University of Nottingham
The University of Nottingham is a public research university in Nottingham, United Kingdom. It was founded as University College Nottingham in 1881, was granted a royal charter in 1948. Nottingham's main campus with Jubilee Campus and teaching hospital are located within the City of Nottingham, with a number of smaller campuses and sites elsewhere in Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire. Outside the UK, the university has campuses in Semenyih and Ningbo, China. Nottingham is organised into five constituent faculties, within which there are more than 50 schools, departments and research centres. Nottingham has about 45,500 students and 7,000 staff, had an income of £656.5 million in 2017/18, of which £120.1 million was from research grants and contracts. Nottingham was ranked #11 overall in the UK by the 2019 QS Graduate Employability Rankings; the QS Graduate Employability Rankings measure how successful students are at securing a top job after graduation from university. In addition, the 2017 High Fliers survey stated Nottingham was the seventh most targeted university by the UK's top employers between 2016-17.
In 2010, Nottingham was ranked 13th in the world in terms of the number of alumni listed among CEOs of the Fortune Global 500, together with the Tohoku and the Stanford University It is ranked 2nd in the 2012 Summer Olympics table of British medal winners. In the 2011 and 2014 GreenMetric World University Rankings, University Park was ranked as the world's most sustainable campus; the institution's alumni have been awarded a variety of prestigious accolades, including 3 Nobel Prizes, a Fields Medal, a Turner Prize, a Gabor Medal and Prize. The university is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the European University Association, the Russell Group, Universitas 21, Universities UK, the Virgo Consortium, participates in the Sutton Trust Summer School programme as a member of the Sutton 30; the University of Nottingham traces its origins to the founding of an adult education school in 1798, the University Extension Lectures inaugurated by the University of Cambridge in 1873—the first of their kind in the country.
However, the foundation of the university is regarded as being the establishment of University College Nottingham, in 1881 as a college preparing students for examinations of the University of London. In 1875, an anonymous donor provided £10,000 to establish the work of the Adult Education School and Cambridge Extension Lectures on a permanent basis, the Corporation of Nottingham agreed to erect and maintain a building for this purpose and to provide funds to supply the instruction; the foundation stone of the college was duly laid in 1877 by the former Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone, the college's neo-gothic building on Shakespeare Street was formally opened in 1881 by Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany. In 1881, there were four professors – of Literature, Physics and Natural Science. New departments and chairs followed: Engineering in 1884, Classics combined with Philosophy in 1893, French in 1897 and Education in 1905; the university college underwent significant expansion in the 1920s, when it moved from the centre of Nottingham to a large campus on the city's outskirts.
The new campus, called University Park, was completed in 1928, financed by an endowment fund, public contributions, the generosity of Sir Jesse Boot who presented 35 acres to the City of Nottingham in 1921. Boot and his fellow benefactors sought to establish an "elite seat of learning" committed to widening participation, hoped that the move would solve the problems facing University College Nottingham, in its restricted building on Shakespeare Street. Boot stipulated that, whilst part of the Highfields site, lying south-west of the city, should be devoted to the University College, the rest should provide a place of recreation for the residents of the city, and, by the end of the decade, the landscaping of the lake and public park adjoining University Boulevard was completed; the original University College building on Shakespeare Street in central Nottingham, known as the Arkwright Building, now forms part of Nottingham Trent University's City Campus. D. H. Lawrence commented on the endowment and the architecture in the wordsIn Nottingham, that dismal town where I went to school and college,they've built a new university for a new dispensation of knowledge.
Built it most grand and cakeily out of the noble lootderived from shrewd cash-chemistry by good Sir Jesse Boot. University College Nottingham was accommodated within the Trent Building, an imposing white limestone structure with a distinctive clock tower, designed by Morley Horder, formally opened by King George V on 10 July 1928. During this period of development, Nottingham attracted high-profile lecturers, including Albert Einstein, H. G. Wells, Mahatma Gandhi; the blackboard used by Einstein during his time at Nottingham is still on display in the Physics department. Apart from its physical transfer to surroundings that could not be more different from its original home, the College made few developments between the wars; the Department of Slavonic Languages was established in 1933, the teaching of Russian having been introduced in 1916. In 1933–34, the Departments of Electrical Engineering and Geography, combined with other subjects, were made independent.
