Swedish Romantic literature
Swedish Romantic literature denotes Swedish literature between 1809 and 1830. In Europe, the period from circa 1805–1840 is known as Romanticism, it was strongly featured in Sweden, based on German influences. During this short period, there were so many great Swedish poets, that the era is referred to as the Golden Age of Swedish poetry; the period started around 1810 when several periodicals were published that contested the literature of the 18th century. An important society was the Gothic Society, their periodical Iduna, a romanticised retrospect to Gothicismus. One significant reason was. Four of the main romantic poets that made significant contributions to the movements were: the professor of history Erik Gustaf Geijer, the loner Erik Johan Stagnelius, professor of Greek language Esaias Tegnér and professor of aesthetics and philosophy P. D. A. Atterbom. Geijer was one of most prominent members of the neo-gothicist Gothic Society; as a professor he published two cultural-historical works: "Svea rikes hävder" and "Svenska folkets historia", where he gave support to the idea of the Viking Age being a cultural height, suppressed during the Middle Ages.
Stagnelius spent his short adult years living as an outsider in Stockholm. Many of his poems deal with the beauty in nature, encompassing the loneliness of the soul, it is both for his beauty and his mysticism that Stagnelius's works were to attain recognition; the fame of Atterbom comes from his flower poetry: Lycksalighetens ö, 1824–1827, a collection of poetry called Blommorna. Esaias Tegnér has been described as the first modern Swedish man, in the sense that much is known about both his life and his person, that he left an extensive correspondence, his great success lies on Frithiof's Saga, a romanticized version of the Icelandic sagas but in a modern dress. The work was translated into several languages, put to music in Sweden, where it had status of a national epos until the realism of the 1880s obsoleted it. Fredrika Bremer was the first writer of realism novel, in the spirit of Jane Austen, her most important contribution is that she introduced the novel in Swedish on a large scale.
Her most important novel was her last: Hertha, in 1856. Hertha is not so much. Viktor Rydberg was a key figure in the Swedish culture between 1855 and the modern breakthrough in 1879. In the spirit of Dickens, Rydberg wrote adventurous novels and stories that in reality were dealing with the poor and exposed people of society. Several works tried to define a world where Christianity became integrated with humanistic ideals of ancient Greece. Rydberg was noted for groundbreaking historical and theological works; when Sweden lost Finland in 1809, Finnish literature moved in its own direction. For the remainder of the 19th century however, it was still the educated Swedish speaking minority in Finland that authored most of Finland's literature. A key figure was the Swedish speaking Johan Ludvig Runeberg, was established himself as Finlands national poet, a distinction he has kept into modern times, his most important work was The Tales of Ensign Stål, an epic poem about the Finnish War, the first verse of which became Finland's national anthem.
After Runeberg, it was to be Zacharius Topelius. Although he wrote both novels and poetry, his most important contributions were children's books, with Läsning för barn. Algulin, Ingemar, A History of Swedish Literature, published by the Swedish Institute, 1989. ISBN 91-520-0239-X Gustafson, Alrik A History of Swedish Literature, 1961. Tigerstedt, E. N. Svensk litteraturhistoria
Romanticism in Spanish literature
Romanticism arrived late and lasted only for a short but intense period, since in the second half of the 19th century it was supplanted by Realism, whose nature was antithetical to that of Romantic literature. Romanticism is thought of as complex and confusing, with great contradictions that range from rebellious, revolutionary ideas to the return of the Catholic and monarchial tradition. With respect to political liberty, some understood it as the restoration of the ideological and religious values that the 18th century rationalists had tried to suppress, they exalted Christianity and country as supreme values. In this "traditional Romanticism" camp one would place Walter Scott in Scotland, Chateaubriand in France, the Duke of Rivas and José Zorrilla in Spain, it was based on the ideology of the restoration of absolute monarchy in Spain, which originated after the fall of Napoleon Bonaparte, defended the traditional values represented by Church and State. On the other hand, other Romantics, as free citizens, fought the entire established order in religion and politics.
