Dresden is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany. It is situated in a valley on the River Elbe, near the border with the Czech Republic, Dresden has a long history as the capital and royal residence for the Electors and Kings of Saxony, who for centuries furnished the city with cultural and artistic splendour. The city was known as the Jewel Box, because of its baroque, the controversial American and British bombing of Dresden in World War II towards the end of the war killed approximately 25,000, many of whom were civilians, and destroyed the entire city centre. After the war restoration work has helped to reconstruct parts of the inner city, including the Katholische Hofkirche, the Zwinger. Since German reunification in 1990 Dresden is again a cultural and political centre of Germany, the Dresden University of Technology is one of the 10 largest universities in Germany and part of the German Universities Excellence Initiative.
The economy of Dresden and its agglomeration is one of the most dynamic in Germany and it is dominated by high-tech branches, often called as “Silicon Saxony”. The city is one of the most visited in Germany with 4,3 million overnight stays per year. The royal buildings are among the most impressive buildings in Europe, main sights are the nearby National Park of Saxon Switzerland, the Ore Mountains and the countryside around Elbe Valley and Moritzburg Castle. The most prominent building in the city of Dresden is the Frauenkirche, built in the 18th century, the church was destroyed during World War II. The remaining ruins were left for 50 years as a war memorial, the church was rebuilt from 1994 to 2005. Although Dresden is a relatively recent city of Germanic origin followed by settlement of Slavic people, Dresdens founding and early growth is associated with the eastward expansion of Germanic peoples, mining in the nearby Ore Mountains, and the establishment of the Margraviate of Meissen. Its name etymologically derives from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the forest, Dresden evolved into the capital of Saxony.
Around the late 12th century, a Slavic settlement called Drežďany had developed on the southern bank, another settlement existed on the northern bank, but its Slavic name is unknown. It was known as Antiqua Dresdin by 1350, and as Altendresden, Margrave of Meissen, chose Dresden as his interim residence in 1206, as documented in a record calling the place Civitas Dresdene. After 1270, Dresden became the capital of the margraviate and it was given to Friedrich Clem after death of Henry the Illustrious in 1288. It was taken by the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1316 and was restored to the Wettin dynasty after the death of Valdemar the Great in 1319, from 1485, it was the seat of the dukes of Saxony, and from 1547 the electors as well. The Elector and ruler of Saxony Frederick Augustus I became King Augustus II the Strong of Poland in personal union and he gathered many of the best musicians and painters from all over Europe to the newly named Royal-Polish Residential City of Dresden. His reign marked the beginning of Dresdens emergence as a leading European city for technology, during the reign of Kings Augustus II the Strong and Augustus III of Poland the Zwinger Royal Palace, the Hofkirche and the Frauenkirche were built
Vicenza listen is a city in northeastern Italy. It is in the Veneto region at the base of the Monte Berico. Vicenza is approximately 60 kilometres west of Venice and 200 kilometres east of Milan, Vicenza is a thriving and cosmopolitan city, with a rich history and culture, and many museums, art galleries, villas and elegant Renaissance palazzi. With the Palladian Villas of the Veneto in the area, and his renowned Teatro Olimpico. In December 2008, Vicenza had an population of 115,927. Additionally, about one fifth of the gold and jewelry is made in Vicenza. Another important sector is the engineering/computer components industry, vicentia was settled by the Italic Euganei tribe and by the Paleo-Veneti tribe in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC. The Romans allied themselves with the Paleo-Veneti in their fight against the Celtic tribes that populated north-western Italy, the Roman presence in the area grew exponentially over time and the Paleo-Veneti were gradually assimilated. In 157 BC, the city was a de facto Roman centre and was given the name of Vicetia or Vincentia, the citizens of Vicetia received Roman citizenship and were inscribed into the Roman tribe Romilia in 49 BC.
It was an important Lombard city and a Frankish center, numerous Benedictine monasteries were built in the Vicenza area, beginning in the 6th century. In 899, Vicenza was destroyed by Magyar raiders, in 1001, Otto III handed over the government of the city to the bishop, and its communal organization had an opportunity to develop, separating soon from the episcopal authority. When peace was restored, the old rivalry with Padua and other cities was renewed, besides there were the internal factions of the Vivaresi. The tyrannical Ezzelino III from Bassano drove the Guelphs out of Vicenza, the independent commune joined the Second Lombard League against Emperor Frederick II, and was sacked by that monarch, after which it was annexed to Ezzelinos dominions. Vicenza came under rule of Venice in 1404, and its subsequent history is that of Venice and it was besieged by the Emperor Sigismund, and Maximilian I held possession of it in 1509 and 1516. Vicenza was a candidate to host the Council of Trent, after 1797, under Napoleonic rule, it was made a duché grand-fief within Napoleons personal Kingdom of Italy for general Caulaincourt, imperial Grand-Écuyer.