Workers' Educational Association
The Workers' Educational Association, founded in 1903, is the UK's largest voluntary sector provider of adult education and one of Britain's biggest charities. The WEA is a voluntary adult education movement, it delivers learning throughout Scotland. There was a related but independent WEA Cymru covering Wales, though it is now know as Adult Learning Wales since a merger in 2015 with YMCA Community College; the WEA's provision is local to its students. In 2015–16 there were over 8,000 courses delivered in over 1,800 community venues and 75% of WEA students travelled less than 2 miles to their class; the WEA has throughout its history supported the development of similar educational initiatives and associations internationally. It is affiliated to the International Federation of Workers Education Associations which has consultative status to UNESCO. Archbishop William Temple was a strong proponent of workers' education. Albert Mansbridge and his wife Frances established An Association to promote the Higher Education of Working Men in 1903, funded by two shillings and sixpence from the housekeeping money.
The WEA is divided into a Scottish Association and over 500 local branches. It creates and delivers about 9,000 courses each year in response to local need across England and Scotland in partnership with community groups and local charities; these courses provide learning opportunities for around 65,000 people per year, taught by over 2,000 professional tutors. The WEA is supported by the Government through funding from the Skills Funding Agency in England, in Scotland by the Scottish Executive and Local Authorities, it receives fees from learners on many of its courses and is successful in funding bids from government and other sources for educational projects in local communities around the country. 1908: William Temple 1924: Fred Bramley 1926: Arthur Pugh 1928: R. H. Tawney 1944: Harold Clay 1958: Asa Briggs 1968: Ellen McCullough 1971: Billy Hughes 1981: Bernard Jennings 1990s: Bill Conboy 2008: Colin Barnes 2016: Lynne Smith 1905: Albert Mansbridge 1916: J. M. MacTavish 1928: John William Muir 1931: Alec Firth 1934: Ernest Green 1951: Harry Nutt 1970: James Jefferies 1982: Robert Lochrie 2003: Richard Bolsin 2012: Ruth Spellman The first Scottish branch of the WEA was in Springburn, although this only lasted until 1909 at that time, the Edinburgh and Leith Branch coming into existence on 25 October 1912 after a meeting held at the Free Gardeners' Hall, 12-14 Picardy Place, Edinburgh.
The meeting was chaired by Professor Lodge and addressed by Albert Mansbridge and Dr. Bernard Bosanquet; the meeting was attended by 200 people, including Mr James Munro, M. A. who became Secretary of the newly formed branch. The Workers' Educational Association NI ceased to function in June 2014, when it ran into a cash flow problem and its bank refused to extend credit, it provided adult education in workplace settings. Its title was somewhat misleading as it provided education for all types of people and in particular tried to reach out to those who missed out on learning first time round, it worked with those over 18. Some background... It was set up in Belfast in 1910 and part of a wider network of WEAs, the first of which started in England in 1903, it operated in the Border Counties in the Republic. It has around 6,500 learners in any given year, its courses were organized in venues such as community halls, arts centres and training rooms in workplaces. WEA branches for North and South Wales were established early in the 20th century.
Coleg Harlech was founded in 1925 as a residential college for workers' education, in 2001 merged with WEA. Further mergers in 2014 unified North and South in 2015 WEA Cymru merged with YMCA Community College to form Adult Learning Wales - Addysg Oedolion Cymru. In 1913, the University of Melbourne invited Mansbridge to visit Australia to help set up branches there; the Mansbrige family arrived on 8 July on a 17-week mission aimed at forming branches of the association in New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, West Australia and Tasmania and WEAs were set up in all states. As of 2012, the WEA in South Australia claims to be'Australia's largest non-government adult community education organisation' and the WEAs in New South Wales and Victoria are still operating. During this trip the Mansbridges made a brief visit to New Zealand where WEA branches were established in 1915. Five branches are still operating along similar lines to those in Australia. Early work was patterned on the WEAs in the UK.