They proclaimed the rights of the individual against society and the law. They represented "revolutionary" or "liberal" Romanticism, their most notable members were Lord Byron, in England, Victor Hugo, in France, José de Espronceda, in Spain; the movement's three underlying ideas were: the quest for and justification of "irrational" understanding, which reason denies, Hegelian dialectic, historicism. Costumbrism focused on contemporary life from the point of view of the "common" people, expressed itself in pure, correct language; the principal author in the Costumbrist style was Ramón de Mesonero Romanos, situated on the margins of Romanticism, in an ironic position in relation to it. Costumbrism, born out of Romanticism, but as a manifestation of nostalgia for the values and customs of the past, contributed to the decadence of the Romantic movement and the rise of Realism, as it became bourgeois and turned into a style of description; the Romantic period encompasses the first half of the 19th century, a time of high political tension.
The conservatives defended their privileges, but the liberals and progressives fought to supplant them. This opened the way for Freemasonry to enjoy great influence. Traditional Catholic thought defended itself against the freethinkers and the followers of the German philosopher Karl C. F. Krause; the working class unleashed protest movements with anarchist and socialist tendencies, accompanied by strikes and violence. While Europe experienced significant industrial development and cultural enrichment, Spain presented the image of a somewhat backward country, always apart from the rest of Europe. Rejection of Neoclassicism. Faced with the scrupulous rigor and order with which rules were observed in the 18th century, the romantic writers combined the genres and verses of distinct media, at times mixing verse and prose. Subjectivism. Whatever the type of work, the passionate soul of the author poured into it all of its feelings of dissatisfaction with a world that limited and frustrated the expression of its longings and worries, in relation to love and country alike.
They identified nature with spirit, expressed it as melancholy, gloom and darkness, in contrast with the neo-Classicists, who showed interest in the natural world. Insatiable cravings for passionate love and the possession of the infinite caused in the Romantics a disheartenment, an immense disappointment that sometimes brought them to suicide, as in the case of Mariano José de Larra. Attraction of the nocturnal and mysterious; the Romantics situated their sorrowful and disappointed feelings in mysterious or melancholic places, such as ruins and cemeteries. In the same manner, they felt attracted to the supernatural, that which escapes logic, such as miracles, visions from beyond the grave, the diabolical, witchcraft. Flight from the world, their disgust toward the bourgeois society that they were forced to live in caused the Romantics to try to turn their back on their circumstances, imagining past eras in which their ideals prevailed, or taking inspiration from the exotic. In contrast with the neo-Classicists, who admired Greco-Roman antiquity, the Romantics preferred the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.
Their favorite modes of expression were the novel and historical drama. Romanticism came to Spain through Catalonia. In Andalucía, the Prussian consul in Cádiz, Juan Nicolás Böhl de Faber, father of novelist Fernán Caballero, published a series of articles between 1818 and 1819 in the Diario Mercantil of Cádiz, in which he defended Spanish theatre of the Siglo de Oro, was attacked by the neo-Classicists. Against him were José Joaquín de Mora and Antonio Alcalá Galiano, who argued from a traditionalist and absolutist point of view. Böhl de Faber's ideas were incompatible with theirs, despite the fact that they represented European Literary Modernism. In Catalonia, El Europeo was a journal published in Barcelona from 1823 to 1824 by two Italian editors, one Englishman, the young Catalans Bonaventura Carles Aribau and Ramón López Soler; this publication defended moderate traditionalist Romanticism following Böhl's example rejecting the virtues of Neo-Classicism. An exposition of the Romantic ideology appeared for the first time in its pages, in an article by Luigi Monteggia, titled Romanticismo.
