Josiah Edward "Jed" Bartlet is a fictional character from the American television serial drama The West Wing, portrayed by Martin Sheen. The role earned Sheen a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Television Series Drama in 2001, as well as two SAG Awards. Bartlet's tenure as a Democratic President of the United States is a preeminent aspect of the series, his origin as a recurring character evolved due to Sheen's acting finesse. The first season depicts part of his first and second years in office and subsequent seasons flesh out the details of his administration, including friction between his policies and those of the Republican-dominated Congress, his tribulations with multiple sclerosis, his reelection, the campaign of his successor. Characterized by manifest integrity, quick witticisms, a fierce intellect, compassionate stoicism, Bartlet is acclaimed by critics and political commentators alike as the "most popular Democratic president in recent memory". Show creator Aaron Sorkin had not intended to feature the president at all, having envisioned the series as focused on the White House senior staff who execute and advise on major policy and political matters.
"Then I felt that would become hokey," he said. "We'll be just missing the president. As he walks around the corner, we'll see the back of his head." The character of Josiah Bartlet was created as a recurring figure, Martin Sheen was signed to appear in four episodes. Alan Alda, Jason Robards, Sidney Poitier were considered for the role. After seeing Sheen's dailies, the producers were so impressed that they asked him to join the regular cast. "They realized that people might catch on that I'd be there only once a month, so they talked to me about a longer commitment," says Sheen. The actor said that part of the reason he took on the role of Bartlet was because of his involvement in social issues. Sorkin's main interest in writing for the character was exploring the side of the president that the public does not see. Sheen described the character as being drawn from Bill Clinton: "He's bright and filled with all the negative foibles that make him human," he told Radio Times. Sheen said elsewhere that he adored Clinton and was welcomed into the Clinton White House for visits during the period between the show's beginning in the fall of 1999 and the inauguration of George W. Bush as president in January 2001.
Sorkin said he took some of Bartlet's characteristics from his own father, namely his "great love of education and literature all things old," his " in a genuine goodness in people," and his "'Aw, Dad' sense of humor."In the middle of the show's first season, it is revealed that Bartlet has multiple sclerosis. According to Sorkin, this was not planned. "When I wrote the pilot, I didn't have any idea what was going to happen in Episode 2, much less 12," he says. Bartlet was raised in Manchester, New Hampshire, he is a direct descendant of Josiah Bartlett, a real-world signatory of the Declaration of Independence. Bartlet is a devout Catholic; this is due to the influence of his mother, as his father would have preferred that he be raised Protestant. His relationship with his father was strained and abusive. In a discussion with his subconscious, personified by the "ghost" of Mrs. Landingham, his father is described as "a prick who could never get over the fact that he wasn't as smart as his brothers."
Sorkin has stated that Bartlet's father, "obviously convinced he married some Catholic whore, treats his son for a number of reasons, not the least of, that he adopted his mother's religion." Sorkin said that Bartlet's tirade against God in the episode "Two Cathedrals" is therefore directed just as much at Bartlet's own father as it is at God. However, when his father's unkind and sometimes abusive treatment of him is mentioned by Toby Ziegler, Bartlet attempts to defend his father. Though he is long dead, Toby suggests that Bartlet is still trying to get the man to like him, hoping that "maybe if you get enough votes, win one more election," Bartlet will be able to earn his father's approval, he displays a remarkable ability for chess. Once, he engaged several members of his staff in separate matches at the same time, won. Bartlet scored 1590 out of 1600 on his SAT college admission test, he retook the exam, received the same result, something both Leo McGarry and Dr. Stanley Keyworth find amusing.