After 1814, Vicenza passed to the Austrian Empire, in 1848, the populace rose against Austria, more violently than in any other Italian centre apart from Milan and Brescia. As a part of the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia, it was annexed to Italy after the Third War of Italian independence, after the end of the latter, what followed was a period of depression following the devasatation caused by two world wars. In the following years, the development grew vertiginously
Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts
The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts has provided education in the arts for more than 250 years, playing its part in the development of the art of Denmark. The Royal Danish Academy of Portraiture and Architecture in Copenhagen was inaugurated on 31 March 1754 and its name was changed to the Royal Danish Academy of Painting and Architecture in 1771. The building boom resulting from the Great Fire of 1795 greatly profited from this initiative, in 1814 the name was changed again, this time to the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts. It is still situated in its building, the Charlottenborg Palace. The School of Architecture has been situated in former naval buildings on Holmen since 1996, the academy is larger and better funded than the Jutland Art Academy and Funen Art Academy, which offer similar programs. It teaches and conducts research on the subjects of painting, architecture, photography, the academy is under the administration of the Danish Ministry of Culture. The academy’s School of Architecture offers education in the fields of design and restoration and landscape planning and industrial, graphic.
The school has nine departments, four research institutes and six affiliated research centres. The undergraduate course, leading to the Bachelor of Architecture diploma, in 2011, the Wall Street Journal named Ingels the Innovator of the Year for architecture. Hansen Medal Thorvaldsen Medal Eckersberg Medal Thorvald Bindesbøll Medal N. L. Høyen Medal The School of Visual Arts C. C
Odense is the third-largest city in Denmark. It has a population of 175,245 as of January 2016, by road, Odense is located 45 kilometres north of Svendborg,144 kilometres to the south of Aarhus and 167 kilometres to the southwest of Copenhagen. Odense has close associations with Hans Christian Andersen who is remembered above all for his fairy tales and he was born in the city in 1805 and spent his childhood years there. There has been settlement in the Odense area for over 4,000 years, although the name was not mentioned in writing until 988. Canute IV of Denmark, generally considered to be the last Viking king, was murdered by peasants in Odenses St Albans Priory on 10 July 1086. Although the city was burned in 1249 following a royal rivalry, in 1865, one of the largest railway terminals in Denmark was built, further increasing the population and commerce, and by 1900, Odense had reached a population of 35,000. Odenses Odinstårnet was one of the tallest towers in Europe when built in 1935 but was destroyed by the Nazis during World War II, the University of Southern Denmark was established in 1966.
In the present day, Odense remains the hub of Funen. Several major industries are located in the city including the Albani Brewery and GASA, Denmarks major dealer in vegetables and flowers. In sports, Odense has a number of clubs including OB, BM, B1909, and B1913, the Odense Bulldogs professional ice hockey team. Odense is served by Hans Christian Andersen Airport and Odense station, Odense is one of Denmarks oldest cities. Archaeological excavations in the vicinity show proof of settlement for over 4,000 years since at least the Stone Age, the earliest community was centred on the higher ground between the Odense River to the south and Naesbyhoved Lake to the north. Nonnebakken, one of Denmarks former Viking ring fortresses, lay to the south of the river, Odenses Møntergården Museum has many artefacts related to the early Viking history in the Odense area. The Vikings built numerous fortifications along the banks to defend it against invaders coming in from the coast. The first church in Odense appears to have been St Marys, the territory, previously part of the vast Archbishopric of Hamburg, was created a Catholic diocese in 988.
