was founded in 1806 by the Professor of Kazan State University Karl Fuchs. Until the early 19th century, the function of the zoo was to symbolize royal power, like King Louis XIV's menagerie at Versailles.
The modern zoo that emerged in the early 19th century at Halifax, London and Dublin, was focused on providing educational exhibits to the public for entertainment and inspiration. A growing fascination for natural history and zoology, coupled with the tremendous expansion in the urbanization of London, led to a heightened demand for a greater variety of publ