Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, is the husband of Elizabeth II. Philip was born into the Danish royal families, he was born in Greece. After being educated in France and the United Kingdom, he joined the British Royal Navy in 1939, aged 18. From July 1939, he began corresponding with the 13-year-old Princess Elizabeth, whom he had first met in 1934. During the Second World War he served with distinction in the Pacific Fleets. After the war, Philip was granted permission by George VI to marry Elizabeth. Before the official announcement of their engagement in July 1947, he abandoned his Greek and Danish royal titles and became a naturalised British subject, adopting the surname Mountbatten from his maternal grandparents, he married Elizabeth on 20 November 1947. Just before the wedding, he was created Baron Earl of Merioneth and Duke of Edinburgh. Philip left active military service when Elizabeth became queen in 1952, having reached the rank of commander, was formally made a British prince in 1957.
Philip and Elizabeth have four children: Prince Charles, Princess Anne, Prince Andrew and Prince Edward. Through a British Order in Council issued in 1960, descendants of the couple not bearing royal styles and titles can use the surname Mountbatten-Windsor, used by some members of the royal family who do hold titles, such as Princess Anne and Princes Andrew and Edward. A keen sports enthusiast, Philip helped develop the equestrian event of carriage driving, he is a patron, president or member of over 780 organisations and serves as chairman of The Duke of Edinburgh's Award for people aged 14 to 24. He is the longest-serving consort of a reigning British monarch and the oldest male member of the British royal family. Philip retired from his royal duties on 2 August 2017, at the age of 96, having completed 22,219 solo engagements since 1952. Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark was born in Mon Repos on the Greek island of Corfu on 10 June 1921, the only son and fifth and final child of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark and Princess Alice of Battenberg.
Philip's four elder sisters were Margarita, Theodora and Sophie. He was baptised in the Greek Orthodox rite at St. George's Church in the Old Fortress in Corfu, his godparents were his paternal grandmother Queen Olga of Greece, represented by Princess Olga of Greece and Denmark, Alexandros S. Kokotos, the Mayor of Corfu, representing the people of Corfu. Shortly after Philip's birth, his maternal grandfather, Prince Louis of Battenberg known as Louis Mountbatten, Marquess of Milford Haven, died in London. Louis was a naturalised British citizen, after a career in the Royal Navy, had renounced his German titles and adopted the surname Mountbatten—an Anglicized version of Battenberg—during the First World War, owing to anti-German sentiment in Great Britain. After visiting London for the memorial and his mother returned to Greece where Prince Andrew had remained behind to command an army division embroiled in the Greco-Turkish War; the war went badly for Greece, the Turks made large gains. On 22 September 1922, Philip's uncle, King Constantine I, was forced to abdicate and the new military government arrested Prince Andrew, along with others.
The commander of the army, General Georgios Hatzianestis, five senior politicians were executed. Prince Andrew's life was believed to be in danger, Alice was under surveillance. In December, a revolutionary court banished Prince Andrew from Greece for life; the British naval vessel HMS Calypso evacuated Prince Andrew's family, with Philip carried to safety in a cot made from a fruit box. Philip's family went to France, where they settled in the Paris suburb of Saint-Cloud in a house lent to them by his wealthy aunt, Princess George of Greece and Denmark; because Philip left Greece as a baby, he does not have a strong grasp of the Greek language. In 1992, he said that he "could understand a certain amount". Philip has stated that he has thought of himself as Danish, his family spoke English and German. Philip, who in his youth was known for his charm, was linked to a number of women including Osla Benning. Philip was first educated at The Elms, an American school in Paris run by Donald MacJannet, who described Philip as a "know it all smarty person, but always remarkably polite".
In 1928, he was sent to the United Kingdom to attend Cheam School, living with his maternal grandmother, Victoria Mountbatten, Dowager Marchioness of Milford Haven, at Kensington Palace and his uncle, George Mountbatten, 2nd Marquess of Milford Haven, at Lynden Manor in Bray, Berkshire. In the next three years, his four sisters married German princes and moved to Germany, his mother was diagnosed with schizophrenia and placed in an asylum, his father took up residence in Monte Carlo. Philip had little contact with his mother for the remainder of his childhood. In 1933, he was sent to Schule Schloss Salem in Germany, which had the "advantage of saving school fees" because it was owned by the family of his brother-in-law, Margrave of Baden. With the rise of Nazism in Germany, Salem's Jewish founder, Kurt Hahn, fled persecution and founded Gordonstoun School in Scotland, which Philip moved to after two terms at Salem. In 1937, his sister Cecilie, her husband Georg Donatus, Hereditary Grand Duke of Hesse, her two young sons and Alexander, her newborn infant, her mother-in-law, Princess Eleonore of Solms-Hohensolms-Lich, were killed in an air crash at Ostend.