However, given the different demographic arrangements in Australia, in the absence of other adult education providers, the WEAs in Australia became general adult education agencies. In the 1980s a range of other training providers started offering adult education thereby changing the role of the WEAs; the WEAs in Australia have many societies associated with their operation. A typical example is the WEA Film Study Group based in New South Wales. Reorganization in 1994 saw the WEA in New South Wales split into WEA Sydney, WEA Hunter and WEA Illawarra. There are some branches in Canada which have presently and opened in March 2014 although however its services has been established since 1917 and is part of the WEA International, it is operated under the Canadian government licenses and jurisdictions of division branch companies ltd.'
1945 United Kingdom general election
The 1945 United Kingdom general election was held on 5 July 1945, with polls in some constituencies delayed until 12 July and in Nelson and Colne until 19 July, because of local wakes weeks. The results were counted and declared on 26 July, to allow time to transport the votes of those serving overseas; the result was an unexpected landslide victory for Clement Attlee's Labour Party, over Winston Churchill's Conservatives. It was the first time. Labour won its first majority government, a mandate to implement its postwar reforms; the 10.7% national swing from the Conservative Party to the Labour Party remains the largest achieved in a British general election. Held less than two months after VE Day, it was the first general election since 1935, as general elections had been suspended during the Second World War. Clement Attlee, Leader of the Labour Party, refused Winston Churchill's offer of continuing the wartime coalition until the Allied defeat of Japan. Parliament was dissolved on 15 June.
The caretaker government led by Churchill was defeated. The result of the election came as a major shock to the Conservatives, given the heroic status of Winston Churchill, but reflected the voters' belief that the Labour Party were better able to rebuild the country following the war than the Conservatives. Ralph Ingersoll reported in late 1940 that "Everywhere I went in London people admired energy, his courage, his singleness of purpose. People said, he was respected. But no one felt, he was the right man in the right job at the right time. The time being the time of a desperate war with Britain's enemies". Henry Pelling, noting that polls showed a steady Labour lead after 1942, explained the long-term forces that caused the Labour landslide, he pointed to the usual swing against the party in power. Though voters respected and liked Churchill's wartime record, they were more distrustful of the Conservative Party's domestic and foreign policy record in the late 1930s. Labour had been given, during the war, the opportunity to display to the electorate their domestic competence in government, under men such as Attlee as Deputy Prime Minister, Herbert Morrison at the Home Office and Ernest Bevin at the Ministry of Labour.
Churchill and the Conservatives are generally considered to have run a poor campaign in comparison to Labour. The Labour manifesto'Let Us Face the Future' included promises of nationalisation, economic planning, full employment, a National Health Service, a system of social security; the Conservative manifesto,'Mr. Churchill's Declaration to the Voters', on the other hand, included progressive ideas on key social issues but was vague on the idea of post-war economic control; this was the first election in which Labour gained a majority of seats, the first time it won a plurality of votes. The election was a disaster for the Liberal Party. According to Baines, the defeat marked its transition from being a party of government to a party of the political fringe; the National Liberal Party fared worse, losing two-thirds of its seats and falling behind the Liberals in seat count for the first time since the parties split in 1931. This was the final election that the Liberal Nationals fought as an autonomous party, as they merged with the Conservative Party two years continuing to exist as a subsidiary party of the Conservatives until 1968.
