Durban is the third most populous city in South Africa—after Johannesburg and Cape Town—and the largest city in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal. Located on the east coast of South Africa, Durban is famous for being the busiest port in the country, it is seen as one of the major centres of tourism because of the city's warm subtropical climate and extensive beaches. Durban forms part of the eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality, which includes neighboring towns and has a population of about 3.44 million, making the combined municipality one of the biggest cities on the Indian Ocean coast of the African continent. It is the second most important manufacturing hub in South Africa after Johannesburg. In 2015, Durban was recognised as one of the New7Wonders Cities. Archaeological evidence from the Drakensberg mountains suggests that the Durban area has been inhabited by communities of hunter-gatherers since 100,000 BC; these people lived throughout the area of present-day KwaZulu-Natal until the expansion of Bantu farmers and pastoralists from the north saw their gradual displacement, incorporation or extermination.
Little is known of the history of the first residents, as there is no written history of the area until it was sighted by Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama, who sailed parallel to the KwaZulu-Natal coast at Christmastide in 1497 while searching for a route from Europe to India. He named Christmas in Portuguese. In 1822 Lieutenant James King, captain of the ship Salisbury, together with Lt. Francis George Farewell, both ex-Royal Navy officers from the Napoleonic Wars, were engaged in trade between the Cape and Delagoa Bay. On a return trip to the Cape in 1823, they were caught in a bad storm and decided to risk the Bar and anchor in the Bay of Natal; the crossing went off well and they found safe anchor from the storm. Lt. King decided to map the Bay and named the "Salisbury and Farewell Islands". In 1824 Lt. Farewell, together with a trading company called J. R. Thompson & Co. decided to open trade relations with Shaka the Zulu King and establish a trading station at the Bay. Henry Francis Fynn, another trader at Delagoa Bay, was involved in this venture.
Fynn left Delagoa Bay and sailed for the Bay of Natal on the brig Julia, while Farewell followed six weeks on the Antelope. Between them they had 26 possible settlers. On a visit to King Shaka, Henry Francis Fynn was able to befriend the King by helping him recover from a stab wound suffered as a result of an assassination attempt by one of his half-brothers; as a token of Shaka's gratitude, he granted Fynn a “25-mile strip of coast a hundred miles in depth.” On 7 August 1824 they concluded negotiations with King Shaka for a cession of land, including the Bay of Natal and land extending ten miles south of the Bay, twenty-five miles north of the Bay and one hundred miles inland. Farewell took possession of this grant and raised the Union Jack with a Royal Salute, which consisted of 4 cannon shots and twenty musket shots. Of the original 18 would-be settlers, only 6 remained, they can be regarded as the founding members of Port Natal as a British colony; these 6 were joined by Lt. James Saunders King and Nathaniel Isaacs in 1825.
The modern city of Durban thus dates from 1824 when the settlement was established on the northern shores of the bay near today's Farewell Square. During a meeting of 35 European residents in Fynn's territory on 23 June 1835, it was decided to build a capital town and name it "D'Urban" after Sir Benjamin D'Urban governor of the Cape Colony; the Voortrekkers established the Republic of Natalia with its capital at Pietermaritzburg. Tension between the Voortrekkers and the Zulus prompted the governor of the Cape Colony to dispatch a force under Captain Charlton Smith to establish British rule in Natal, for fear of losing British control in Port Natal; the force arrived on 4 May 1842 and built a fortification, to be The Old Fort. On the night of 23/24 May 1842 the British attacked the Voortrekker camp at Congella; the attack failed, the British had to withdraw to their camp, put under siege. A local trader Dick King and his servant Ndongeni were able to escape the blockade and rode to Grahamstown, a distance of 600 km in fourteen days to raise reinforcements.
The reinforcements arrived in Durban 20 days later. Fierce conflict with the Zulu population led to the evacuation of Durban, the Afrikaners accepted British annexation in 1844 under military pressure; when the Borough of Durban was proclaimed in 1854, the council had to procure a seal for official documents. The seal was produced in 1855 and was replaced in 1882; the new seal contained a coat of arms without helmet or mantling that combined the coats of arms of Sir Benjamin D’Urban and Sir Benjamin Pine. An application was made to register the coat of arms with the College of Arms in 1906, but this application was rejected on grounds that the design implied that D’Urban and Pine were husband and wife; the coat of arms appeared on the council's stationery from about 1912. The following year, a helmet and mantling was added to the council's stationery and to the new city seal, made in 1936; the motto reads "Debile principium melior fortuna sequitur"—"Better fortune follows a humble beginning". The blazon of the arms registered by the South African Bureau of Heraldry and granted to Durban on 9 February 1979.
