Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Texas Rangers (baseball)
The Texas Rangers are an American professional baseball team based in Arlington, located in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. The Rangers franchise competes in Major League Baseball as a member of the American League West division. Since 1994, the Rangers have played in Globe Life Park in Arlington; the team's name is borrowed from the famous law enforcement agency of the same name. The franchise was established in 1961 as the Washington Senators, an expansion team awarded to Washington, D. C. after the city's first AL ballclub, the second Washington Senators, moved to Minnesota and became the Twins. After the 1971 season, the new Senators moved to Arlington, debuted as the Rangers the following spring; the Texas Rangers Baseball Club has made eight appearances in the MLB postseason, seven following division championships in 1996, 1998, 1999, 2010, 2011, 2015, 2016 and as a wild card team in 2012. In 2010, the Rangers advanced past the Division Series for the first time, defeating the Tampa Bay Rays.
Texas brought home their first American League pennant after beating the New York Yankees in six games. In the 2010 World Series, the franchise's first, the Rangers fell to the San Francisco Giants in five games, they repeated as American League champions the following year lost the 2011 World Series to the St. Louis Cardinals in seven games. In 2020, the Rangers will move from Globe Life Park to the new Globe Life Field; when the second Washington Senators moved to Minnesota in 1960 to become the Twins, Major League Baseball decided to expand a year earlier than planned to stave off the twin threats of competition from the proposed Continental League and loss of its exemption from the Sherman Antitrust Act. As part of the expansion, the American League added two new teams for the 1961 season–the Los Angeles Angels and a new Washington Senators team. However, the new Senators were considered an expansion team since the Twins retained the old Senators' records and history; the Senators and Angels began to fill their rosters with American League players in an expansion draft.
The team played the 1961 season at old Griffith Stadium before moving to the new District of Columbia Stadium under a 10-year lease. For most of their existence, the new Senators were the definition of futility, losing an average of 90 games a season; the team's struggles led to a twist on a joke about the old Senators: "Washington: first in war, first in peace and still last in the American League." Their only winning season was in 1969 when Hall of Famer Ted Williams managed the club to an 86–76 record, placing fourth in the AL East. Frank Howard, an outfielder/first baseman from 1965 to 1972 known for his towering home runs, was the team's most accomplished player, winning two home run titles. Ownership changed hands several times during the franchise's stay in Washington and was plagued by poor decision-making and planning. Following their brief success in 1969, owner Bob Short was forced to make many questionable trades to lower the debt he had incurred to pay for the team. By the end of the 1970 campaign, Short had issued an ultimatum: unless someone was willing to buy the Senators for $12 million, he would not renew the stadium lease and would move the team elsewhere.
Short was receptive to an offer brought up by Arlington, mayor Tom Vandergriff, trying to obtain a major league sports team to play in the Metroplex for over a decade. Years earlier, Charles O. Finley, the owner of the Kansas City Athletics, sought to relocate his baseball team to Dallas, but the idea was rebuffed and declined by the other AL team owners. Arlington's hole card was Turnpike Stadium, a 10,000-seat park, built in 1965 to house the Double-A Dallas-Fort Worth Spurs of the Texas League. However, it had been built to MLB specifications, only minor excavations would be necessary to expand the park to accommodate major league crowds. Vandergriff's offer of a multimillion-dollar down payment prompted Short to make the move to Arlington. On September 21, 1971, by a vote of 10 to 2, American League owners granted approval to move the franchise to Arlington for the 1972 season. Senators fans were livid. Enmity came to a head at the club's last game in Washington. Thousands of fans walked in without paying after the security guards left early, swelling the paid attendance of 14,460 to around 25,000, while fans unfurled a banner reading "SHORT STINKS".
