Jerusalem Cross (Prussia)
The Jerusalem Cross or Jerusalem Memorial Cross was a decoration of Prussia established 31 October 1898. The cross was awarded to those who traveled with Emperor Wilhelm II on his 1898 visit to Palestine and attended the inauguration of the Lutheran Church of the Redeemer, the Jerusalem Cross is made in the shape of the Jerusalem cross. The cross consists of a large cross portent with four plain crosslets between the arms, the crosses are red enameled with silver-gilt borders. In the center of the cross is a gold colored medallion. The obverse side, the medallion depicts the Imperial Crown of the Prussian German Emperor surmounting the letters IR over the royal cypher of a stylized W II, the reverse of the medallion bears the date 31 October 1898. This date is depicted using a large Roman numeral X in the center for October, to the left is MDCCC and to the right side IIC for the year 1898
Princess Marie Elisabeth of Saxe-Meiningen
Princess Marie Elisabeth of Saxe-Meiningen was the only daughter of Georg II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen by his first wife Princess Charlotte of Prussia. She was notable as a musician and composer, one of her most famous works is Romanze in F major for clarinet and piano. Princess Marie Elisabeth was born on 23 September 1853 in Potsdam and her parents marriage was very happy, as it was the rare instance of a love match rather than a marriage of state. In 1855, tragedy struck with the death of their infant brother. Georg was inconsolable, but remarried several years to Princess Feodora of Hohenlohe-Langenburg in order to provide a mother for his young children. Marie Elisabeths father succeeded as Duke Georg II of Saxe-Meiningen in 1866 and his second marriage was unhappy, it produced three younger brothers for Marie Elisabeth before Feodoras death in 1872. Marie Elisabeths father participated in the Franco-Prussian War, where he fought in every battle. After the war, Georg II devoted himself to the stage, a year after Feodoras death, Georg II married for a third and last time to Ellen Franz, a stage actress.
A happy marriage, together founded the Meiningen Ensemble, which became the centre for dramatic art in Germany. She received an education under the tutelage of Theodor Kirchner. Her father was a patron of German composer and pianist Johannes Brahms, who worked as a music teacher in Meiningen for various pupils, including Marie Elisabeth. In addition to Brahms, Marie Elisabeth was in contact with other famous musicians, such as Richard Strauss, Franz Mannstädt. Marie Elisabeth was a student of the Conservatorium and Prince Alexander of Hesse, another pupil of Brahms. There, they interpreted Brahms Sonata for pianoforte and violin in a feature for the ceremony. As of 1913, Marie Elisabeth was the author of Einzugsmarsch for orchestra and she wrote a pretty Cradle Song for violin and piano, and, in 1892, she produced a Romanze in F major for clarinet and piano which had been influenced by Brahms teachings. At her residence in Berchtesgaden, Marie Elisabeth received a regular circle of artists, Marie Elisabeth died on 22 February 1923 in Obersendling.
She never married, and is buried in the park in Meiningen. 23 September 1853 –20 September 1866, Her Serene Highness Princess Marie Elisabeth of Saxe-Meiningen 20 September 1866 -22 February 1923, Her Highness Princess Marie Elisabeth of Saxe-Meiningen
Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia
Georg Friedrich Ferdinand, Prince of Prussia, is the current head of the House of Hohenzollern, the former ruling dynasty of the German Empire and of the Kingdom of Prussia. He is the great-great-grandson and historic heir of Wilhelm II, the last German Emperor and King of Prussia, Georg Friedrich is the only son of Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia and Countess Donata of Castell-Rüdenhausen. After the death of his father, Georg Friedrich spent much of his youth in the care and under the guidance of Louis Ferdinand and he attended grammar schools in Bremen and Oldenburg and completed his education at Glenalmond College near Perth, where he passed his A-levels. He volunteered for a stint in the Alpine troops of the German army. Georg Friedrich took his degree in economics at the Freiberg University of Mining. Georg Friedrich works for a company specialising in helping universities bring their innovations to market and he administers the Princess Kira of Prussia-Foundation, founded by his grandmother in 1952.