He was accepted to Williams and Yale, but instead chose to go to the University of Notre Dame, as he was considering becoming a priest, though decided not to after meeting his wife. He graduated summa cum laude with a B. A. in American studies and a minor in theology. He received a Masters and Ph. D. in economics from the London School of Economics, as well as an Honorary Doctorate in Humane Letters from Dartmouth College, where he was a tenured professor prior to entering politics. He speaks four languages, including Latin and German, he is a Nobel Laureate in Economics, is portrayed as a macroeconomist sympathetic to Keynesian views. He was required to split his Nobel Prize with another economist, a much more conservative Japanese man whom Bartlet respects but does not like, he is the author of a book entitled Theory and Practice of Macroeconomics in Developing Countries, his research in economics is described as being focused on the developing world. Bartlet's wife, Abigail Barrington, is a thoracic surgeon and
The West Wing (season 7)
The seventh and final season of the American political drama television series The West Wing aired in the United States on NBC from September 25, 2005 to May 14, 2006 and consisted of 22 episodes. The series changed time slots from Wednesdays at 8:00 pm to Sundays at 8:00 pm, the series struggled in its new time slot against ABC's Extreme Makeover: Home Edition and CBS's Cold Case; the season was released on DVD as a six-disc boxed set under the title The West Wing: The Complete Seventh Season by Warner Home Video being released first in Region 2 on September 11, 2006 and in Region 1 on November 7, 2006. All episodes from the season are available to purchase and download to registered users of iTunes Stores in certain countries and in the US through Amazon Video on Demand. In Canada, the seventh season was due to be simulcast on CTV. In the United Kingdom the season premiered on March 10, 2006 on More4; the season was produced by John Wells Productions in association with Warner Bros. Television.
The executive producers were the production company's namesake and founder John Wells, Christopher Misiano, Alex Graves, political analyst Lawrence O'Donnell and Peter Noah. The West Wing was created by Aaron Sorkin. For the seventh season, regular staff writers were Wells, O'Donnell, Eli Attie, Debora Cahn, Josh Singer and Lauren Schmidt, while cast member Bradley Whitford wrote his second episode of the series; the regular directors were Misiano, Andrew Bernstein and Lesli Linka Glatter. The seventh season had star billing for thirteen major roles, with twelve of these filled by returning main cast members from the sixth season. Martin Sheen receives the "and" credit for his role as President Josiah Bartlet, while Jimmy Smits receives a "with" credit; the rest of the ensemble, including Kristin Chenoweth, are credited alphabetically. This season saw every cast member appear in a diminished role, with the exception of Jimmy Smits who appeared in all 22 episodes; the other most appearing cast members were Whitford.
Alda, McCormack, Sheen appeared in 12 episodes each and Moloney in 13, Chenoweth in 10, Schiff in 11, who died of a heart-attack in December 2005, appeared in 7, Hill appeared in 5, Channing appeared in 4 episodes. Alan Alda as Arnold Vinick Stockard Channing as Abbey Bartlet Kristin Chenoweth as Annabeth Schott Dulé Hill as Charlie Young Allison Janney as C. J. Cregg Joshua Malina as Will Bailey Mary McCormack as Kate Harper Janel Moloney as Donna Moss Richard Schiff as Toby Ziegler John Spencer as Leo McGarry Bradley Whitford as Josh Lyman Jimmy Smits as Matt Santos Martin Sheen as Josiah Bartlet Janeane Garofalo contracted to join the show in a three-episode arc as Louise Thornton, a media strategist hired by Matt Santos. Other characters that returned in recurring roles were Ron Silver as Bruno Gianelli, campaign manager for Sen. Vinick. Other guest stars returning to recurring roles include Teri Polo as Helen Santos, Patricia Richardson as Sen. Vinick's chief of staff Sheila Brooks, Lily Tomlin as Presidential secretary Debbie Fiderer, Karis Campbell as Santos' secretary Ronna, Allison Smith as Leo's daughter, Kathleen York as Andrea Wyatt, Melissa Fitzgerald as Carol, Renée Estevez as Nancy, Peter James Smith and William Duffy as Ed and Larry and all White House staff.