With the Senators leading 7–5 and two outs in the top of the ninth inning, several hundred youths stormed the field, raiding it for souvenirs. One man ran off with it. With no security in sight and only three bases, umpire crew chief Jim Honochick forfeited the game to the New York Yankees; the nation's capital went with out Major League Baseball for 33 years until the relocation of the National League's Montreal Expos who became the Washington Nationals. Prior to the 1972 season, improvements were made to Turnpike Stadium, which reopened as Arlington Stadium, in preparation for the inaugural season of the Texas Rangers; the team played its first game on April 15, 1972, a 1–0 loss at the hands of the California Angels, their 1961 expansion cousins. The next day, the Rangers defeated 5 -- 1, for the club's first victory. In 1974, the Rangers experienced their first winning season after finishing last in both 1972 and 1973. Under the ownership of Brad Corbett, they finished second in the American League West with an 84–76 record, behind the eventual World Series champion Oakland Athletics.
The 1974 Rangers are still the only MLB team to finish above.500 after two consecutive 1
2011 World Series
The 2011 World Series was the championship series of Major League Baseball's 2011 season. The 107th edition of World Series, it was a best-of-seven playoff played between the American League champion Texas Rangers and the National League champion St. Louis Cardinals; the Series was noted for its back-and-forth Game 6, in which the Cardinals erased a two-run deficit in the bottom of the ninth inning did it again in the 10th. In both innings, the Rangers were one strike away from their first World Series championship; the Cardinals won the game in the 11th inning on a walk-off home run by David Freese. The Series was known for the blowout Game 3, in which Cardinals player Albert Pujols hit three home runs, a World Series feat accomplished only by Reggie Jackson and Babe Ruth, subsequently by Pablo Sandoval; the Series began on October 19, earlier than the previous season so that no games would be played in November. The Cardinals enjoyed home-field advantage for the series because the NL won the 2011 All-Star Game 5–1 on July 12.
The 2011 World Series was the first World Series to go all seven games since 2002. The Rangers appeared in their second consecutive World Series, they were the first American League team to play in consecutive World Series since the New York Yankees did it from 1998 to 2001. They earned their postseason berth by winning the American League West division, defeated the Tampa Bay Rays in the American League Division Series and the Detroit Tigers in the American League Championship Series to earn their World Series berth; the Cardinals appeared in their 18th World Series, third in eight years. They won in 2006 against the Detroit Tigers; the Cardinals earned their postseason berth by winning the National League Wild Card on the last day of the regular season, defeated the Philadelphia Phillies in the National League Division Series and the Milwaukee Brewers in the National League Championship Series to earn their World Series berth. This Series was only the second time the Cardinals played each other.
This was the first World Series assignment for umpires Greg Ron Kulpa. Each of the other umpires had worked one World Series; the Cardinals were supported by fans brandishing Rally Squirrel memorabilia to celebrate their new impromptu mascot acquired during the playoff run which they credited with turning the Cardinals' fortunes around. This was the Rangers' second appearance in the World Series. Heading into 2010, their 50th season as a franchise, the team was the only one in Major League Baseball to never win a postseason series, was one of three teams to never appear in the World Series. However, that season, the Rangers won their first postseason series and made their first appearance in the World Series, only to lose to the San Francisco Giants in five games. During the offseason, Chuck Greenberg, who purchased the Rangers from Tom Hicks during the 2010 season along with Nolan Ryan, sold his interest in the team to Ryan, making him the Rangers' principal owner. Notable player departures during the offseason included pitcher Cliff Lee and outfielder/designated hitter Vladimir Guerrero and catcher Bengie Molina, who retired.
Notable free agent additions during the offseason included pitchers Yoshinori Tateyama and Brandon Webb, catcher Yorvit Torrealba, third-baseman Adrián Beltré. In January 2011, as part of a three-way trade with the Toronto Blue Jays and Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim, the Rangers acquired catcher Mike Napoli in exchange for pitcher Frank Francisco. During the season, the team acquired pitcher Koji Uehara from the Baltimore Orioles in exchange for infielder Chris Davis, Mike Adams from the San Diego Padres in exchange for two minor-league pitchers. Pitcher Arthur Rhodes was signed with the St. Louis Cardinals days later. With the exception of one day in late April and a brief stretch in early May, the Rangers led the American League West for most of the season, they finished the season with a franchise record 96–66 and won their second consecutive and fifth overall division title, 10 games ahead of the second-place Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim. They set a franchise record for home attendance of 2,946,949.