He lives near Bremen and at Hohenzollern Castle, Georg Friedrich claims compensation for expropriated land and palaces in Berlin. The procedure for compensation was started by his grandfather Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia under the Compensation Act in March 1991. Georg Friedrich succeeded his grandfather, Prince Louis Ferdinand I of Prussia as Head of the Royal House of Prussia, a branch of the House of Hohenzollern, on 26 September 1994. However, the Federal Court of Justice of Germany overturned the rulings in favour of Georg Friedrichs uncles. This time both courts ruled in favour of Georg Friedrich and his uncles took their case to the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany which overruled the previous court rulings in Georg Friedrichs favour. The religious wedding was broadcast live by local public television, the dinner, which many members of German and European royal families attended, was held in the Orangery Palace at Sanssouci Park. Princess Sophies parents are Franz-Alexander, Prince of Isenburg and his wife, the couple share descent from Charles II, the first reigning Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and a brother of Charlotte of Mecklenburg, queen consort of George III of Great Britain.
Princess Sophies father is head of the branch of the mediatised princely House of Isenburg, known under the Holy Roman Empire. In 1913 Franz Alexanders grandfather, Franz Joseph, dropped the und Büdingen zu Birstein suffix from his title as Fürst von Isenburg, the boys were baptized in the Chapel of St. Michael at Hohenzollern Castle on 24 June 2013. Their third child, a daughter, was born on 2 April 2015, hI&RH Princess Emma Marie Charlotte Sophie of Prussia Princess Emma was baptized in the Chapel of St. Michael at Hohenzollern Castle on 13 June 2015. Her godparents are Archduchess Katharina of Austria and Prince Otto of Castell-Rüdenhausen, on 17 November 2016, Sophie gave birth to the couples fourth child, a third son. And I am very happy — probably happier than many of my forebearers, I have as head of the House of Hohenzollern no political role — and neither do I aim at such
Heinrich von Stephan
Heinrich von Stephan was a general post director for the German Empire who reorganized the German postal service. He was integral in the founding of the Universal Postal Union in 1874, Stephan was born in Stolp, Pomerania, in the Kingdom of Prussia. He began his career as a postal clerk in the service of the Prussian post in 1849. In 1866 he was put in charge by the Prussian government of federalizing the postal service that had long been run by the noble Thurn und Taxis family. In 1870 he was named director of services for the North German Confederation. When Stephan began his work as a worker, Germany was divided into 17 independent states. He worked early on to establish a uniform rate throughout Germany. He is credited with having introduced the telephone to Germany, Stephan died in 1897 in Berlin, having made a profound impact on the standardization of mail service worldwide. He was engaged in cultivating purely Germanic terminology for the field of telecommunication. The German-speaking afterworld thus gained terms such as Fernsprechapparat for telephone, Wertzeichen for stamp, postlagernd for poste restante and Anschrift for address.
The word creations mandated by von Stephan in the 1870s gained circulation at post offices and among its workforce, thus at home people would say frankieren for putting stamps on a postcard or letter envelope among themselves, but switch to freimachen when at the post office. Or at home they would say Telefon in everyday speech, although the official term was Fernsprecher or Fernsprechapparat. Geschichte der Preussischen Post von ihrem Ursprunge bis auf die Gegenwart, nach amtl
Wilhelm II, German Emperor
Wilhelm II or William II was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. He was the eldest grandchild of the British Queen Victoria and related to many monarchs and his leading generals, Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff, dictated policy during the First World War with little regard for the civilian government. An ineffective war-time leader, he lost the support of the army, abdicated in November 1918, and fled to exile in the Netherlands. Wilhelm was born on 27 January 1859 at the Crown Princes Palace, Berlin to Prince Frederick William of Prussia and his wife, Princess Royal, the eldest daughter of Britains Queen Victoria. At the time of his birth, his great-uncle Frederick William IV was king of Prussia, a traumatic breech birth left him with a withered left arm due to Erbs palsy, which he tried with some success to conceal. His left arm was about 6 inches shorter than his right arm, historians have suggested that this disability affected his emotional development.