Oliver Platt returned in his recurring role as Oliver Babish, having appeared back in 2001. In March 2006, it was announced that a number of former cast members would be reprising the roles of previous characters; these included Rob Lowe as political official Sam Seaborn, Mary-Louise Parker as women's rights advocate Amy Gardner, Anna Deavere Smith as National Security Advisor Nancy McNally, Emily Procter as Republican attorney Ainsley Hayes, Marlee Matlin as pollster Joey Lucas, Gary Cole as Vice President Bob Russell, Tim Matheson as former Vice President John Hoynes, Timothy Busfield as journalist Danny Concannon, Annabeth Gish as Liz Bartlet Westin, eldest daughter of President Bartlet. The season was nominated for six Primetime Emmy Awards in 2006; the show was nominated for Outstanding Drama Series for the seventh year running. Alan Alda, as Senator Vinick, won in the award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Drama Series. Martin Sheen, as President Bartlet, was nominated for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama Series and Allison Janney, as C.
J. was nominated in the Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series category. Mimi Leder was nominated for Outstanding Directing in a Drama Series for the episode "Election Day" and Audio mixer Edward J. Greene and EFX mixer Andrew Strauber won the award for Outstanding Multi-camera Sound Mixing for a Series or Special for "The Debate". Eli Attie and John Wells received a Writers Guild of America Award nomination in the Episodic Drama category for "Election Day Part II". Attie and Wells were nominated for the $15,000 Humanitas Prize in the 60-minute category for the same episode, the submission that won the show an AFI Award that year; the show won the Hallmark Hall of Fame Heritage Award at the Television Critics Association Awards and Alda received a nomination for Individual Achievement in Drama. Alda was nominated for a Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Drama Series, The Guild nominated the whole ensemble for the Outstanding Performance in a Drama Series award.
Supervising sound editors Walter Newman and Thomas A. Harris, supervising dialogue editor Catherine Flynn, dialogue and ADR editors
National Security Advisor (United States)
The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs referred to as the National Security Advisor or at times informally termed the NSC Advisor, is a senior aide in the Executive Office of the President, based at the West Wing of the White House, who serves as the chief in-house advisor to the President of the United States on national security issues. The National Security Advisor is appointed by the President and does not require confirmation by the Senate, but an appointment of a three or four-star general to the role requires Senate reconfirmation of military rank; the National Security Advisor participates in meetings of the National Security Council and chairs meetings of the Principals Committee of the NSC with the Secretary of State and Secretary of Defense. The National Security Advisor is supported by NSC staff who produce research and briefings for the National Security Advisor to review and present, either to the National Security Council or directly to the President; the influence and role of the National Security Advisor varies from administration to administration and depends not only on the qualities of the person appointed to the position, but on the style and management philosophy of the incumbent President.
Ideally, the National Security Advisor serves as an honest broker of policy options for the President in the field of national security, rather than as an advocate for his or her own policy agenda. However, the National Security Advisor is a staff position in the Executive Office of the President and does not have line or budget authority over either the Department of State or the Department of Defense, unlike the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Defense, who are Senate-confirmed officials with statutory authority over their departments. In times of crisis, the National Security Advisor is to operate from the White House Situation Room or the Presidential Emergency Operations Center, updating the President on the latest events in a crisis situation; the National Security Council was created at the start of the Cold War under the National Security Act of 1947 to coordinate defense, foreign affairs, international economic policy, intelligence. The Act did not create the position of the National Security Advisor per se, but it did create an executive secretary in charge of the staff.
In 1949, the NSC became part of the Executive Office of the President. Robert Cutler was the first National Security Advisor in 1953; the system has remained unchanged since particularly since President John Kennedy, with powerful National Security Advisors and strong staff but a lower importance given to formal NSC meetings. This continuity persists despite the tendency of each new president to replace the advisor and senior NSC staff. President Richard Nixon's National Security Advisor, Henry Kissinger, enhanced the importance of the role, controlling the flow of information to the President and meeting him multiple times per day. Kissinger holds the distinction of serving as National Security Advisor and Secretary of State at the same time from September 22, 1973, until November 3, 1975. Brent Scowcroft is the only person to have held the job in two non-consecutive administrations: in the Ford administration and in the G. H. W. Bush administration. Robert Cutler held the job twice, both times during the Eisenhower administration.