The coat of arms fell into disuse with the re-organisation of the South African local government structure in 2000. The seal ceased to be used in 1995. With the end of apartheid, Durban was subject to restruct
Christopher Robert "Rob" Andrew MBE, nicknamed "Squeaky", is a former English Rugby Union player and was, until April 2016, Professional Rugby Director at the RFU. He was the Director of Rugby of Newcastle Falcons and has been Chief Executive of Sussex County Cricket Club since January 2017; as a player, Andrew was assured in his defensive skills off both feet. Andrew had a brief career in first-class cricket whilst at University and played for Yorkshire County Cricket Club's Second XI. Andrew attended Barnard Castle School, where he was contemporaries with future teammate Rory Underwood and was captain of the school 1st XV in 1981. Whilst in the north east, both Underwood and Andrew played their rugby at Middlesbrough RUFC. Andrew attended St John's College and played for Cambridge University in the Varsity Match, he joined Nottingham for one season in 1985/86 and joined Wasps FC where he was first choice fly-half throughout most of the eight seasons he spent with the north London club. At Wasps FC he won the English League in 1990 leaving to join Newcastle Gosforth in 1995 as both a player and as director of rugby.
The club had just been bought out by Sir John Hall in the leadup to the game turning professional, they became the Falcons of today. During his time in charge of Newcastle Falcons he is credited with discovering Jonny Wilkinson, he was an ever-present. His playing career was ended in 1999 after an injury in training. Andrew was fly-half for England during the Will Carling era, making a winning debut in January 1985 against Romania at Twickenham. For the next 10 years he was England's regular fly-half earning 70 caps, including 2 as captain, he was dropped in 1993 as England tried out Barnes for the fly-half's position, but regained it after two matches. After England finished 4th in the 1995 Rugby World Cup, he saw out his contract at Wasps and moved to the Newcastle Falcons, he made his final appearance for England after an absence of 2 years when he was called off the bench as a try scoring replacement against Wales in March 1997. In total, he scored 396 international points, won the Grand Slam with England 3 times and held the English record for the most points scored in an international - 30, scored against Canada in 1994.
Critics of the England side blamed him for kicking the ball too much rather than passing - unfairly since England three times broke the Five Nations records for tries scored, points scored, with Andrew as fly-half: however it was undeniable that England's game plan was based much more around their forwards than their backs, with kicking for territory and competing to win line-outs and rucks in opposition territory being a major part of the tactic. England did, enjoy a great deal of success with him as their Number 10. Inconsistent early in his career as a place-kicker for penalties and conversions, ceding that duty to fullbacks Webb and Hodgkinson, Andrew improved that aspect of his game until by the end of his career he was among the best in the world at it, as well as being a reliable source of drop-goals, he played in 3 Rugby World Cup competitions. Curiously, just as Wilkinson had beaten Australia in the 2003 Rugby World Cup final with a drop goal, the last time Australia lost in the same competition was in 1995.
In that year, it was Andrew who nailed a drop goal on the stroke of full-time to beat the Wallabies 25-22. Four years before, it was another late drop-goal by Andrew, in the semi-final against Scotland, that took England to the final against Australia. In 1989 he had the honour of captaining the British and Irish Lions against France in a rare "home" match for the Lions; the game formed part of the celebrations of the bi-centennial of the French Revolution. Andrew remained as director of rugby at Newcastle Falcons after the injury that ended his playing career until on 18 August 2006 he was appointed by the RFU to undertake the post of Director of Elite Rugby to oversee all aspects of representative rugby in England, from the regional academies to the full senior side. On 6 January 2011, Andrew's role as director of elite rugby at the Rugby Football Union was scrapped in an overhaul of the organisation's structure, it was reported that Andrew was invited to apply for one of the new roles created by this process, that of operations director.