In 1863, Wilhelm was taken to England to be present at the wedding of his Uncle Bertie, William attended the ceremony in a Highland costume, complete with a small toy dirk. During the ceremony the four-year-old became restless and his eighteen-year-old uncle Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, charged with keeping an eye on him, told him to be quiet, but Wilhelm drew his dirk and threatened Alfred. When Alfred attempted to subdue him by force, Wilhelm bit him on the leg and his grandmother, Queen Victoria, missed seeing the fracas, to her Wilhelm remained a clever, good little child, the great favourite of my beloved Vicky. His mother, was obsessed with his damaged arm and she blamed herself for the childs handicap and insisted that he become a good rider. The thought that he, as heir to the throne, should not be able to ride was intolerable to her, riding lessons began when Wilhelm was eight and were a matter of endurance for Wilhelm. Over and over, the prince was set on his horse. He fell off time after time but despite his tears was set on its back again, after weeks of this he finally got it right and was able to maintain his balance.
Wilhelm, from six years of age, was tutored and heavily influenced by the 39-year-old teacher Georg Hinzpeter, Hinzpeter, he wrote, was really a good fellow. Whether he was the tutor for me, I dare not decide. The torments inflicted on me, in this riding, must be attributed to my mother. As a teenager he was educated at Kassel at the Friedrichsgymnasium, in January 1877, Wilhelm finished high school and on his eighteenth birthday received as a present from his grandmother, Queen Victoria, the Order of the Garter. After Kassel he spent four terms at the University of Bonn, studying law and he became a member of the exclusive Corps Borussia Bonn
Ladies Merit Cross
The award was ranked just behind the Order of Louise. To be awarded the first class, a member must have held the class for ten years. In exceptional cases, this requirement could be waived, the insignia were returnable upon death. The badge is made of gold in the first class and of silver for the second class medallion, in the center is a cross fleury with stylized cornflowers between the arms of the cross. The medallion is framed by a string of pearls and is surmounted by a crown, on the edge of the medallion is the blue enameled inscription FÜR VERDIENSTE. On the lower half of the edge are laurel branches flanking the intertwined letters AV, the insignia of the order was worn on a white bow on the left chest. Jörg Nimmergut, Deutsche Orden und Ehrenzeichen bis 1945, zentralstelle für wissenschaftliche Ordenskunde, München 1997, ISBN 3-00-001396-2
House Order of Hohenzollern
The House Order of Hohenzollern was a dynastic order of knighthood of the House of Hohenzollern awarded to military commissioned officers and civilians of comparable status. Associated with the versions of the order were crosses and medals which could be awarded to lower-ranking soldiers. The House Order of Hohenzollern was instituted on December 5,1841 by joint decree of Prince Konstantin of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and these two principalities in southern Germany were Catholic collateral lines of the House of Hohenzollern, cousins to the Protestant ruling house of Prussia. On August 23,1851, after the two principalities had been annexed by Prussia, the order was adopted by the Prussian branch of the house. Also, although the two principalities had become a region of the Prussian kingdom, the princely lines continued to award the order as a house order. The Prussian version was known as the Royal House Order of Hohenzollern. The Princely House Order continued to be awarded, after the fall of the German Monarchy, Prince Karl Antons second son, Karl Eitel Friedrich of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, had become prince and king of Romania as Carol I.