Future prominent figures who entered Parliament included Harold Wilson, James Callaghan, Barbara Castle, Michael Foot and Hugh Gaitskell. Future Conservative Prime Minister Harold Macmillan lost his seat, returning to Parliament at a by-election in the year; this differs from the above list in including seats where the incumbent was standing down and therefore there was no possibility of any one person being defeated. The aim is to provide a comparison with the previous election. All comparisons are with the 1935 election. In some cases the change is due to the MP defecting to the gaining party; such circumstances are marked with a *. In other circumstances the change is due to the seat having been won by the gaining party in a by-election in the intervening years, retained in 1945; such circumstances are marked with a †. With the Second World War coming to an end in Europe, the Labour Party decided to pull out of the wartime national coalition government, precipitating an election which took place in July 1945.
King George VI dissolved Parliament, sitting for ten years without an election. What followed was one of the greatest swings of public confidence of the twentieth century. In May 1945, the month in which the war in Europe ended, Churchill's approval ratings stood at 83%, although the Labour Party held an 18% lead as of February 1945. Labour won overwhelming support while Churchill "was both surprised and stunned" by the
1922 United Kingdom general election
The 1922 United Kingdom general election was held on Wednesday 15 November 1922. It was the first general election held after most of Ireland left the United Kingdom to form the Irish Free State, was won by the Conservatives led by Andrew Bonar Law, who gained an overall majority over Labour, led by J. R. Clynes, a divided Liberal Party; this election is considered a realigning election, with the Conservative Party going on to spend all but eight of the next forty-two years as the largest party in Parliament, Labour emerging as the main competition to the Conservatives, the Liberal Party falling to third-party status, never to return. The Liberal Party were split between the "National Liberals" following David Lloyd George, ousted as Prime Minister the previous month, the "Liberals" following former Prime Minister H. H. Asquith; the Conservatives had been in coalition with the National Liberals led by David Lloyd George until the previous month, at which point Bonar Law had formed a Conservative majority government.
Although still leader of the Liberal Party and a frequent public speaker, Asquith was no longer a influential figure in the national political debate, he had played no part in the downfall of the Lloyd George coalition. Most attention was focused on the most recent Prime Ministers. Asquith's daughter Violet Bonham-Carter, a prominent Liberal Party campaigner, likened the election to a contest between a man with sleeping sickness and a man with St Vitus Dance; some Lloyd George National Liberals were not opposed by Conservative candidates whilst many leading Conservatives were not members of Bonar Law's government and hoped to hold the balance of power after the election. Some Liberal candidates stood calling for a reunited Liberal Party whilst others appear to have backed both Asquith and Lloyd George. Few sources are able to agree on exact numbers, in contemporary records held by the two groups, some MPs were claimed for both sides, it was the first election where Labour surpassed the combined strength of both Liberal parties in votes and seats.
By one estimate, there were 29 seats. This is thought to have cost them at least 14 seats, 10 of them to Labour, so in theory a reunited Liberal Party would have been much closer to, even ahead of, Labour in terms of seats. However, in reality the two factions were on poor terms and Lloyd George was still hoping for a renewed coalition with the Conservatives. Neither of the leaders of the two main parties would get to enjoy their success in the election for long; the Conservative Party offered continuity to the electorate. Bonar Law's election address stated: The crying need of the nation have this moment... Is that we should have tranquility and stability both at home and abroad so that the free scope should be given to the initiative and enterprise of our own citizens, for it is in that way, far more than by any action of the Government that we can hope to recover from the economic and social results of the war; the Labour Party proposed to nationalise the mines and railways, to impose a levy on financial capital, to revise the peace treaties.
It promised a higher standard of living for workers, higher wages, better housing. All comparisons are with the 1918 election. In some cases the change is due to the MP defecting to the gaining party; such circumstances are marked with a *. In other circumstances the change is due to the seat having been won by the gaining party in a by-election in the intervening years, retained in 1922; such circumstances are marked with a †. MPs elected in the United Kingdom general election, 1922 United Kingdom general election, 1922 United Kingdom election results—summary results 1885–1979 1922 Conservative manifesto 1922 Labour manifesto 1922 Liberal manifesto
1931 United Kingdom general election
The 1931 United Kingdom general election was held on Tuesday 27 October 1931 and saw a landslide election victory for the National Government, formed two months after the collapse of the second Labour government. Collectively, the parties forming the National Government won 67% of the votes and 554 seats out of 615; the bulk of the National Government's support came from the Conservative Party, the Conservatives won 470 seats. The Labour Party suffered its greatest defeat, losing four out of five seats compared with the previous election; the Liberal Party, split into three factions, continued to shrink and the Liberal National faction never reunited. Ivor Bulmer-Thomas said the results "were the most astonishing in the history of the British party system", it was the last election where one party received an absolute majority of the votes cast and the last UK general election not to take place on a Thursday, would be the last election until 1997 in which a party won over 400 seats in the House of Commons.