Texas earned the most shutouts in the American League. All five members of the opening day starting rotation stayed in the rotation for the entire year. C. J. Wilson tied for the league lead in starts with 34 while Derek Holland tied for second in shutouts with four, with each pitcher racking up at least 13 wins; the offense had another good year with three players getting 30-plus home runs for the first time in team history, Ian Kinsler completing his second 30–30 season. The Rangers defeated the Tampa Bay Rays three games to one in the American League Division Series before beating the Detroit Tigers four games to two in the American League Championship Series; the Rangers lost home-field advantage in the World Series as a result of the AL team, managed by Rangers manager Ron Washington, losing the 2011 All-Star Game, when Ranger ace C. J. Wilson surrendered the game-winning three-run homer to Prince Fielder; the Cardinals made their first World Series appe
St. Louis Cardinals
The St. Louis Cardinals are an American professional baseball team based in St. Louis, Missouri; the Cardinals compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League Central division. Busch Stadium has been their home ballpark since 2006. One of the most successful franchises in baseball history, the Cardinals have won 11 World Series championships, the second-most in Major League Baseball and the most in the National League, their 19 National League pennants rank third in NL history. In addition, St. Louis has won 13 division titles in the Central divisions. While still in the old American Association, named as the St. Louis Browns, the team won four AA league championships, qualifying them to play in the professional baseball championship tournament of that era, they tied in 1885 and won outright in 1886 and lost in 1888 for the early trophy Hall Cup versus the New York Giants. The others both times against the Chicago Cubs, in the first meetings of the Cardinals–Cubs rivalry between nearby cities of St. Louis and Chicago that continues to this day.
With origins as one of the early professional baseball clubs in St. Louis and the nation, entrepreneur Chris von der Ahe purchased a barnstorming club in 1881 known as the Brown Stockings, established them as charter members of the old American Association base ball league which played 1882 to 1891, the following season. Upon the discontinuation of the AA, St. Louis joined the continuing National League of Professional Base Ball Clubs known as the National League, in 1892. Cardinals achievements that have impacted MLB and sports events in general include manager/owner Branch Rickey's pioneering of the farm system, Rogers Hornsby's two batting Triple Crowns, Dizzy Dean's 30-win season in 1934, Stan Musial's 17 MLB and 29 NL records, Bob Gibson's 1.12 earned run average in 1968, Whitey Herzog's Whiteyball, Mark McGwire breaking the single-season home run record in 1998, the 2011 championship team's unprecedented comebacks. The Cardinals have won 105 or more games in four different seasons and won 100 or more a total of nine times.
Cardinals players have won 20 league MVPs, four batting Triple Crowns, three Cy Young Awards. Baseball Hall of Fame inductees include Lou Brock, Dizzy Dean, Bob Gibson, Whitey Herzog, Rogers Hornsby, Joe Medwick, Stan Musial, Branch Rickey, Red Schoendienst, Ozzie Smith, Bruce Sutter. In 2018, Forbes valued the Cardinals at $1.9 billion, making them the 7th-most valuable franchise in MLB. Since their purchase in 1995, owner William DeWitt, Jr.'s investment group has seen enormous growth from the $147 million purchase price. John Mozeliak is the President of Baseball Operations, Mike Girsch is the general manager and Mike Shildt is the manager; the Cardinals are renowned for their strong fan support: despite being in one of the sport's mid-level markets, they see attendances among the league's highest, are among the Top 3 in MLB in local television ratings. Professional baseball began in St. Louis with the inception of the Brown Stockings in the National Association in 1875; the NA folded following that season, the next season, St. Louis joined the National League as a charter member, finishing in third place at 45-19.
George Bradley hurled the first no-hitter in Major League history. The NL expelled St. Louis from the league after 1877 due to a game-fixing scandal and the team went bankrupt. Without a league, they continued play as a semi-professional barnstorming team through 1881; the magnitudes of the reorganizations following the 1877 and 1881 seasons are such that the 1875–1877 and 1878–1881 Brown Stockings teams are not considered to share continuity as a franchise with the current St. Louis Cardinals. For the 1882 season, Chris von der Ahe purchased the team, reorganized it, made it a founding member of the American Association, a league to rival the NL. 1882 is considered to be the first year existence of the St. Louis Cardinals; the next season, St. Louis shortened their name to the Browns. Soon thereafter they became the dominant team in the AA, as manager Charlie Comiskey guided St. Louis to four pennants in a row from 1885 to 1888. Pitcher and outfielder Bob Caruthers led the league in ERA and wins in 1885 and finished in the top six in both in each of the following two seasons.