Carol I had died childless and was succeeded by his nephew Ferdinand I and this form of the order existed until the Romanian monarchy was abolished in 1947, King Michael awarded a slightly altered order in exile. The Royal House Order of Hohenzollern came in the classes, Grand Commander Commander Knight Member Member was a lesser class for soldiers who were not officers. The Members Cross, especially swords, was a rare distinction for non-commissioned officers. Another decoration, the Members Eagle was often given as an award to lesser officials such as schoolteachers. The Eagles were solely civilian awards, and could not be awarded with swords, all other grades could be awarded with swords. When awarded with swords it was worn on the ribbon of the Iron Cross, all grades could be awarded with swords. During World War I, the grade of the Princely House Order was often awarded to officers. 40, a regiment raised in the principalities of Hohenzollern. Soldier in the regiments sister reserve and Landwehr regiments received the decoration.
Unlike the Royal House Order, awards of the Princely House Order were made on the ribbon of the order regardless of whether they were with or without swords. As with the Prussian and Hohenzollern versions, crossed swords could be used to indicate a wartime or combat award, the badge of the House Order of Hohenzollern was a cross pattée with convex edges and curved arms
Red Cross Medal (Prussia)
The Red Cross Medal was a German medal set up on 1 October 1898 by Wilhelm II. It had three classes and could be awarded to all those who carried out service to the sick in peace or wartime. The Red Cross Medal was awarded in three classes, the Second and Third classes being worn as circular medals suspended from a red ribbon with white, the First Class was a red enameled Geneva Cross with gilded Prussian Royal Crowns at the ends of the arms. This award was worn as a steckreuz on the breast like the Iron Cross, recipients could be promoted to the next class of the medal with five years time in service, with the first level anyone could be initially appointed to being the Second Class. The Red Cross Medal, First Class was a Steckkreuz in the form of the red enameled Geneva cross in gilded silver, at the ends of the cross arms are gilded Prussian Royal Crowns. The red enamel bears a hatch pattern, the back is plain gilded silver except for the single vertical attachment pin on the back. The cross is 46.6 to 48.8 mm high, the Red Cross Medal, Second Class is a round, silver medal,33 mm in diameter.
On the obverse is a Geneva cross with Prussian royal crowns at the ends the arms of the cross, the Geneva cross is enabled in red. Between the arms of the cross are the initials W and R at the top, on the reverse is the inscription in four lines FUER / VERDIENSTE / UM DAS / ROTHE KREUZ. To the left of the inscription is an oak branch. The Red Cross Medal, Third Class is a bronze medal,33 mm in diameter. The design is identical to the silver medal except it lacks the red enameling of the cross on the obverse, in 1900, clasps for the medals were created to recognize service in war. Three were awarded, Südafrika 1899-1900 Ostasien 1900/01 Südwestafrika 1904/06
Order of Louise
The Order of Louise was founded on 3 August 1814 by Frederick William III of Prussia to honor his late wife, the much beloved Queen Luise. This order was chivalric in nature, but was intended strictly for women whose service to Germany was worthy of high national recognition. Its dame companion members were limited to 100 in number, and were intended to be drawn from all classes, though the Prussian king was technically the Sovereign of the Orders of the realm, the Chief of the Order of Louise was the reigning queen. The Order of Louise was renewed with each successive king or emperor and it was, issued from its founding in 1814, renewed in 1850, in 1865, and in 1890. Faith and hope gave the mothers and daughters of the country the power… for the grand purpose and it is impossible to honor or for what they have accomplished, but We find it justified to lend them an honor, whose are especially acknowledged. We decree therefore hereby following,1, the honor shall bear the meaningful name, L u i s e n - O r d e n Establish that we with this, a small, black-enameled golden cross.
The on both sides will be of sky blue enamel, with the letter “L”, surrounded by a wreath of stars and this order is worn a bow of the white ribbon of the Iron Cross on the left breast. The award without consideration of position or rank, however only such persons can receive it, are. The number is restricted to one hundred, to its selection lets decree hereby a Capitel, under the chair of the woman princess Wilhelm Königl. Highness, out of four women …6, the bestowal / conferral of the award results then, after Our confirmation, under the signature of the Princess Wilhelm Königl. We hereby order the management of the membership to the field marshal count v. d, at its initial creation, in 1814, the Order was only available in one class. A second class was added during the reign of Wilhelm I, First Class, wore the black-enameled cross with its blue-enameled, medallion centerpiece, suspended from a predominantly white ribbon, with three black stripes, as tied in a bow. Though the statutes indicate that the badge was to be worn on the left breast, Second Class, wore a similarly-designed silver cross, minus the black enamel, which was worn suspended from the white and black bow.