The first recorded bishops of Odense were Odinkar Hvide and Reginbert, recent excavations have shown that from the early 11th century, the town developed in the area around Albani Torv, Fisketorvet and Vestergade. By 1070, Odense had already grown into a city of stature in Denmark, the priory no longer exists, although a church has been situated on the site since about 900. At the beginning of the 12th century, Benedictine monks from England founded St Canutes Abbey and it was here the English monk Ælnoth wrote Denmarks first literary work, Vita et Passio S. Canuti
History painting is a genre in painting defined by its subject matter rather than artistic style. History paintings usually depict a moment in a story, rather than a specific and static subject. The term is derived from the senses of the word historia in Latin and Italian, meaning story or narrative. Most history paintings are not of scenes from history, especially paintings from before about 1850, History paintings almost always contain a number of figures, often a large number, and normally show some type of action that is a moment in a narrative. The genre includes depictions of moments in religious narratives, above all the Life of Christ, as well as scenes from mythology. These groups were for long the most frequently painted, works such as Michelangelos Sistine Chapel ceiling are therefore history paintings, History painting may be used interchangeably with historical painting, and was especially so used before the 20th century. Where a distinction is made historical painting is the painting of scenes from secular history, in the 19th century historical painting in this sense became a distinct genre.
In phrases such as historical painting materials, historical means in use before about 1900 and he placed emphasis on the ability to depict the interactions between the figures by gesture and expression. This view remained general until the 19th century, when artistic movements began to struggle against the establishment institutions of academic art, which continued to adhere to it. Scenes from ancient history had been popular in the early Renaissance, and once again became common in the Baroque and Rococo periods, and still more so with the rise of Neoclassicism. In some 19th or 20th century contexts, the term may refer specifically to paintings of scenes from history, rather than those from religious narratives. Scenes from ancient history and mythology were popular, artists continued for centuries to strive to make their reputation by producing such works, often neglecting genres to which their talents were better suited. The large works of Raphael were long considered, with those of Michelangelo, un Peintre qui ne fait que des portraits, na pas encore cette haute perfection de lArt, & ne peut prétendre à lhonneur que reçoivent les plus sçavans.
He who produces perfect landscapes is above another who only produces fruit, a painter who only does portraits still does not have the highest perfection of his art, and cannot expect the honour due to the most skilled. By the late 18th century, with religious and mytholological painting in decline, there was an increased demand for paintings of scenes from history. Classical history remained popular, but scenes from national histories were often the best-received, the unheroic nature of modern dress was regarded as a serious difficulty. When, in 1770, Benjamin West proposed to paint The Death of General Wolfe in contemporary dress and he ignored these comments and showed the scene in modern dress. Although George III refused to purchase the work, West succeeded both in overcoming his critics objections and inaugurating a more historically accurate style in such paintings. M. W, conveniently their clothes had been worn away to classical-seeming rags by the point the painting depicts
Danish art is the visual arts produced in Denmark or by Danish artists. It goes back thousands of years with significant artifacts from the 2nd millennium BC, for many early periods, it is usually considered as part of the wider Nordic art of Scandinavia. Art from what is today Denmark forms part of the art of the Nordic Bronze Age, Danish medieval painting is almost entirely known from church frescos such as those from the 16th-century artist known as the Elmelunde Master. The Reformation greatly disrupted Danish artistic traditions, and left the body of painters and sculptors without large markets. Thereafter for an extended period art in Denmark was either imported from Germany, from the late 18th century on, the situation changed radically and beginning with the Danish Golden Age, a distinct tradition of Danish art has continued to flourish until today. Due to generous art subsidies, contemporary Danish art has a big production per capita, lurs are a distinctive type of giant curving Bronze Age horn, of which 35 of the 53 known examples have been found in bogs in Denmark, very often in pairs.
They are normally made of bronze, and often decorated, a possibly alien find in Denmark is the Gundestrup cauldron, a richly decorated silver vessel, thought to date to the 1st century BC. It was found in 1891 in a bog near the hamlet of Gundestrup in north-eastern Jutland. The silversmithing of the plates is very skilled, the bowl,70 cm across, was beaten from a single ingot. Now in the National Museum of Denmark, it is the largest known example of European silver work from the period, the style and workmanship suggest Thracian origin, while the imagery seems Celtic, so it may not reflect local styles. Danish sites have given their names to two of the six main styles of Viking or Norse art, Jelling style and its successor Mammen style, only one Danish ship burial is known, from Ladbyskibet. The images on the runestones at Jelling are probably the best known Danish works of the period, church wall paintings are to be found in some 600 churches across Denmark, probably representing the highest concentration of surviving church murals anywhere in the world.