The romantic poets created their works in the midst of a fury of emotions, forming verses out of whate
The epithet Nazarene was adopted by a group of early 19th century German Romantic painters who aimed to revive honesty and spirituality in Christian art. The name Nazarene came from a term of derision used against them for their affectation of a biblical manner of clothing and hair style. In 1809, six students at the Vienna Academy formed an artistic cooperative in Vienna called the Brotherhood of St. Luke or Lukasbund, following a common name for medieval guilds of painters. In 1810 four of them, Johann Friedrich Overbeck, Franz Pforr, Ludwig Vogel and Johann Konrad Hottinger moved to Rome, where they occupied the abandoned monastery of San Isidoro, they were joined by Philipp Veit, Peter von Cornelius, Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, Friedrich Wilhelm Schadow and a loose grouping of other German artists. They met up with Austrian romantic landscape artist Joseph Anton Koch who became an unofficial tutor to the group. In 1827 they were joined by Joseph von Führich; the principal motivation of the Nazarenes was a reaction against Neoclassicism and the routine art education of the academy system.
They hoped to return to art which embodied spiritual values, sought inspiration in artists of the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance, rejecting what they saw as the superficial virtuosity of art. In Rome the group lived a semi-monastic existence, as a way of re-creating the nature of the medieval artist's workshop. Religious subjects dominated their output, two major commissions allowed them to attempt a revival of the medieval art of fresco painting. Two fresco series were completed in Rome for the Casa Bartholdy and the Casino Massimo, gained international attention for the work of the'Nazarenes'. However, by 1830 all except Overbeck had returned to Germany and the group had disbanded. Many Nazarenes became influential teachers in German art academies; the programme of the Nazarenes—the adoption of honest expression in art and the inspiration of artists before Raphael—was to exert considerable influence in Germany, in England upon the Pre-Raphaelite movement. In their abandonment of the academy and their rejection of much official and salon art, the Nazarenes can be seen as partaking in the same anti-scholastic impulse that would lead to the avant-garde in the nineteenth century.
Gabriel Wüger German Romanticism Middle Ages in history Preraphaelites Purismo Mitchell Benjamin Frank. Romantic Painting Redefined: Nazarene Tradition and the Narratives of Romanticism. Ashgate Publishing, 2001. "Painting the Sacred in the Age of German Romanticism." Aldershot: Ashgate Books, 2009. Lionel Gossman. "Making of a Romantic Icon: The Religious Context of Friedrich Overbeck's'Italia und Germania.'" American Philosophical Society, 2007. ISBN 0-87169-975-3. Lionel Gossman. "Unwilling Moderns: The Nazarene Painters of the Nineteenth Century" in Nineteenth-Century Art Worldwide – Volume 2, Issue 3, Autumn 2003. Nazarenes in the "History of Art"
Düsseldorf school of painting
The Düsseldorf school of painting refers to a group of painters who taught or studied at the Düsseldorf Academy in the 1830s and 1840s, when the Academy was directed by the painter Wilhelm von Schadow. The work of the Düsseldorf School is characterized by finely detailed yet fanciful landscapes with religious or allegorical stories set in the landscapes. Leading members of the Düsseldorf School advocated "plein air painting", tended to use a palette with subdued and colors; the Düsseldorf School was a part of the German Romantic movement. Prominent members of the Düsselorf School included von Schadow, Karl Friedrich Lessing, Johann Wilhelm Schirmer, Andreas Achenbach, Hans Fredrik Gude, Oswald Achenbach, Adolf Schrödter; the Düsseldorf School had a significant influence on the Hudson River School in the United States, many prominent Americans trained at the Düsseldorf Academy and show the influence of the Düsseldorf School, including George Caleb Bingham, David Edward Cronin, Eastman Johnson, Worthington Whittredge, Richard Caton Woodville, William Stanley Haseltine, James McDougal Hart, Helen Searle, William Morris Hunt, as well as German émigré Emanuel Leutze.