The following year, his uncle and guardian Lord Milford Haven died of bone marrow cancer. After leaving Gordonstoun in early 193
Sir David Frederick Attenborough is an English broadcaster and natural historian. He is best known for writing and presenting, in conjunction with the BBC Natural History Unit, the nine natural history documentary series forming the Life collection that together constitute a comprehensive survey of animal and plant life on Earth, he is a former senior manager at the BBC, having served as controller of BBC Two and director of programming for BBC Television in the 1960s and 1970s. He is the only person to have won BAFTAs for programmes in each of black and white, colour, HD, 3D and 4K. Attenborough is considered a national treasure in Britain, although he himself does not like the term. In 2002 he was named among the 100 Greatest Britons following a UK-wide poll for the BBC, he is the younger brother of the director and actor Richard Attenborough, older brother of the motor executive John Attenborough. Attenborough was born in Isleworth, but grew up in College House on the campus of the University College, where his father, was principal.
He is the middle of three long-lived sons. During the Second World War, through a British volunteer network known as the Refugee Children's Movement, his parents fostered two Jewish refugee girls from Europe. Attenborough spent his childhood collecting fossils and natural specimens, he received encouragement in this pursuit aged seven, when a young Jacquetta Hawkes admired his "museum". He spent much time in the grounds of the university, aged 11, he heard that the zoology department needed a large supply of newts, which he offered through his father to supply for 3d each; the source, which he did not reveal at the time, was a pond less than five metres from the department. A few years one of his adoptive sisters gave him a piece of amber containing prehistoric creatures. In 1936, Attenborough and his brother Richard attended a lecture by Grey Owl at De Montfort Hall and were influenced by his advocacy of conservation. According to Richard, David was "bowled over by the man's determination to save the beaver, by his profound knowledge of the flora and fauna of the Canadian wilderness and by his warnings of ecological disaster should the delicate balance between them be destroyed.
The idea that mankind was endangering nature by recklessly despoiling and plundering its riches was unheard of at the time, but it is one that has remained part of Dave's own credo to this day." In 1999, Richard directed a biopic of Belaney entitled Grey Owl. Attenborough was educated at Wyggeston Grammar School for Boys in Leicester and won a scholarship to Clare College, Cambridge in 1945, where he studied geology and zoology and obtained a degree in natural sciences. In 1947, he was called up for national service in the Royal Navy and spent two years stationed in North Wales and the Firth of Forth. In 1950, Attenborough married Jane Elizabeth Ebsworth Oriel; the couple had two children and Susan. Robert is a senior lecturer in bioanthropology for the School of Archaeology and Anthropology at the Australian National University in Canberra. Susan is a former primary school headmistress. After leaving the Navy, Attenborough took a position editing children's science textbooks for a publishing company.
He soon became disillusioned with the work and in 1950 applied for a job as a radio talk producer with the BBC. Although he was rejected for this job, his CV attracted the interest of Mary Adams, head of the Talks department of the BBC's fledgling television service. Attenborough, like most Britons at that time, did not own a television, he had seen only one programme in his life. However, he accepted Adams' offer of a three-month training course, in 1952 he joined the BBC full-time. Discouraged from appearing on camera because Adams thought his teeth were too big, he became a producer for the Talks department, which handled all non-fiction broadcasts, his early projects included the quiz show Animal, Mineral? and Song Hunter, a series about folk music presented by Alan Lomax. Attenborough's association with natural history programmes began when he produced and presented the three-part series Animal Patterns; the studio-bound programme featured animals from London Zoo, with the naturalist Julian Huxley discussing their use of camouflage and courtship displays.
Through this programme, Attenborough met Jack Lester, the curator of the zoo's reptile house, they decided to make a series about an animal-collecting expedition. The result was Zoo Quest, first broadcast in 1954, where Attenborough became the presenter at short notice due to Lester being taken ill. In 1957, the BBC Natural History Unit was formally established in Bristol. Attenborough was asked to join it, but declined, not wishing to move from London where he and his young family were settled. Instead, he formed his own department, the Travel and Exploration Unit, which allowed him to continue to front Zoo Quest as well as produce other documentaries, notably the Travellers' Tales and Adventure series. In the early 1960s, Attenborough resigned from the permanent staff of the BBC to study for a postgraduate degree in social anthropology at the London School of Economics, interweaving his study with further filming. However, he accepted an invitation to return to the BBC as controller of BBC Two before he could finish the degree.