After battling with the Great Depression for two years, Ramsay MacDonald's Labour government had been faced with a sudden budget crisis in August 1931. The cabinet deadlocked over its response, with several influential members such as Arthur Henderson unwilling to support the budget cuts which were pressed by the civil service and opposition parties. Chancellor of the Exchequer, Philip Snowden, refused to consider deficit spending or tariffs as alternative solutions; when the government resigned, MacDonald was encouraged by King George V to form an all-party National Government to deal with the immediate crisis. The initial hope that the government would hold office for a few weeks, dissolve to return to ordinary party politics, were frustrated when the government was forced to remove the pound sterling from the gold standard; the Conservatives began pressing for the National Government to fight an election as a combined unit, MacDonald's supporters from the Labour Party formed a National Labour Organisation to support him.
However the Liberals had to be persuaded. Former Liberal leader David Lloyd George opposed the decision to call an election and urged his colleagues to withdraw from the National Government. A main issue was the Conservatives' wish to introduce protectionist trade policies; this issue not only divided the government from the opposition but divided the parties in the National Government: the majority of Liberals, led by Sir Herbert Samuel, were opposed and supported free trade, but on the eve of the election a faction known as Liberal Nationals under the leadership of Sir John Simon was formed who were willing to support protectionist trade policies. In order to preserve the Liberals within the National Government, the government itself did not endorse a policy but appealed for a "Doctor's Mandate" to do whatever was necessary to rescue the economy. Individual Conservative candidates supported protective tariffs. Labour campaigned on opposition to public spending cuts, but found it difficult to defend the record of the party's former government and the fact that most of the cuts had been agreed before it fell.
Historian Andrew Thorpe argues that Labour lost credibility by 1931 as unemployment soared in coal, textiles and steel. The working class lost confidence in the ability of Labour to solve the most pressing problem; the 2.5 million Irish Catholics in England and Scotland were a major factor in the Labour base in many industrial areas. The Catholic Church had tolerated the Labour Party, denied that it represented true socialism. However, the bishops by 1930 had grown alarmed at Labour's policies towards Communist Russia, towards birth control and towards funding Catholic schools, they warned its members. The Catholic shift against Labour and in favour of the National Government played a major role in Labour's losses. In the event, the Labour vote fell and the National Government won a landslide majority. Although the overwhelming majority of the Government MPs were Conservatives under the leadership of Stanley Baldwin, MacDonald remained Prime Minister in the new National Government; the Liberals lacked the funds to contest the full range of seats, but still won as many constituencies as the Labour Party.
There were more MPs who were elected under a Liberal ticket of some description there were the combined number of Labour and National Labour MPs, but the three-way split in the party meant that the main Labour group still ended up as the second-largest in Parliament. Note: Seat changes are compared with the 1929 election result; this differs from the above list in including seats where the incumbent was standing down and therefore there was no possibility of any one person being defeated. The aim is to provide a comparison with the previous election. In addition, it provides information. All comparisons are with the 1929 election. In some cases the change is due to the MP defecting to the gaining party; such circumstances are marked with a *. In other circumstances the change is due to the seat having been won by the gaining party in a by-election in the intervening years, retained in 1931; such circumstances are marked with a †. These are available at the PoliticsResources website, a link to, given below.