Albert Bierstadt was not accepted. His American friend Worthington Whittredge became his teacher while attending Düsseldorf. Between 1819 and 1918, some 4000 artists belonged to the Düsseldorf school of painting, including: Andreas Achenbach Oswald Achenbach Hermann Anschütz Peter Nicolai Arbo Louis Asher Anders Askevold Hans von Bartels William Holbrook Beard August Becker Jakob Becker Peter Behrens Gunnar Berg Ludolph Berkemeier Edward Beyer Albert Bierstadt George Caleb Bingham Georg Bleibtreu Arnold Böcklin Erik Bodom Friedrich Boser August Bromeis Wilhelm Busch Anton Bütler Joseph Niklaus Bütler Alexandre Calame Wilhelm Camphausen August Cappelen Gustaf Cederström Fanny Churberg Johann Wilhelm Cordes Peter von Cornelius Ludwig des Coudres Ernest Crofts Georg Heinrich Crola David Edward Cronin Hans Dahl Ernst Deger Anton Dietrich Eugen Dücker Adam Eberle Marie Egner Joseph Fay Anselm Feuerbach Albert Flamm Arnold Forstmann Friedrich Friedländer Bernhard Fries Otto Frölicher Julius Geertz Sanford Robinson Gifford Hans Fredrik Gude Eugene von Guerard Aasta Hansteen James McDougal Hart William Stanley Haseltine Johann Peter Hasenclever Lars Hertervig George Hetzel Hermann Ottomar Herzog Theodor Hildebrandt Robert Alexander Hillingford Bernhard Hoetger Oskar Hoffmann Adolfo Hohenstein Julius Hübner Emil Hünten William Morris Hunt Otto Hupp Franz Ittenbach Otto Reinhold Jacobi Elisabeth Jerichau-Baumann August Jernberg Eastman Johnson Arthur Kampf Wilhelm von Kaulbach William Keith César Klein Ludwig Knaus Heinrich Christoph Kolbe Rudolf Koller Julius Kronberg Ants Laikmaa Marcus Larson Wilhelm Lehmbruck Carl Friedrich Lessing Emanuel Leutze Bruno Liljefors Amalia Lindegren George Luks August Macke Fritz Mackensen August Malmström Gari Melchers Carlo Mense Johann Georg Meyer Otto Modersohn Heinrich Mücke Morten Müller Paul Müller-Kaempff Mihály von Munkácsy Ludvig Munthe Amaldus Nielsen Bengt Nordenberg Adelsteen Normann Adolph Northen Theobald von Oer Eduard Peithner von Lichtenfels Carl von Perbandt Heinrich Petersen-Angeln Eduard Wilhelm Pose Johann Wilhelm Preyer Kristjan Raud Paul Raud Robert Reinick Alfred Rethel Karl Lorenz Rettich Henry Ritter Theodor Rocholl Hubert Salentin Johann Wilhelm Schirmer Julius Schrader Adolf Schreyer Adolf Seel Ivan Shishkin Karl Ferdinand Sohn Bernhard Studer Adolph Tidemand Carl d'Unker Lesser Ury Frederick Vezin Heinrich Vogeler Alfred Wahlberg Edward Arthur Walton Worthington Whittredge Charles Wimar Mårten Eskil Winge Richard Caton Woodville Magnus von Wright Clemens von Zimmermann German Romanticism
Ossian is the narrator and purported author of a cycle of epic poems published by the Scottish poet James Macpherson from 1760. Macpherson claimed to have collected word-of-mouth material in Scottish Gaelic, said to be from ancient sources, that the work was his translation of that material. Ossian is based on Oisín, son of Finn or Fionn mac Cumhaill, anglicised to Finn McCool, a legendary bard, a character in Irish mythology. Contemporary critics were divided in their view of the work's authenticity, but the consensus since is that Macpherson framed the poems himself, based on old folk tales he had collected; the work was internationally popular, translated into all the literary languages of Europe and was influential both in the development of the Romantic movement and the Gaelic revival. "The contest over the authenticity of Macpherson's pseudo-Gaelic productions," Curley asserts, "became a seismograph of the fragile unity within restive diversity of imperial Great Britain in the age of Johnson."