The Prussian State Handbook of 1907 indicates further variants and subsets of the Second Class of the order, II.1 with silver crown, II.1, Saxony, Georg Joachim Goeschen,1819. Handbuch über den Königlich Preußischen Hof und Staat für das Jahr 1874, handbuch über den Königlich Preußischen Hof und Staat für das Jahr 1883. Handbuch über den Königlich Preußischen Hof und Staat für das Jahr 1907
Military Order of William
The Military William Order, or often named Military Order of William, is the oldest and highest honour of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The Orders motto is Voor Moed, Beleid en Trouw, the chivalric order was established on 30 April 1815 by King William I and was presented for feats of excellent bravery on the battlefield and as a meritorious decoration to senior military officers. To date the Order is extremely rarely awarded and only for excellent bravery in battle, in the spring of 1940 it was decided that civilians would receive the Military Order of William for heroic acts in the resistance. After the liberation of the Netherlands and the Dutch East Indies, several men, the Grand Cross was awarded to Prince William of Orange, the Duke of Wellington, Fürst Blücher von Wahlstatt, Graf von Bülow von Dennewitz and Graf von Gneisenau. Until 1940, a total of 5,874 persons had been awarded the Military Order of William, in 1940, the Order was awarded to soldiers who had served with extreme valour in the defence of Netherlands from the 10 May attack by Nazi-Germany.
Of the 3,500 servicemen who served in the Netherlands United Nations Detachment in Korea, since 1940,199 names have been added to the register of the Military Order of William. The latest conflict that has been cause for the honour to be awarded is the war in Afghanistan. Kroon was honoured for bravery and devotion to duty during his service in Afghanistan from March to August,2006. By 1945, the classes of the Military William Order were in existence. The Grand Cross could be awarded as a presentation to heads of state which had displayed feats of loyalty to the Netherlands during wartime. Only US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the British King George VI were conferred such an honour, in the 19th century, the Grand Cross was often conferred on foreign monarchs as a mere mark of respect. The 4th Class could be awarded as a presentation to military commands which had displayed feats of gallantry during wartime. The badge of the Order is a white-enamelled Maltese Cross, in silver for the 4th Class and in gilt for higher classes, the obverse bears a golden firesteel at the centre, and the motto Voor Moed – Beleid – Trouw on the arms of the Maltese Cross.
The reverse central disc bears a crowned monogram W surrounded by a laurel wreath, the badge hangs from a royal crown. The star of the Grand Cross is a silver, 8-pointed star with straight rays, the breast cross of the Commander is completely identical to the obverse of the badge of the Order. The ribbon of the Order is orange with blue stripes near the border, to be awarded the Military William Order a military unit must distinguish itself in battle to such a degree as would warrant the personal presentation of the Military William Order. The units Regimental Colour are decorated with the badge of the 4th Class itself, the version of the Military William Order for unit members is known as the Orange Lanyard. Only those who served in a unit at the particular time of action are entitled to wear the Orange Lanyard
Kingdom of Prussia
It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire until its dissolution in 1918. Although it took its name from the region called Prussia, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the kings of Prussia were from the House of Hohenzollern. Prussia was a power from the time it became a kingdom, through its predecessor, Brandenburg-Prussia. Prussia continued its rise to power under the guidance of Frederick II, more known as Frederick the Great. After the might of Prussia was revealed it was considered as a power among the German states. Throughout the next hundred years Prussia went on to win many battles and it was because of its power that Prussia continuously tried to unify all the German states under its rule. Attempts at creation of a federation remained unsuccessful and the German Confederation collapsed in 1866 when war ensued between its two most powerful states and Austria. The North German Confederation which lasted from 1867–1871, created a union between the Prussian-aligned states while Austria and most of Southern Germany remained independent.