At a press conference on 16 November 2011 Andrew's position was described as Director of Elite Rugby and he took several attempts to describe his responsibilities. He resigned as the RFU's director of professional rugby in February 2016. On 10 November 2017, Andrew was inducted into the World Rugby Hall of Fame at a ceremony held in the Hall's facility in Rugby. Andrew was a talented cricketer, gaining a Cambridge blue for that sport as well, he made 17 first-class cricket appearances for the university cricket team in 1984 and 1985, as well as playing five times for Combined Universities in one-day cricket. A left-handed batsman and right arm off-break bowler, he made one first-class century, scoring 101 not out against Nottinghamshire in July 1984. Andrew made a few appearances for the Yorkshire Second XI, on one occasion dismissed future England captain Mike Atherton for a duck. In November 2016 Andrew was appointed chief executive of Sussex County Cricket Club. Andrew is an Honorary President of the rugby charity Wooden Spoon, which raises funds for disadvantaged children and young people in the UK and Ireland
Rugby union known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand. In its most common form, a game is between two teams of 15 players using an oval-shaped ball on a rectangular field with H-shaped goalposts at each end. Rugby union is a popular sport around the world, played by male and female players of all ages. In 2014, there were more than 6 million people playing worldwide, of whom 2.36 million were registered players. World Rugby called the International Rugby Football Board and the International Rugby Board, has been the governing body for rugby union since 1886, has 101 countries as full members and 18 associate members. In 1845, the first football laws were written by Rugby School pupils. An amateur sport, in 1995 restrictions on payments to players were removed, making the game professional at the highest level for the first time.
Rugby union spread from the Home Nations of Great Britain and Ireland and was absorbed by many of the countries associated with the British Empire. Early exponents of the sport included New Zealand, South Africa and France. Countries that have adopted rugby union as their de facto national sport include Fiji, Madagascar, New Zealand and Tonga. International matches have taken place since 1871 when the first game took place between Scotland and England at Raeburn Place in Edinburgh; the Rugby World Cup, first held in 1987, takes place every four years. The Six Nations Championship in Europe and The Rugby Championship in the Southern Hemisphere are other major international competitions, held annually. National club or provincial competitions include the Premiership in England, the Top 14 in France, the Mitre 10 Cup in New Zealand, the National Rugby Championship in Australia, the Currie Cup in South Africa. Other transnational club competitions include the Pro14 in Europe and South Africa, the European Rugby Champions Cup in Europe, Super Rugby, in the Southern Hemisphere and Japan.
The origin of rugby football is reputed to be an incident during a game of English school football at Rugby School in 1823, when William Webb Ellis is said to have picked up the ball and run with it. Although the evidence for the story is doubtful, it was immortalised at the school with a plaque unveiled in 1895. Despite the doubtful evidence, the Rugby World Cup trophy is named after Webb Ellis. Rugby football stems from the form of game played at Rugby School, which former pupils introduced to their university. Old Rugbeian Albert Pell, a student at Cambridge, is credited with having formed the first "football" team. During this early period different schools used different rules, with former pupils from Rugby and Eton attempting to carry their preferred rules through to their universities. A significant event in the early development of rugby football was the production of the first written laws of the game at Rugby School in 1845, followed by the Cambridge Rules drawn up in 1848. Other important events include the Blackheath Club's decision to leave the Football Association in 1863 and the formation of the Rugby Football Union in 1871.
The code was known as "rugby football". Despite the sport's full name of rugby union, it is known as rugby throughout most of the world; the first rugby football international was played on 27 March 1871 between Scotland and England in Edinburgh. Scotland won the game 1-0. By 1881 both Ireland and Wales had representative teams, in 1883 the first international competition, the Home Nations Championship had begun. 1883 is the year of the first rugby sevens tournament, the Melrose Sevens, still held annually. Two important overseas tours took place in 1888: a British Isles team visited Australia and New Zealand—although a private venture, it laid the foundations for future British and Irish Lions tours. During the early history of rugby union, a time before commercial air travel, teams from different continents met; the first two notable tours both took place in 1888—the British Isles team touring New Zealand and Australia, followed by the New Zealand team touring Europe. Traditionally the most prestigious tours were the Southern Hemisphere countries of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa making a tour of a Northern Hemisphere, the return tours made by a joint British and Irish team.