Macpherson's fame was crowned by his burial among the literary giants in Westminster Abbey. W. P. Ker, in the Cambridge History of English Literature, observes that "all Macpherson's craft as a philological impostor would have been nothing without his literary skill." In 1760 Macpherson published the English-language text Fragments of ancient poetry, collected in the Highlands of Scotland, translated from the Gaelic or Erse language. That year, he claimed to have obtained further manuscripts and in 1761 he claimed to have found an epic on the subject of the hero Fingal, written by Ossian. According to Macpherson's prefatory material, his publisher, claiming that there was no market for these works except in English, required that they be translated. Macpherson published these translations during the next few years, culminating in a collected edition, The Works of Ossian, in 1765; the most famous of these Ossianic poems was Fingal, written in 1762. The supposed original poems are translated with short and simple sentences.
The mood is epic. The main characters are Ossian himself, relating the stories when old and blind, his father Fingal, his dead son Oscar, Oscar's lover Malvina, who looks after Ossian in his old age. Though the stories "are of endless battles and unhappy loves", the enemies and causes of strife are given little explanation and context. Characters are given to killing loved ones by mistake, dying of grief, or of joy. There is little information given on the religion, culture or society of the characters, buildings are hardly mentioned; the landscape "is more real than the people. Drowned in eternal mist, illuminated by a decrepit sun or by ephemeral meteors, it is a world of greyness." Fingal is king of a region of south-west Scotland similar to the historical kingdom of Dál Riata and the poems appear to be set around the 3rd century, with the "king of the world" mentioned being the Roman Emperor. The poems achieved international success. Napoleon and Diderot were prominent admirers and Voltaire was known to have written parodies of them.
Thomas Jefferson thought Ossian "the greatest poet that has existed", planned to learn Gaelic so as to read his poems in the original. They were proclaimed as a Celtic equivalent of the Classical writers such as Homer. Many writers were influenced by the works, including Walter Scott, painters and composers chose Ossianic subjects. One poem was translated into French in 1762, by 1777 the whole corpus. In the German-speaking states Michael Denis made the first full translation in 1768–69, inspiring the proto-nationalist poets Klopstock and Goethe, whose own German translation of a portion of Macpherson's work figures prominently in a climactic scene of The Sorrows of Young Werther. Goethe's associate Johann Gottfried Herder wrote an essay titled Extract from a correspondence about Ossian and the Songs of Ancient Peoples in the early days of the Sturm und Drang movement. Complete Danish translations were made in 1790, Swedish ones in 1794–1800. In Scandinavia and Germany the Celtic nature of the setting was ignored or not understood, Ossian was regarded as a Nordic or Germanic figure who became a symbol for nationalist aspirations.
The French general Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, made King Charles XIV John of Sweden and King of Norway, had named his only son after a character from Ossian, at the suggestion of Napoleon, the child's godfather and an admirer of Ossian. Born in 1799, Bernadotte's son became King Oscar I of Sweden and Norway, who was, in turn, succeeded by his sons Charles XV of Sweden and Oscar II. "Oscar" being a Royal Swedish name led to its becoming a common male first name in Scandinavia but in other European countries. Melchiore Cesarotti was an Italian clergyman whose translation into Italian is said by many to improve on the original, was a tireless promoter of the poems, in Vienna and Warsaw as well as Italy, it was his translation that Napoleon admired, among others it influenced Ugo Foscolo, Cesarotti's pupil in the University of Padua. By 1800 Ossian was translated into Spanish and Russian, with Dutch following in 1805, Polish and Hungarian in 1827–33; the poems were as much admired in Hungary as in Germany.
The Italian Renaissance was a period of Italian history that began in the 14th century and lasted until the 17th century. It peaked during the 15th and 16th centuries, spreading across Europe and marking the transition from the Middle Ages to Modernity; the French word renaissance means "Rebirth" and defines the period as one of cultural revival and renewed interest in classical antiquity after the centuries labeled the Dark Ages by Renaissance humanists. The Renaissance author Giorgio Vasari used the term "Rebirth" in his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects but the concept became widespread only in the 19th century, after the works of scholars such as Jules Michelet and Jacob Burckhardt; the Renaissance began in Tuscany, was centred in the city of Florence. Florence, one of the several city-states of the peninsula, rose to economic prominence by providing credit for European monarchs and laying down the groundwork for capitalism and banking; the Renaissance spread to Venice, heart of a mediterranean empire and in control of the trade routes with the east since the participation in the crusades and the voyages of Marco Polo, where the remains of ancient Greek culture were brought together and provided humanist scholars with new texts.