The North German Confederation was seen as more of an alliance of military strength in the aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War, the German Empire lasted from 1871–1918 with the successful unification of all the German states under Prussian hegemony. This was due to the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, in 1871, Germany unified into a single country, minus Austria and Switzerland, with Prussia the dominant power. Prussia is considered the predecessor of the unified German Reich. The Kingdom left a significant cultural legacy, today notably promoted by the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation, in 1415 a Hohenzollern Burgrave came from the south to the March of Brandenburg and took control of the area as elector. In 1417 the Hohenzollern was made an elector of the Holy Roman Empire, after the Polish wars, the newly established Baltic towns of the German states including Prussia, suffered many economic setbacks. Many of the Prussian towns could not even afford to attend political meetings outside of Prussia, the towns were poverty stricken, with even the largest town, having to borrow money from elsewhere to pay for trade.
Poverty in these towns was partly caused by Prussias neighbors, who had established and developed such a monopoly on trading that these new towns simply could not compete and these issues led to feuds, trade competition and invasions. However, the fall of these gave rise to the nobility, separated the east and the west. It was clear in 1440 how different Brandenburg was from the other German territories, not only did it face partition from within but the threat of its neighbors. It prevented the issue of partition by enacting the Dispositio Achillea which instilled the principle of primogeniture to both the Brandenburg and Franconian territories, the second issue was solved through expansion
Order of the Black Eagle
The Order of the Black Eagle was the highest order of chivalry in the Kingdom of Prussia. The order was founded on 17 January 1701 by Elector Friedrich III of Brandenburg, in his Dutch exile after World War I, deposed Emperor Wilhelm II continued to award the order to his family. He made his wife, Princess Hermine Reuss of Greiz. The statutes of the order were published on 18 January 1701, membership in the Order of the Black Eagle was limited to a small number of knights, and was divided into two classes, members of reigning houses and capitular knights. Before 1847, membership was limited to nobles, but after that date, capitular knights were generally high-ranking government officials or military officers. The Order of the Black Eagle had only one class, by statute, members of the order held the Grand Cross of the Order of the Red Eagle, and wore the badge of that order from a ribbon around the neck. From 1862, members of the Prussian royal house, upon award of the Order of the Black Eagle, the badge of the Order was a gold Maltese cross, enameled in blue, with gold-crowned black eagles between the arms of the cross.
The gold center medallion bore the monogram of Friedrich I. This badge was worn either a broad ribbon or a collar. The ribbon of the Order was an orange moiré sash worn from the shoulder to the right hip. The sash color was chosen in honor of Louise Henriette of Nassau, daughter of the prince of Orange, the star of the Order was a silver eight-pointed star, with straight or faceted rays depending on the jewelers design. The center medallion displayed a black eagle on a background, surrounded by a white enamelled ring bearing a wreath of laurels. At meetings of the chapter of the Order of the Black Eagle and at certain ceremonies, embroidered on the left shoulder of each cape was a large star of the Order. From its founding in 1701 to 1918, the Order of the Black Eagle was awarded 407 times, subjects of the Prussian King receiving the order which was only given in one class were promoted to the peerage and received hereditary title. The Order was conferred upon Prussian queens, though other members of the royal family usually received the Order of Louise instead.
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn – Kaiser Wilhelm IIs uncle, Prince Carl, Duke of Västergötland – Prince of Sweden Carol I of Romania – King of Romania, member of the Princely House of Hohenzollern. Louis XVIII – King of France, ludwig II of Bavaria – King of Bavaria. Emperor Meiji – Emperor of Japan, mozaffar al-Din Shah – Shah of Persia –29 May 1902 – during the visit to Berlin of the Shah Naser al-Din Shah Qajar – Shah of Persia