MPs elected in the United Kingdom general election, 1931 Ball, Stuart and the Conservative Party: The Crisis of 1929–31, Yale University Press Bas
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
West Riding of Yorkshire
The West Riding of Yorkshire is one of the three historic subdivisions of Yorkshire, England. From 1889 to 1974 the administrative county, County of York, West Riding, was based on the historic boundaries; the lieutenancy at that time included the City of York and as such was named West Riding of the County of York and the County of the City of York. Its boundaries correspond to the present ceremonial counties of West Yorkshire, South Yorkshire and the Craven and Selby districts of North Yorkshire, along with smaller parts in Lancashire, Greater Manchester and, since 1996, the unitary East Riding of Yorkshire; the West Riding encompasses 1,771,562 acres from Sheffield in the south to Sedbergh in the north and from Dunsop Bridge in the west to Adlingfleet in the east. The southern industrial district, considered in the broadest application of the term, extended northward from Sheffield to Skipton and eastward from Sheffield to Doncaster, covering less than one-half of the riding. Within this district were Barnsley, Bradford, Dewsbury, Halifax, Keighley, Morley, Pontefract, Rotherham, Sheffield and Wakefield.
Major centres elsewhere in the riding included Ripon. Within the industrial region, other urban districts included Bingley, Bolton on Dearne, Cleckheaton, Featherstone, Hoyland Nether, Mexborough, Normanton, Rothwell, Shipley, Sowerby Bridge, Swinton, Wath-upon-Dearne and Worsborough. Outside the industrial region were Goole, Ilkley and Selby; the West Riding contained a large rural area to the north including part of the Yorkshire Dales National Park. The subdivision of Yorkshire into three ridings or "thirds" is of Scandinavian origin; the West Riding was first recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086. Unlike most English counties, being so large, was divided first into the three ridings and the city of York; each riding was divided into wapentakes, a division comparable to the hundreds of Southern England and the wards of England's four northern-most historic counties. Within the West Riding of Yorkshire there were ten wapentakes in total, four of which were split into two divisions, those were— Claro, Skyrack and Tickhill and Staincliffe.
The wapentake of Agbrigg and Morley was created with two divisions but was split into two separate wapentakes. A wapentake known as the Ainsty to the west of York, was until the 15th century a wapentake of the West Riding, but since has come under the jurisdiction of the City of York The administrative county was formed in 1889 by the Local Government Act 1888, covered the historic West Riding except for the larger urban areas, which were county boroughs with the powers of both a municipal borough and a county council. There were five in number: Bradford, Huddersfield and Sheffield; the City of York was included in the county for lieutenancy purposes. The number of county boroughs increased over the years; the boundaries of existing county boroughs were widened. Beginning in 1898, the West Riding County Council was based at the County Hall in Wakefield, inherited by the West Yorkshire County Council in 1974; the Local Government Act 1888 included the entirety of Todmorden with the West Riding administrative county, in its lieutenancy area.
Other boundary changes in the county included the expansion of the county borough of Sheffield southward in areas in Derbyshire such as Dore. Fingerposts erected in the West Riding. At the top of the post was a roundel in the form of a hollow circle with a horizontal line across the middle, displaying "Yorks W. R.", the name of the fingerpost's location, a grid reference. Other counties, apart from Dorset, did not display a grid reference and did not have a horizontal bar through the roundel. From 1964, many fingerposts were replaced by ones in the modern style, but some of the old style still survive within the West Riding boundaries. By 1971 1,924,853 people lived in the administrative county, against 1,860,435 in the ten county boroughs; the term West Riding is still used in the names of the following clubs, organisations: 33rd Foot, First Yorkshire West Riding Regiment, a re-enactment group based in Halifax who depict this Regiment during the Napoleonic Wars 49 Signal Squadron, a squadron of 34 Signal Regiment based at Carlton Barracks in Leeds 51st Light Infantry, a re-enactment group based in the West Midlands who depict this Regiment during the Napoleonic Wars 106 Field Squadron, a squadron of 72 Engineer Regiment based in Greenhill and Manningham Lane, Bradford 269 Bat