The Renaissance had a significant effect on the Papal States and Rome rebuilt by Humanist and Renaissance popes, who were involved in Italian politics, in arbitrating disputes between competing colonial powers and in opposing the Reformation. The Italian Renaissance is best known for its achievements in painting, sculpture, music, philosophy and exploration. Italy became the recognized European leader in all these areas by the late 15th century, during the Peace of Lodi agreed between Italian states; the Italian Renaissance peaked in the mid-16th century as domestic disputes and foreign invasions plunged the region into the turmoil of the Italian Wars. However, the ideas and ideals of the Italian Renaissance endured and spread into the rest of Europe, setting off the Northern Renaissance. Italian explorers from the maritime republics served under the auspices of European monarchs, ushering the Age of discovery; the most famous among them are Christopher Columbus who sailed for Spain, Giovanni da Verrazzano for France, Amerigo Vespucci for Portugal, John Cabot for England.
Italian scientists such as Falloppio, Galileo, played a key role in the scientific revolution and foreigners such as Copernicus and Vesalius worked in Italian universities. Various events and dates of the 17th century, such as the conclusion of the European Wars of Religion in 1648, have been proposed for the end of the Renaissance. Accounts of Renaissance literature begin with the three great poets of the 14th century: Dante Alighieri and Boccaccio. Famous vernacular poets of the Renaissance include the renaissance epic authors Luigi Pulci, Matteo Maria Boiardo, Ludovico Ariosto and Torquato Tasso. 15th-century writers such as the poet Poliziano and the Platonist philosopher Marsilio Ficino made extensive translations from both Latin and Greek. In the early 16th century, Castiglione laid out his vision of the ideal gentleman and lady in The Book of the Courtier, while Machiavelli cast a jaundiced eye on "la verità effettuale della cosa"—the actual truth of things—in The Prince, composed, in humanistic style, chiefly of parallel ancient and modern examples of Virtù.
Historians of the period include Machiavelli himself, his friend and critic Francesco Guicciardini and Giovanni Botero. The Aldine Press, founded by the printer Aldo Manuzio, active in Venice, developed Italic type and portable printed books that could be carried in one's pocket, as well as being the first to publish editions of books in Ancient Greek. Venice became the birthplace of the Commedia dell'Arte. Italian Renaissance art exercised a dominant influence on subsequent European painting and sculpture for centuries afterwards, with artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Giotto di Bondone, Fra Angelico, Piero della Francesca, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Perugino and Titian; the same is true for architecture, as practiced by Brunelleschi, Leon Battista Alberti, Andrea Palladio, Bramante. Their works include, to name only a few, the Florence Cathedral, St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, the Tempio Malatestiano in Rimini, as well as several private residences; the musical era of the Italian Renaissance was defined by the Roman School and by the Venetian School and the birth of Opera in Florence.
In philosophy, thinkers such as Galileo, Giordano Bruno and Pico della Mirandola, emphasized naturalism and humanism, thus rejecting dogma and scholasticism. By the Late Middle Ages, the former heartland of the Roman Empire, southern Italy were poorer than the North. Rome was a city of ancient ruins, the Papal States were loosely administered, vulnerable to external interference such as that of France, Spain; the Papacy was affronted when the Avignon Papacy was created in southern France as a consequence of pressure from King Philip the Fair of France. In the south, Sicily had for some time been under foreign domination, by the Arabs and the Normans. Sicily had prospered for 150 years during the Emirate of Sicily and for two centuries during the Norman Kingdom and the Hohenstaufen Kingdom, but had declined by the late
Romanticism in Scotland
Romanticism in Scotland was an artistic and intellectual movement that developed between the late eighteenth and the early nineteenth centuries. It was part of the wider European Romantic movement, a reaction against the Age of Enlightenment, emphasising individual and emotional responses, moving beyond Renaissance and Classicist models to the Middle Ages. In the arts, Romanticism manifested itself in literature and drama in the adoption of the mythical bard Ossian, the exploration of national poetry in the work of Robert Burns and in the historical novels of Walter Scott. Scott had a major impact on the development of a national Scottish drama. Art was influenced by Ossian and a new view of the Highlands as the location of a wild and dramatic landscape. Scott profoundly affected architecture through his re-building of Abbotsford House in the early nineteenth century, which set off the boom in the Scots Baronial revival. In music, Burns was part of an attempt to produce a canon of Scottish song, which resulted in a cross fertilisation of Scottish and continental classical music, with romantic music becoming dominant in Scotland into the twentieth century.