Henry Kissinger holds the record for longest term of service. Michael Flynn holds the record for shortest term of service. Three and four-star generals require Senate confirmation due to the statutory nature requiring Congress to appoint their military rank; the prior National Security Adviser, H. R. McMaster, is a three-star lieutenant general and his military rank was reconfirmed by the Senate on March 15, 2017. On Thursday, March 22, 2018, President Donald Trump announced, via Twitter, that McMaster would be replaced as the National Security Advisor by former U. S. Ambassador to the United Nations John R. Bolton, effective April 9, 2018. White House Chief of Staff Homeland Security Council Homeland Security Advisor 2009-02: The National Security Advisor and Staff. WhiteHouseTransitionProject.org. 2009. Www.whitehouse.gov/nsc
William John Bayley is a British professional Paralympic table tennis player, ranked world number 1. He is the 2014 World Champion. Bayley was born on 17 January 1988 in Royal Tunbridge Wells, England, he was born with arthrogryposis. At the age of seven he was diagnosed with cancer. During his recovery he began playing table tennis after his grandmother bought him his first table. At the age of 12 he joined the Byng Hall Table Tennis Club in Tunbridge Wells and went on to represent Kent's able bodied men's team. From the age of 17 he has lived and trained full time at the English Institute of Sport in Sheffield, he represented Great Britain at the 2008 Summer Paralympics in Beijing, where he was knocked out of the table tennis C7 singles in the preliminary round after defeats against Germany's Jochen Wollmert and Ukraine's Mykhaylo Popov and a single victory against Shumel Shur of Israel. He competed in the C6-8 team event along with Paul Karabardak and David Wetherill. In 2009 he won gold medals at the Czech and German opens, in 2010 he took golds in Lignano and Brazil.
Bayley won a gold medal in the singles at the 2011 European Championships in Croatia. He won a silver medal in the men's Team event class 7, playing alongside Karabardak. At the end of 2011 he was voted the European Players' Player of the Year and in January 2012 he achieved the world number one ranking. Will Bayley won a silver medal in the London 2012 Summer Paralympics after losing to Germany's Jochen Wollmert in the class 7 final. At the Rio 2016 Summer Paralympics, Bayley won his first Paralympic gold medal after beating home-favorite Brazilian Israel Pereira Stroh, he received a yellow card for jumping up onto the table in celebration. Bayley was appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire in the 2017 New Year Honours for services to table tennis
United States Air Force Judge Advocate General's Corps
The Judge Advocate General's Corps known as the "JAG Corps" or "JAG" is the legal arm of the United States Air Force. The United States Air Force became a separate military service in September 1947. On June 25, 1948, the Congress established an office of The Judge Advocate General in the United States Air Force. On July 8, 1949, the Air Force Chief of Staff designated 205 attorneys Air Force Judge Advocates, thus there were Air Force judge advocates three months before there was an Air Force Judge Advocate General. Following the promulgation of enabling legislation, the Air Force Judge Advocate General's Department was established on January 25, 1949 by Department of the Air Force General Order No. 7. While this event was the birth of the department, it represented an interim step, providing the Air Force authority to administer its military justice system within the existing Air Force structure of the time until other legislation could be developed and enacted; the department was a part of the Air Force Personnel Branch, but became a separate entity reporting directly to the Air Force Chief of Staff in February 1950.
The first Air Force judge advocate general, Major General Reginald C. Harmon, believed it important for Air Force JAGs to remain a part of a functionally interconnected military department. For that reason, the concept of a separate corps was discarded in favor of the department that existed until 2003. In 2003, the Judge Advocate General's Department was renamed to the Judge Advocate General's Corps by order of the Secretary of the Air Force, Dr. James G. Roche. In December 2004, the Air Force Judge Advocate General, Thomas J. Fiscus, accepted non-judicial punishment under Article 15 of the UCMJ, for conduct unbecoming of an officer and obstruction of justice related to numerous unprofessional sexual relationships with subordinates. Upon his retirement, Fiscus was reduced two grades, to colonel. Major General Jack Rives, the Deputy Judge Advocate General, became the Air Force Judge Advocate General as of February 2006. On July 23, 2008, General Rives was confirmed as a lieutenant general, becoming the first TJAG to hold that rank.