Most of them back to the Middle Ages. They lay hidden for centuries as after the Reformation in Denmark, of most interest to Danish art are the Gothic paintings from the 15th and 16th centuries as they were painted in a style typical of native Danish painters. Adopting the Biblia pauperum approach, they present many of the most popular stories from the Old, albrecht Dürers portrait of her father Christian II of Denmark, painted in Brussels in 1521, has not survived, though portraits of him by other foreign artists have. After a period of development its pupils were indeed to lead the creation of a distinct Danish style, leading Danish artists teaching at the Academy included Christian August Lorentzen and Jens Juel, later Director. Among his works are the series of statues of Christ. Motifs for his works were mostly from Greek mythology, but he created portraits of important personalities, as in his tomb monument for Pope Pius VII in St Peters Basilica
Charlottenborg Palace is a large town mansion located on the corner of Kongens Nytorv and Nyhavn in Copenhagen, Denmark. Originally built as a residence for Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve, it has served as the base of the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts since its foundation in 1754, today it houses Kunsthal Charlottenborg, an institution for contemporary art, and Danmarks Kunstbibliotek, the Royal Art Library. The site was donated by King Christian V to his half brother Ulrik Frederik Gyldenløve on 22 March 1669 in connection with the establishment of Kongens Nytorv, Gyldenløve built his new mansion from 1672 to 1683 as the first building on the new square. The main wing and two wings were built from 1672 to 1677, probably under the architect Ewert Janssen. In 1783 mansion was extended with a rear, fourth wing was designed by Lambert van Haven, the bricks used were brought from Kalø Castle in Jutland which Gyldenløve owned and had pulled down. In his old age, the mansion became too big for Gyldenløve who sold it to the dowager queen Charlotte Amalie in 1700.
After King Christian V´s death in 1699 the Queen Mother, Charlotte Amalie, purchased the Palace for 50,000 Danish crowns, in 1714, when the Queen Downer died, the place was passed to King Christian VI. Renovations began in 1736-1737, and its use and users shifted for a period of time, a small theater was constructed and used for various concerts and theatrical performances. The Palace Garden contained the Botanical Garden between 1778 -1872, in 1701, the old Academy of Arts began its activities in the Palace. The small school slowly grew and was formally inaugurated in the Charlottenborg Palace on March 31,1754. In 1787, the ownership of the Palace was transferred to The Royal Danish Academy of Art, the Academy still occupies the Palace. Charlottenborg is a four-winged, three-storey building designed in the Dutch Baroque style, the main wing towards the square has a central risalit flanked by two more pronounced, two-bay corner risalit. All three are topped by balustrades, the central risalit is decorated with Corinthian pilasters and a Tuscan/Doric portal with balcony The facade has sandstone decorations and window pediments.
The lower rear wing consists of three pavilions, the central pavilion has a Tuscan arcade below, niches with busts above, and a lantern on the copper-covered roof. The floor plan is remniscient of French castles and it has a piano nobile with a banguet hall above the main entrance, with access to the balcony, a ground floor with lower ceilings, and a second floors for servants with even lower ones. Ths arrangement became characteristic of mansions and upper-class town houses in the entire 18th century, in the rear wing, above the arcade, there is a well-preserved domed Baroque room with a splendid stucco ceiling
Many of his works were in the royal Christiansborg Palace, Fredensborg Palace, and Levetzau Palace at Amalienborg. Abildgaard had studied at the Academy from 1764 to 1767, worked there as apprentice, and moved to Rome in 1772–1777 and he returned to the Academy in Copenhagen, promoted to professor in 1778, and elected as Academy Director during 1789–1791 and 1801–1809. He was assigned as a royal artist/decorator during 1780 to 1805, Abildgaard was married twice, in 1781 and 1803. Nicolai Abraham Abildgaard was born on September 11,1743 in Copenhagen, Denmark, as the son of Søren Abildgaard, a draughtsman of repute. He was trained by a master before he joined the New Royal Danish Academy of Art in Copenhagen. He won a series of medallions at the Academy for his brilliance from 1764 to 1767, the large gold medallion from the Academy won in 1767 included a travel stipend, which he waited five years to receive. He assisted Professor Mandelberg of the Academy as an apprentice around 1769 and these paintings are classical, influenced by French classical artists such as Claude Lorrain and Nicolas Poussin.