Intellectually and figures like Thomas Carlyle played a part in the development of historiography and the idea of the historical imagination. Romanticism influenced science the life sciences, geology and astronomy, giving Scotland a prominence in these areas that continued into the late nineteenth century. Scottish philosophy was dominated by Scottish Common Sense Realism, which shared some characteristics with Romanticism and was a major influence on the development of Transcendentalism. Scott played a major part in defining Scottish and British politics, helping to create a romanticised view of Scotland and the Highlands that fundamentally changed Scottish national identity. Romanticism began to subside as a movement in the 1830s, but it continued to affect areas such as music until the early twentieth century, it had a lasting impact on the nature of Scottish identity and outside perceptions of Scotland. Romanticism was a complex artistic and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the eighteenth century in western Europe, gained strength during and after the Industrial and French Revolutions.
It was a revolt against the political norms of the Age of Enlightenment which rationalised nature, was embodied most in the visual arts and literature, but influenced historiography and the natural sciences. Romanticism has been seen as "the revival of the life and thought of the Middle Ages", reaching beyond Rationalist and Classicist models to elevate medievalism and elements of art and narrative perceived to be authentically medieval, in an attempt to escape the confines of population growth, urban sprawl and industrialism, embracing the exotic and distant, it is associated with political revolutions, beginning with those in Americana and France and movements for independence in Poland and Greece. It is thought to incorporate an emotional assertion of the self and of individual experience along with a sense of the infinite and sublime. In art there was a stress on landscape and a spiritual correspondence with nature, it has been described by Margaret Drabble as "an unending revolt against classical form, conservative morality, authoritarian government, personal insincerity, human moderation".
Although after union with England in 1707 Scotland adopted English language and wider cultural norms, its literature developed a distinct national identity and began to enjoy an international reputation. Allan Ramsay laid the foundations of a reawakening of interest in older Scottish literature, as well as leading the trend for pastoral poetry, helping to develop the Habbie stanza as a poetic form. James Macpherson was the first Scottish poet to gain an international reputation. Claiming to have found poetry written by the ancient bard Ossian, he published translations that acquired international popularity, being proclaimed as a Celtic equivalent of the Classical epics. Fingal, written in 1762, was speedily translated into many European languages, its appreciation of natural beauty and treatment of the ancient legend has been credited more than any single work with bringing about the Romantic movement in European, in German literature, through its influence on Johann Gottfried von Herder and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
It was popularised in France by figures that included Napoleon. It became clear that the poems were not direct translations from the Gaelic, but flowery adaptations made to suit the aesthetic expectations of his audience. Robert Burns and Walter Scott were influenced by the Ossian cycle. Burns, an Ayrshire poet and lyricist, is regarded as the national poet of Scotland and a major influence on the Romantic movement, his poem "Auld Lang Syne" is sung at Hogmanay, "Scots Wha Hae" served for a long time as an unofficial national anthem of the country. Scott began as a poet and collected and published Scottish ballads, his first prose work, Waverley in 1814, is called the first historical novel. It launched a successful career, with other historical novels such as Rob Roy, The Heart of Midlothian and Ivanhoe. Scott did more than any other figure to define and popularise Scottish cultural identity in the nineteenth century. Other major literary figures connected with Romanticism include the poets and novelists James Hogg, Allan Cunningham an