On December 15, 2009, the President nominated Brigadier General Richard C. Harding to serve as the 16th Judge Advocate General. On February 2, 2010, the Senate Armed Services Committee endorsed the nomination and the Senate voted to confirm the nomination. Lieutenant General Rives retired on February 5, 2010, accepting the position of Executive Director and Chief Operating Officer of the American Bar Association, now-Lieutenant General Richard Harding became The 16th Judge Advocate General of the Air Force, his formal investiture and promotion ceremony occurred on February 23, 2010. General Harding's term as The Judge Advocate General ended on January 31, 2014. On May 22, 2014, the Senate confirmed Brigadier General Christopher F. Burne to serve as the 17th Judge Advocate General in the grade of lieutenant general, he began duties as The Judge Advocate General on the following day. Lieutenant General Burne's term as The Judge Advocate General ended on May 18, 2018. On January 30, 2018, the Senate confirmed Major General Jeffrey A. Rockwell, serving as Deputy Judge Advocate General, to serve as the 18th Judge Advocate General in the grade of lieutenant general.
That same day, the Senate confirmed Brigadier General Charles L. Plummer to serve as Deputy Judge Advocate General in the grade of major general. Lieutenant General Rockwell's formal investiture ceremony occurred on May 21, 2018; the Air Force Judge Advocate General's School was founded in 1950 and has been located in the William Louis Dickinson Law Center, at Maxwell Air Force Base in Montgomery, Alabama since 1993. The school provides instruction to new judge advocates and paralegals, in addition to offering 30 continuing legal education courses; the school publishes scholarly legal journals such as The Air Force Law Review and The Reporter online. The school produces The Military Commander and the Law, a publication, invaluable not only to judge advocates, but commanders and first sergeants in handling the myriad of legal issues that arise with a squadron or wing, for the continued enforcement of good order and discipline. Major General Reginald C. Harmon Major General Albert M. Kuhfeld Major General Robert W. Manss Major General James S. Cheney Major General Harold R. Vague Major General Walter D. Reed Major General Thomas B.
Bruton Major General Robert W. Norris Major General Keithe E. Nelson Major General David C. Morehouse Major General Nolan Sklute Major General Bryan G. Hawley Major General William A. Moorman Major General Thomas J. Fiscus. Rockwell General Counsel of the Air Force Air Force Court of Criminal Appeals U. S. Army Judge Advocate General's Corps U. S. Navy Judge Advocate General's Corps U. S. Marine Corps Judge Advocate Division U. S. Coast Guard Legal Division Judge Advocate General's Corps Judge Advocate General Military justice Air Force Office of Special Investigations United Kingdom Judge Advocate of the Fleet Judge Advocate General Canada Judge Advocate General Air Force JAG Corps Air Force Co
William Jefferson Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Prior to the presidency, he was the governor of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981, again from 1983 to 1992, the attorney general of Arkansas from 1977 to 1979. A member of the Democratic Party, Clinton was ideologically a New Democrat, many of his policies reflected a centrist "Third Way" political philosophy. Clinton was born and raised in Arkansas and attended Georgetown University, University College and Yale Law School, he met Hillary Rodham at Yale and married her in 1975. After graduating, Clinton returned to Arkansas and won election as the Attorney General of Arkansas, serving from 1977 to 1979; as Governor of Arkansas, he overhauled the state's education system and served as chairman of the National Governors Association. Clinton was elected president in 1992. At age 46, he became the first from the Baby Boomer generation. Clinton presided over the longest period of peacetime economic expansion in American history.