Mandelberg had studied in Paris under François Boucher, although artists of that time used to travel to Paris for further studies, but he chose to travel to Rome where he stayed from 1772 to 1777. He took a trip to Naples in 1776 with Jens Juel. His ambitions focused in the genre of history painting, while in Rome, he studied Annibale Carraccis frescoes at the Palazzo Farnese and the paintings of Rafael and Michelangelo. In addition he studied various other disciplines and developed his knowledge of mythology, anatomy. In the company of Swedish sculptor Johan Tobias Sergel and painter Johann Heinrich Füssli and he developed an appreciation for the literature of Shakespeare and Ossian. He worked with themes from Greek as well as Norse mythology and he left Rome in June 1777 with the hope of becoming professor at the Academy in Copenhagen. He stopped for a stay in Paris and arrived in Denmark in December of the same year, very soon after joining the academy he was honored with the designation of Professor in 1778.
He worked as an painter of the neoclassical school. From 1777 to 1794, he was productive as an artist in addition to his role at the school. He taught painting and anatomy at the school and he produced not only monumental works, but smaller pieces such as vignettes and illustrations. He illustrated the works of Socrates and Ossian, additionally he did some sculpting and authoring
Funen, with an area of 3,099.7 square kilometres, is the third-largest island of Denmark, after Zealand and Vendsyssel-Thy. It is the 165th-largest island in the world and it is in the central part of the country and has a population of 466,284. The main city is Odense which is connected to the sea by a seldom-used canal, the citys shipyard, Odense Steel Shipyard, has been relocated outside Odense proper. Funen belongs administratively to the Region of Southern Denmark, from 1970 to 2006 the island formed the biggest part of Funen County, which included the islands of Langeland, Ærø, Tåsinge, and a number of smaller islands. Funen is linked to Zealand, Denmarks largest island, by the Great Belt Bridge which carries both trains and cars, two bridges connect Funen to the Danish mainland, Jutland. The Old Little Belt Bridge was constructed in the 1930s shortly before World War II for both cars and trains, the New Little Belt Bridge, a suspension bridge, was constructed in the 1970s and is used for cars only.
Apart from the city, all major towns are located in coastal areas. Beginning in the north-east of the island and moving clockwise, they are Kerteminde, Svendborg, Fåborg, Middelfart, the highest natural point on Funen is Frøbjerg Bavnehøj. Broholm Egeskov Castle Fynske Livregiment Horne Church Hvedholm Castle Korshavn, Denmark Skrøbelev Gods The Funen Village Funen brachteate in the collections of the National Museum of Denmark, official tourist information site for Funen
A portrait is a painting, sculpture, or other artistic representation of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant. The intent is to display the likeness and even the mood of the person, for this reason, in photography a portrait is generally not a snapshot, but a composed image of a person in a still position. A portrait often shows a person looking directly at the painter or photographer, many subjects, such as Akhenaten and some other Egyptian pharaohs, can be recognised by their distinctive features. The 28 surviving rather small statues of Gudea, ruler of Lagash in Sumeria between c.2144 -2124 BC, show a consistent appearance with some individuality. Some of the earliest surviving painted portraits of people who were not rulers are the Greco-Roman funeral portraits that survived in the dry climate of Egypts Fayum district. These are almost the only paintings from the world that have survived, apart from frescos, though many sculptures. Although the appearance of the figures differs considerably, they are considerably idealized, the art of the portrait flourished in Ancient Greek and especially Roman sculpture, where sitters demanded individualized and realistic portraits, even unflattering ones.
During the 4th century, the portrait began to retreat in favor of a symbol of what that person looked like. In the Europe of the Early Middle Ages representations of individuals are mostly generalized, true portraits of the outward appearance of individuals re-emerged in the late Middle Ages, in tomb monuments, donor portraits, miniatures in illuminated manuscripts and panel paintings. Moche culture of Peru was one of the few ancient civilizations which produced portraits and these works accurately represent anatomical features in great detail. The individuals portrayed would have been recognizable without the need for other symbols or a reference to their names. The individuals portrayed were members of the elite, warriors. They were represented during several stages of their lives, the faces of gods were depicted. To date, no portraits of women have been found, there is particular emphasis on the representation of the details of headdresses, body adornment and face painting. One of the portraits in the Western world is Leonardo da Vincis painting titled Mona Lisa.
What has been claimed as the worlds oldest known portrait was found in 2006 in the Vilhonneur grotto near Angoulême and is thought to be 27,000 years old. Profile view, full view, and three-quarter view, are three common designations for portraits, each referring to a particular orientation of the head of the individual depicted. Such terms would tend to have greater applicability to two-dimensional artwork such as photography, in the case of three-dimensional artwork, the viewer can usually alter their orientation to the artwork by moving around it