Attenborough became the controller of BBC Two in March 1965, but had a clause
E. O. Wilson
Edward Osborne Wilson cited as E. O. Wilson, is an American biologist, theorist and author, his biological specialty is myrmecology, the study of ants, on which he has been called the world's leading expert. Wilson has been called "the father of sociobiology" and "the father of biodiversity", for his environmental advocacy, his secular-humanist and deist ideas pertaining to religious and ethical matters. Among his greatest contributions to ecological theory is the theory of island biogeography, which he developed in collaboration with the mathematical ecologist Robert MacArthur, the foundation of the development of conservation area design, as well as the unified neutral theory of biodiversity of Stephen Hubbell. Wilson is the Pellegrino University Research Professor, Emeritus in Entomology for the Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology at Harvard University, a lecturer at Duke University, a Fellow of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, he is a Humanist Laureate of the International Academy of Humanism.
He is a two-time winner of the Pulitzer Prize for General Nonfiction and a New York Times bestselling author for The Social Conquest of Earth, Letters to a Young Scientist, The Meaning of Human Existence. Wilson was born in Alabama. According to his autobiography Naturalist, he grew up around Washington, D. C. and in the countryside around Alabama. From an early age, he was interested in natural history, his parents and Inez Wilson, divorced when he was seven. The young naturalist grew up in several cities and towns, moving around with his father and his stepmother. In the same year that his parents divorced, Wilson blinded himself in one eye in a fishing accident, he suffered for hours. He did not complain, he did not seek medical treatment. Several months his right pupil clouded over with a cataract, he was admitted to Pensacola Hospital to have the lens removed. Wilson writes, in his autobiography, that the "surgery was a terrifying century ordeal". Wilson was left with full sight in his left eye, with a vision of 20/10.
The 20/10 vision prompted him to focus on "little things": "I noticed butterflies and ants more than other kids did, took an interest in them automatically."Although he had lost his stereoscopic vision, he could still see fine print and the hairs on the bodies of small insects. His reduced ability to observe mammals and birds led him to concentrate on insects. At nine, Wilson undertook his first expeditions at the Rock Creek Park in Washington, DC, he began to collect insects and he gained a passion for butterflies. He would capture them using nets made with brooms, coat hangers, cheesecloth bags. Going on these expeditions led to Wilson's fascination with ants, he describes in his autobiography how one day he pulled the bark of a rotting tree away and discovered citronella ants underneath. The worker ants he found were "short, brilliant yellow, emitted a strong lemony odor". Wilson said the event left a "vivid and lasting impression on ", he earned the Eagle Scout award and served as Nature Director of his Boy Scout summer camp.
At the age of 18, intent on becoming an entomologist, he began by collecting flies, but the shortage of insect pins caused by World War II caused him to switch to ants, which could be stored in vials. With the encouragement of Marion R. Smith, a myrmecologist from the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, Wilson began a survey of all the ants of Alabama; this study led him to report the first colony of fire ants near the port of Mobile. Concerned that he might not be able to afford to go to a university, Wilson tried to enlist in the United States Army, he planned to earn U. S. government financial support for his education, but failed the Army medical examination due to his impaired eyesight. Wilson was able to afford to enroll in the University of Alabama after all, earning his B. S. and M. S. degrees in biology there in 1950. In 1952 he transferred to Harvard University. Appointed to the Harvard Society of Fellows, he could travel on overseas expeditions, collecting ant species of Cuba and Mexico and travel the South Pacific, including Australia, New Guinea, New Caledonia and Sri Lanka.
In 1955, he received his Ph. D. and married Irene Kelley. From 1956 until 1996 Wilson was part of the faculty of Harvard, he began as an ant taxonomist and worked on understanding their evolution, how they developed into new species by escaping environmental disadvantages and moving into new habitats. He developed a theory of the "taxon cycle". Just after completing is PhD in 1955, Wilson started supervising Stuart A. Altmann on the social behavior of rhesus macaques, which gave Wilson a first impetus to imagine sociobiology as a global theory of animal social behavior, he collaborated with mathematician William Bossert, discovered the chemical nature of ant communication, via pheromones. In the 1960s he collaborated with ecologist Robert MacArthur. Together, they tested the theory of species equilibrium on a tiny island in the Florida Keys, he observed the re-population by new species. A book The Theory of Island Biogeography about this experiment became a standard ecology text. In 1971, he published the book The Insect Societies about the biology of social insects like ants, bees and termites.