He signed into law the North American Free Trade Agreement but failed to pass his plan for national health care reform. In the 1994 elections, the Republican Party won unified control of the Congress for the first time in 40 years. In 1996, Clinton became the first Democrat since Franklin D. Roosevelt to be elected to a second full term, he passed welfare reform and the State Children's Health Insurance Program, as well as financial deregulation measures, including the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act and the Commodity Futures Modernization Act of 2000. In 1998, Clinton was impeached by the House of Representatives for perjury and obstruction of justice following allegations that he committed perjury and obstructed justice to conceal an affair that he had with Monica Lewinsky, a 22-year old White House Intern. Clinton was completed his term in office, he is only the second U. S. president—following Andrew Johnson 131 years earlier—to be impeached. During the last three years of Clinton's presidency, the Congressional Budget Office reported a budget surplus, the first such surplus since 1969.
In foreign policy, Clinton ordered U. S. military intervention in the Bosnian and Kosovo wars, signed the Iraq Liberation Act in opposition to Saddam Hussein, participated in the 2000 Camp David Summit to advance the Israeli–Palestinian peace process, assisted the Northern Ireland peace process. Clinton left office with the highest end-of-office approval rating of any U. S. president since World War II, has continually scored high in the historical rankings of U. S. presidents placing in the top third. Since leaving office, he has been involved in humanitarian work, he created the William J. Clinton Foundation to address international causes such as the prevention of AIDS and global warming, he has remained active in politics by campaigning for Democratic candidates, including the presidential campaigns of his wife and Barack Obama. In 2004, Clinton published My Life. In 2009, he was named the United Nations Special Envoy to Haiti and after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, he teamed with George W. Bush to form the Clinton Bush Haiti Fund.
In addition, he secured the release of two American journalists imprisoned by North Korea, visiting the capital Pyongyang and negotiating their release with Kim Jong-il. Clinton was born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946, at Julia Chester Hospital in Hope, Arkansas, he is the son of William Jefferson Blythe Jr. a traveling salesman who had died in an automobile accident three months before his birth, Virginia Dell Cassidy. His parents had married on September 4, 1943, but this union proved to be bigamous, as Blythe was still married to his third wife. Virginia traveled to New Orleans to study nursing soon after Bill was born, leaving him in Hope with her parents Eldridge and Edith Cassidy, who owned and ran a small grocery store. At a time when the southern United States was racially segregated, Clinton's grandparents sold goods on credit to people of all races. In 1950, Bill's mother returned from nursing school and married Roger Clinton Sr. who co-owned an automobile dealership in Hot Springs, Arkansas with his brother and Earl T. Ricks.
The family moved to Hot Springs in 1950. Although he assumed use of his stepfather's surname, it was not until Clinton turned 15 that he formally adopted the surname Clinton as a gesture toward his stepfather. Clinton said that he remembered his stepfather as a gambler and an alcoholic who abused his mother and half-brother, Roger Clinton Jr. to the point where he intervened multiple times with the threat of violence to protect them. In Hot Springs, Clinton attended St. John's Catholic Elementary School, Ramble Elementary School, Hot Springs High School, where he was an active student leader, avid reader, musician. Clinton was in the chorus and played the tenor saxophone, winning first chair in the state band's saxophone section, he considered dedicating his life to music, but as he noted in his autobiography My Life: Clinton began an interest in law at Hot Springs High, when he took up the challenge to argue the defense of the ancient Roman Senator Catiline in a mock trial in his Latin class.
After a vigorous defense that made use of his "budding rhetorical and political skills", he told the Latin teacher Elizabeth Buck that it "made him realize that someday he would study law". Clinton has identified two influential moments in his life, both occurring in 1963, that contributed to his decision to become a public figure. One was his visit as a Boys Nation senator to
Samuel Norman Seaborn is a fictional character portrayed by Rob Lowe on the television serial drama The West Wing. He is Deputy White House Communications Director in the Josiah Bartlet administration throughout the first four seasons of the series; the show was designed with Sam as the main character, as such he is the protagonist of the pilot episode and remains a focal point and lens for the show through at least the first season. However, by the time of his departure, his significance in the plot had decreased as the show started to focus more on the President's ability to govern despite obstacles such as his undisclosed multiple sclerosis, his campaign for re-election, an increased focus on foreign policy and terrorism; the role of Sam Seaborn was offered to actor Bradley Whitford, who had auditioned for the part of Josh Lyman. However, Whitford wanted and was given the role of Josh, the part of Sam went to Rob Lowe, whose audition, said show creator Aaron Sorkin, "left our jaws on the floor".