He led the AA in OBP and OPS in 1886 and finished fourth in batting average in 1886 and fifth in 1887. Outfielder Tip O'Neill won the first batting triple crown in franchise history in 1887 and the only one in AA history. By winning the pennant, the Browns played the NL pennant winner in a predecessor of the World Series; the Browns twice met the Chicago White Stockings – the Chicago Cubs prototype – tying one in a heated dispute and winning the other, thus spurring the vigorous St. Louis-Chicago rivalry that ensues to this day. During the franchise's ten seasons in the AA, they compiled an all-time league-high of 780 wins and.639 winning percentage. They lost just 432 contests while tying 21 others; the AA went bankrupt after the 1891 season and the Browns transferred to the National League. This time, the club entered an era of stark futility. Between 1892 and 1919, St. Louis managed just five winning seasons, finis
Ryan James Howard, nicknamed "The Big Piece", is an American former professional baseball first baseman. Howard spent his entire Major League Baseball career playing for the Philadelphia Phillies, from 2004 to 2016, he holds numerous Phillies franchise records. Howard made his MLB debut in 2004, he won the National League Rookie of the Year Award in 2005 and the NL Most Valuable Player Award in 2006. Howard was a three-time NL All-Star, won the Silver Slugger Award, Hank Aaron Award, the NL Championship Series MVP Award in 2009. Known for his power, Howard is a member of the 50 home run club, he was a two-time NL home run champion, became the fastest player to reach both the 100 and 200 home run milestones in MLB history, passing the marks in 2007 and 2009, respectively. Howard is Major League Baseball’s all-time record-holder for most lifetime Golden Sombrero awards. Howard was born in St. Louis, he attended Lafayette High School in Wildwood and Missouri State University, where he played college baseball for the Bears from 1998 to 2001.
Howard finished his collegiate career with 50 home runs, 183 runs batted in, a.335 career batting average in 172 games played. He was the 1999 Missouri Valley Conference Freshman of the Year. Missouri State retired Howard's number on December 18, 2010, he played one summer in the Central Illinois Collegiate League, a league funded by Major League Baseball for future prospects to develop. The Philadelphia Phillies selected Howard in the fifth round of the 2001 draft and assigned him to the Batavia Muckdogs of the NY-Penn League. Howard ascended the Phillies' minor league system, earning consecutive awards in the Florida State League and Eastern League leagues in 2003 and 2004, respectively. Howard set the single-season home run record for the Reading Phillies, with 37 in 102 games. On July 31, he was promoted to the Scranton/Wilkes-Barre Red Barons of the Class AAA International League, he became just the fifth minor league player since 1956 to hit at least 46 home runs. He was named by Major League Baseball one of the best first basemen in Philadelphia Phillies History.
Howard won the Joe Bauman Home Run Award in the process. While doing this, he impressed scouts enough that general managers of several teams tried to lure the Phillies' Ed Wade into trading him, as Jim Thome was blocking his path to the majors. On September 1, Howard made his first Major League plate appearance, striking out against Jaret Wright in a pinch-hit at-bat in a 7–2 loss to the Atlanta Braves. On September 6, Howard logged his first Major League hit in a single at-bat during a 3–1 loss to the Braves. On September 11, Howard hit his first Major League home run off Bartolomé Fortunato, driving in his first RBI and scoring his first run in an 11–9 win over the New York Mets. Howard had 42 plate appearances in 19 games with the Phillies in 2004, he posted a.282 batting average with two home runs and five RBI. Between playing for the Double-A Reading Phillies, Triple-A Scranton/Wilkes-Barre Red Barons and the Philadelphia Phillies, Howard hit 48 home runs, tied for the highest total in organized baseball in 2004, along with Adrián Beltré of the Los Angeles Dodgers.