In 1973, Wilson was appointed'Curator of Insects' at the Museum of Comparative Zoology. In 1975, he published the book Sociobiology: The New Synthesis applying his theories of insect behavior to vertebrates, in the last chapter, humans, he speculated that evolved and inherited tendencies were responsible for hierarc
Sylvia Alice Earle DSc is an American marine biologist, explorer and lecturer. She has been a National Geographic explorer-in-residence since 1998. Earle was the first female chief scientist of the U. S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, was named by Time Magazine as its first Hero for the Planet in 1998, she is part of the group Ocean Elders, dedicated to protecting the ocean and its wildlife. Earle was born in 1935 in the Gibbstown section of Greenwich Township, Gloucester County, New Jersey, to Lewis Reade and Alice Freas Earle. Both of Earle's parents were enthusiastic about the outdoors and supportive of their daughter's early interests in the natural world; the family moved to the western coast of Florida in Earle's childhood. Earle received an associate degree from St. Petersburg Jr. College, a bachelor of science degree from Florida State University, a master of science and doctorate of phycology from Duke University. Earle was the Curator of Phycology at the California Academy of Sciences and a research associate at the University of California, Radcliffe Institute Scholar and research fellow at Harvard University.
After receiving her Ph. D. in 1966, Earle spent a year as a research fellow at Harvard returned to Florida as the resident director of the Cape Haze Marine Laboratory. In 1969, she applied to join the Tektite Project, an installation fifty feet below the surface of the sea off the coast of the Virgin Islands that allowed scientists to live submersed in their area of study for up to several weeks. Although she had logged more than 1,000 research hours underwater, Earle was rejected from the program; the next year, she was selected to lead the first all-female team of aquanauts in Tektite II. In 1979, she made an open-ocean JIM suit dive to the sea ocean floor near Oahu, setting a women's depth record of 381 metres. In 1979 she began her tenure as the Curator of Phycology at the California Academy of Sciences, where she served until 1986. From 1980 to 1984 she served on the National Advisory Committee on Oceans and Atmosphere. In 1982 she and her husband, Graham Hawkes, an engineer and submersible designer, founded Deep Ocean Engineering to design, operate and consult on piloted and robotic subsea systems.
In 1985, the Deep Ocean Engineering team designed and built the Deep Rover research submarine, which operates down to 1,000 metres. By 1986, Deep Rover had been tested and Earle joined the team conducting training off Lee Stocking Island in the Bahamas. Earle left the company in 1990 to accept an appointment as Chief Scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, where she stayed until 1992, she was the first woman to hold that position. In 1992, Earle founded Research to further advance marine engineering; the company, now run by Earle's daughter, designs and operates equipment for deep-ocean environments. Since 1998, Earle has been a National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence, she is sometimes called "Her Deepness" or "The Sturgeon General."From 1998 to 2002 she led the Sustainable Seas Expeditions, a five-year program sponsored by the National Geographic Society and funded by the Richard and Rhoda Goldman Fund to study the United States National Marine Sanctuary. Earle was a leader of the Sustainable Seas Expeditions, council chair for the Harte Research Institute for the Gulf of Mexico Studies at Texas A&M-Corpus Christi, chair of the Advisory Council for the Ocean in Google Earth.
She provided the DeepWorker 2000 submersible used to quantify the species of fish as well as the space resources utilized within the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary. Earle founded Mission Blue, a non-profit foundation for protecting and exploring the Earth's ocean. In addition, she serves on several boards, including Marine Conservation Institute. An expert on the impact of oil spills, Earle was called upon to lead several research trips during the Persian Gulf War in 1991 to determine environmental damage caused by Iraq's destruction of Kuwaiti oil wells. Given her past experience with the Exxon Valdez and Mega Borg oil spills, Earle was called to consult during the Deepwater Horizon Disaster in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. In 2010, at The Hague International Model United Nations Conference, Earle gave a 14-minute speech in front of 3,500 delegates and United Nations ambassadors. In July 2012, Earle led an expedition to NOAA's Aquarius underwater laboratory, located off Key Largo, Florida.