Sam's inept performance as a White House tour guide in the pilot episode may have been inspired by former Clinton press secretary Joe Lockhart, who told the Chicago Tribune that despite having to give tours on a regular basis, he did not know whether the Roosevelt Room was named after Franklin or Teddy Roosevelt, saying, "I haven't gotten caught yet, but I've made up a few things." When the show premiered, Seaborn was considered the lead, the pilot centered on the character. But the acclaimed cast of the show—including Allison Janney, Richard Schiff, Dulé Hill, John Spencer and Sheen and Stockard Channing — were all strong actors and Lowe's character was no longer the lead. Lowe and series creator Aaron Sorkin soon found themselves at odds over the network's meddling with the show, most notably the network demanding changes in the Sam Seaborn character. Lowe left the series. Sam grew up in California, he makes a reference to going to Dungeons and Dragons camp when he was younger in the episode "The Two Bartlets".
Sam graduated magna cum laude from Duke University School of Law. He makes repeated references to his alma mater in the earlier seasons, indicating a certain pride in his attendance there. "Princeton" is his Secret Service code name, he mentions being the recording secretary of the Princeton Gilbert and Sullivan Society. He can speak Spanish, as seen in Season 3 episode "Ways and Means". Sam was the editor of the Duke Law Review. Sam was a staffer for the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee, he was a practicing lawyer, working at the law firm of Dewey Ballantine in New York City before joining the fictional Gage Whitney Pace, reputedly the second biggest law firm in New York City. Sam worked there for seven years and was concentrating on helping an oil company with a deal that would protect them from litigation in the event of an oil spill when his old friend Josh Lyman comes to visit him. Josh is running John Hoynes' presidential campaign and comes to try to recruit Sam as a speechwriter.
Sam is getting married soon. Sam returns to work but, feeling guilty about the deal he is making, begins trying to convince the oil company to buy newer, better tankers than the ones they want, unleashing the wrath of his boss and jeopardizing his promotion to partner. In the midst of this, Josh returns from a trip to New Hampshire during which he has seen Hoynes' dark-horse challenger, Jed Bartlet, speak to a small audience of voters. Josh has been sufficiently inspired to abandon Hoynes' campaign and go work for Bartlet, which in turn convinces Sam to do the same. Sam becomes part of the talented team of staffers who help Bartlet to a unlikely victory in 1998. Sam's tragically flawed romantic relationships are something of a theme of the series with Josh once describing Sam's love life as "a moveable feast". After joining the campaign, Sam broke up with his fiancée, Lisa Sherborne, whom he was planning to marry in September of that year. Sam's other romantic relationships include a high-priced call girl named Laurie, played by Lisa Edelstein, Leo McGarry's daughter, Mallory O'Brien, a fourth-grade teacher — a relationship Leo jokingly tries to sabotage, telling Sam, "I don't mind you dating my'only' daughter, but you can't expect me not to have some fun along the way."
Sam's trademark — both his greatest strength and greatest flaw — is his unflinching idealism. His unwavering faith in and love for the American political process and the positive impact that government can have in its citizens' lives define his character. Sam believes in doing the right thing because it is right when the consequences might be politically disastrous; this causes him to clash with the other members of the senior staff, who tend to be more practical when approaching political problems. Sam's idealism and faith in people are disappointed, to which he reacts strongly. In the second-season episode "Somebody's Going to Emergency, Somebody's Going to Jail", Sam finds out that his father has been having a 28-year affair while married to his mother, a revelation that shakes his sense of what he can and cannot count on; this feeling is reinforced by his discovery that a White House sta