On May 15, Howard recorded his first three-hit game, going 3-for-4 with a double, two singles, a run-scored in a 4–3 win over the Cincinnati Reds. On July 3, Howard recorded his first three-RBI game, against the Braves. On August 23, he notched his first four-hit game, going 4-for-5 with a double, a home run, two singles, three RBI and three runs scored in a 10–2 win over the San Francisco Giants. On July 1, Howard became the Phillies' everyday first baseman when Thome was sidelined for the season with an elbow injury. Howard was named National League Rookie of the Month in September, he batted.278 with 22 runs batted in. In honor of winning the award, he received a specially-designed trophy. Howard led all major league rookies with 22 home runs and posted a.288 average and 63 RBI in just 312 at-bats and 88 games. He hit 27 RBI in September and October. Howard finished his rookie season with 17 doubles, two triples, 52 runs scored, 100 strikeouts and 63 runs batted in as the Phillies battled the Houston Astros for the NL wild card until getting eliminated on the last day of the season.
Howard was rewarded for his effort by being named NL Rookie of the Year, the fourth Phillie to win the award. He was voted the Baseball Prospectus Internet Baseball Awards NL Rookie of the Year and received the NLBM Larry Doby Legacy Award. After the 2005 season, the Phillies faced a dilemma involving Howard. Both were talented and proven power hitters. Before the 2006 season, the Phillies traded Thome for outfielder Aaron Rowand and minor league pitching prospects Gio González and Daniel Haigwood in order to make room for Howard. Howard began the 2006 season as the Phillies' starting first baseman. Howard hit his first home run of the season off the Cardinals' Chris Carpenter. On April 23, Howard became the first player to hit a home run into Ashburn Alley at Citizens Bank Park; the home run was hit off Sergio Mitre of the Florida Marlins. It was the first of two Howard hit in the first multi-home run game of his career. From May 20 to 29, Howard had at least one RBI in nine consecutive games. D
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
League Championship Series Most Valuable Player Award
The League Championship Series Most Valuable Player award is given in each of the two annual League Championship Series, for the American and National Leagues, to the player deemed to have the most impact on his team's performance. The award has been presented in the National League since 1977, in the American League since 1980. Dusty Baker won the inaugural award in 1977 with the Los Angeles Dodgers, Frank White won the first American League award in 1980 with the Kansas City Royals; the eight Hall of Famers to win LCS MVPs include Roberto Alomar, George Brett, Dennis Eckersley, Rickey Henderson, Kirby Puckett, Ozzie Smith, Willie Stargell, John Smoltz. Three players have won the award twice: Steve Garvey, Dave Stewart, Orel Hershiser. Incidentally, all three of these players won their two awards with two different teams. Seven players have gone on to win the World Series MVP Award in the same season in which they won the LCS MVP—all of them in the National League. Three players have won while playing for the losing team in the series: Fred Lynn played for the 1982 California Angels.
Two players have shared the award in the same year three times, all in the National League. Garvey and Albert Pujols hit four home runs in their winning series—Garvey in his first win. Adam Kennedy won the 2002 ALCS MVP for hitting 3 home runs in 5 games. David Ortiz had 11 runs batted in during the 2004 ALCS and Iván Rodríguez had 10 during the 2003 NLCS—the only two players to reach double-digit RBI in the series in the history of the award. From the pitcher's mound, Steve Avery threw 161⁄3 innings without giving up a run in the 1991 NLCS, John Smoltz amassed 19 strikeouts the following year. Liván Hernández won the 1997 NLCS MVP after winning his only start and earning a win out of the bullpen in relief. Daniel Murphy won the 2015 NLCS MVP after hitting home runs in six consecutive games, setting a major league record. Liván Hernández and his half-brother Orlando Hernández are the only family pair to have won the award; the only rookies to have won the award are Mike Boddicker, Liván Hernández, Michael Wacha.
General"Post-Season Awards & All-Star Game MVP Award Winners". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved September 5, 2009. Inline citations Lubbers, Jeff. "A New Way to Select Series MVPs". YardBarker.com. Baseball Daily Digest. Archived from the original on July 13, 2012. Retrieved 2011-10-30. Playoff and World Series Stats at Baseball-Reference