The expedition, entitled "Celebrating 50 Years of Living Beneath The Sea," commemorated the fiftieth anniversary of Jacques Cousteau's Conshelf I project and investigated coral reefs and ocean health. Mark Patterson co-led the expedition with Earle, their aquanaut team included underwater filmmaker D. J. Roller and oceanographer M. Dale Stokes. Earle made a cameo appearance in the daily cartoon strip Sherman's Lagoon in the week starting September 17, 2012, to discuss the closing of the Aquarius Underwater Laboratory. In May 2013, the Science Laureates of the United States Act of 2013 was introduced into Congress. Sylvia Earle was listed by one commentator as a possible nominee for the position of Science Laureate, if the act were to pass. In January 2018, the Seattle Aquarium granted its inaugural Lifetime Achievement Award to Dr. Earle, renamed the Seattle Aquarium Medal in her honor; the Aquarium's first Lifetime Achievement Award was awarded to Dr. Earle. In 2009, Earle won a TED Prize. With TED's support, she launched Mission Blue, which aims to establish marine protected are
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Sir Peter Markham Scott, was a British ornithologist, painter, naval officer and sportsman. The only child of Robert Falcon Scott, he took an interest in observing and shooting wildfowl at a young age and took to their rearing and breeding, he established the Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust in Slimbridge in 1946 and helped found the World Wide Fund for Nature, the logo of which he designed. He was a gliding and yachting enthusiast from an early age, he was part of the British sailing team. He was knighted in 1973 for his work in conservation of wild animals and was a recipient of the WWF Gold Medal and the J. Paul Getty Prize. Scott was born in London at 174, Buckingham Palace Road, the only child of Antarctic explorer Robert Falcon Scott and sculptor Kathleen Bruce, he was only two years old. Robert Scott, in a last letter to his wife, advised her to "make the boy interested in natural history if you can, he was named after Sir Clements Markham, mentor of Scott's polar expeditions, a godfather along with J. M. Barrie, creator of Peter Pan.
His mother Lady Scott remarried in 1922. Her second husband Hilton Young became stepfather to Peter. In 1923, a half brother Wayland Young was born. Scott was educated at Oundle School and Trinity College, Cambridge reading Natural Sciences but graduating in the History of Art in 1931. Whilst at Cambridge he shared digs with the two shared many views, he studied art at the State Academy in Munich for a year followed by studies at the Royal Academy Schools, London. Like his mother, he displayed a strong artistic talent and he became known as a painter of wildlife birds, his wealthy background allowed him to follow his interests in art and many sports, including wildfowling and ice skating. He represented Great Britain and Northern Ireland at sailing in the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games, winning a bronze medal in the olympic class monotype mixed, he participated in the Prince of Wales Cup in 1938 during which his team on the Thunder and Lightning designed a modified wearable harness that helped win. During the Second World War, Scott served in the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve.
As a Sub-Lieutenant, during the failed evacuation of the 51st Highland Division he was the British Naval officer sent ashore at Saint-Valery-en-Caux in the early hours of 11 June 1940 to evacuate some of the wounded. This was the last evacuation of British troops from the port area of St Valery, not disrupted by enemy fire, he served in destroyers in the North Atlantic but moved to commanding the First Squadron of Steam Gun Boats against German E-boats in the English Channel. Scott is credited with designing the Western Approaches ship camouflage scheme, which disguised the look of ship superstructure. In July 1940, he managed to get the destroyer HMS Broke in which he was serving experimentally camouflaged, differently on the two sides. To starboard, the ship was painted blue-grey all over, but with white in shadowed areas as countershading, following the ideas of Abbott Handerson Thayer from the First World War. To port, the ship was painted in "bright pale colours" to combine some disruption of shape with the ability to fade out during the night, again with shadowed areas painted white.
However, he wrote that compromise was fatal to camouflage, that invisibility at night had to be the sole objective. By May 1941, all ships in the Western Approaches were ordered to be painted in Scott's camouflage scheme; the scheme was said to be so effective that several British ships including HMS Broke collided with each other. The effectiveness of Scott's and Thayer's ideas was demonstrated experimentally by the Leamington Camouflage Centre in 1941. Under a cloudy overcast sky, the tests showed that a white ship could approach six miles closer than a black-painted ship before being seen. Scott stood as a Conservative in the 1945 general election in Wembley North and narrowly failed to be elected. In 1946, he founded the organisation with which he was afterwards associated, the Severn Wildfowl Trust with its headquarters at Slimbridge in Gloucestershire. There, through a captive breeding programme, he saved the nene or Hawaiian goose, from extinction in the 1950s. In the years that followed, he led ornithological expeditions worldwide, became a television personality, popularising the study of wildfowl and wetlands.
His BBC natural history series, ran from 1955 to 1969 and made him a household name. It included the first BBC natural history film to be shown in colour, The Private Life of the Kingfisher, which he narrated, he wrote and illustrated several books on the subject, including his autobiography, The Eye of the Wind. In the 1950s, he appeared on BBC radio's Children's Hour, in the series, "Nature Parliament". Scott took up gliding in 1956 and became a British champion in 1963, he was chairman of the British Gliding Association for two years from 1968 and was president of the Bristol & Gloucestershire Gliding Club. He was responsible for involving Prince Philip in gliding, he was the subject of This Is Your Life in 1956 when he was surprised by Eamonn Andrews at the King's Theatre, Hammersmith. As a member of the Species Survival Commission of the International Union for Conservation of Nature, he helped create the Red Data books, the group's lists of endangered species. Scott was the founder President of the Societ
A charitable organization or charity is a non-profit organization whose primary objectives are philanthropy and social well-being. The legal definition of a charitable organization varies between countries and in some instances regions of the country; the regulation, the tax treatment, the way in which charity law affects charitable organizations vary. Charitable organizations may not use any of its funds to profit individual entities. Financial figures are indicators to assess the financial sustainability of a charity to charity evaluators; this information can impact a charity's reputation with donors and societies, thus the charity's financial gains. Charitable organizations depend on donations from businesses; such donations to charitable organizations represent a major form of corporate philanthropy. The Organizational Test: If the organization doesn't follow the exemption organizational test, it will be under mentoring, in order to meet the organizational test it has to be organized and operated.
Serving the public interest: In order to receive and pass the exemption test, charitable organization must follow the public interest and all exempt income should be for the public interest. Until the mid-18th century, charity was distributed through religious structures and bequests from the rich. Both Christianity and Islam incorporated significant charitable elements from their beginnings and dāna has a long tradition in Hinduism, Jainism and Sikhism. Charities provided education, health and prisons. Almshouses were established throughout Europe in the Early Middle Ages to provide a place of residence for poor and distressed people. In the Enlightenment era charitable and philanthropic activity among voluntary associations and rich benefactors became a widespread cultural practice. Societies, gentleman's clubs, mutual associations began to flourish in England, the upper-classes adopted a philanthropic attitude toward the disadvantaged. In England this new social activism was channeled into the establishment of charitable organizations.
This emerging upper-class fashion for benevolence resulted in the incorporation of the first charitable organizations. Captain Thomas Coram, appalled by the number of abandoned children living on the streets of London, set up the Foundling Hospital in 1741 to look after these unwanted orphans in Lamb's Conduit Fields, Bloomsbury. This, the first such charity in the world, served as the precedent for incorporated associational charities in general. Jonas Hanway, another notable philanthropist of the Enlightenment era, established The Marine Society in 1756 as the first seafarer's charity, in a bid to aid the recruitment of men to the navy. By 1763 the Society had recruited over 10,000 men. Hanway was instrumental in establishing the Magdalen Hospital to rehabilitate prostitutes; these organizations were run as voluntary associations. They raised public awareness of their activities through the emerging popular press and were held in high social regard - some charities received state recognition in the form of the royal charter.
Charities began to adopt campaigning roles, where they would champion a cause and lobby the government for legislative change. This included organized campaigns against the ill treatment of animals and children and the campaign that succeeded at the turn of the 19th century in ending the slave trade throughout the British Empire and within its considerable sphere of influence; the Enlightenment saw growing philosophical debate between those who championed state intervention and those who believed that private charities should provide welfare. The Reverend Thomas Malthus, the political economist, criticized poor relief for paupers on economic and moral grounds and proposed leaving charity to the private sector, his views became influential and informed the Victorian laissez-faire attitude toward state intervention for the poor. During the 19th century a profusion of charitable organizations emerged to alleviate the awful conditions of the working class in the slums; the Labourer's Friend Society, chaired by Lord Shaftesbury in the United Kingdom in 1830, aimed to improve working-class conditions.
It promoted, for example, the allotment of land to labourers for "cottage husbandry" that became the allotment movement. In 1844 it became the first Model Dwellings Company - one of a group of organizations that sought to improve the housing conditions of the working classes by building new homes for them, at the same time receiving a competitive rate of return on any investment; this was one of the first housing associations, a philanthropic endeavour that flourished in the second half of the nineteenth century brought about by the growth of the middle class. Associations included the Peabody Trust and the Guinness Trust; the principle of philanthropic intention with capitalist return was given the label "five per cent philanthropy". There was strong growth in municipal charities; the Brougham Commission led on to the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, which reorganized