Tours would last for months, due to the number of games undertaken. Touring international sides would play Test matches against international opponents, including national and county sides in the case of Northern Hemisphere rugby, or provincial/state sides in the case of Southern Hemisphere rugby. Between 1905 and 1908, all three major Southern Hemisphere rugby countries sent their first touring teams to the Northern Hemisphere: New Zealand in 1905, followed by South Africa in 1906 and Australia in 1908. All three teams brought new styles of play, fitness levels and tactics, were far more successful than critics had expected; the New Zealand 1905 touri
Australia national rugby union team
The Australia national rugby union team, nicknamed the Wallabies, is controlled by Rugby Australia. The team first played at Sydney in 1899, winning their first test match against the touring British Isles team. Australia have competed in all eight Rugby World Cups, winning the final on two occasions and finishing as runner-up twice. In 1991 Australia beat England in the final at Twickenham and won again in 1999 at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff when their opponents in the final were France; the Wallabies compete annually in The Rugby Championship, along with southern hemisphere counterparts Argentina, New Zealand and South Africa. They have won this championship on four occasions. Australia plays Test matches against the various rugby-playing nations. More than a dozen former Wallabies players have been inducted into the World Rugby Hall of Fame. Australia's first international match was played against the touring British Isles team in 1899; the first Test was played at the Sydney Cricket Ground and won 13–3 by Australia, but the tourists won the remaining three Tests.
The Australian team for the first match consisted of six players from Queensland and nine from New South Wales. The team wore the blue of New South Wales when playing in Sydney and the maroon of Queensland when playing in Brisbane, but with an Australian Coat of Arms in place of the usual emblems of each colony; the first Test between Australia and New Zealand was played at the Sydney Cricket Ground in 1903, with New Zealand winning 22–3. This tour improved rugby's popularity in Sydney and Brisbane and helped to boost club match attendances. In 1907 the New South Wales Rugby League was formed and star player Dally Messenger left rugby union for the rival code; the next year the first Australian rugby team to tour the British Isles left Sydney. Newspapers in England gave the team the name'Rabbits'; the Australian players thought this nickname derogatory and replaced it with'Wallabies'. In 1909, when the new "Northern Union" code was still in its infancy in Australia, a match between the Kangaroos and the Wallabies was played before a crowd of around 20,000, with the Rugby League side winning 29–26.
The First World War had a negative effect on rugby union in Australia. All rugby union competitions in New South Wales and Queensland ceased after the state bodies decided it was inappropriate to play football when so many young men were fighting overseas; the sport of rugby union was all but closed down causing many players to switch to rugby league – which did not cease playing during the war. In Queensland regular competitions did not commence again until 1929, there was no official Australian team selected through most of the 1920s before the 1929 All Blacks tour; the New South Wales Waratahs were re-formed in 1920, played throughout the decade including series of matches against New Zealand and South Africa before their 1927–28 tour of the British Isles and Canada. Because these Waratahs teams were Australia's only representatives at the time, all international matches they played during this period were accorded retrospective Wallaby status. War hero Sir Edward "Weary" Dunlop played for Australia before World War II.
He played on the side, the first to win the Bledisloe Cup. The first Test to following World War Two was played at Carisbrook, Dunedin between Australia and New Zealand in 1946, which New Zealand won 31–8. Australia did not win on the three match tour. Australia embarked on a tour of the home nations in 1947–48; the successful tour fell short of an undefeated run when the Australia lost to France in their last match, in Paris. Players on the rise included Cyril Burke and Nicholas Shehadie. After returning from the successful European tour, Australia hosted the New Zealand Maori in a three match series in 1949. In September of that year, Australia played the All Blacks twice in New Zealand, winning both games and taking back the Bledisloe Cup for the first time on New Zealand soil. The'Number 1' All Black side was touring South Africa at the time and the wins by Australia against the B-team have sometimes been downgraded. However, in deference to the apartheid system in operation in South Africa, the NZRU did not select any Maori players for the tour.
Many of those regular All Black Maori played against Australia instead and it could be said that the New Zealand team that played Australia was at least as good as the one on tour in South Africa. The British Isles toured Australia in 1950, won both of the Tests against Australia; the following year Australia fell to a three Test whitewash to the All Blacks. Australia won in July 1952, defeating Fiji at the Sydney Cricket Ground – they lost the second Test to Fiji by two points. Australia managed to beat the All Blacks at Lancaster Park after the Fijian series. On this tour they drew against Rhodesia in Kitwe 8–8; the first match of the new decade was the win over Fiji at the SCG in the first match of a three Test series during 1961. This was followed by a second win. Australia headed to South Africa, where they lost to the Springboks in Port Elizabeth and Johannesburg. After returning home, they faced France at the SCG, who beat them 15–8. In 1962, Australia lost all but a 9-all draw at Athletic Park.
After defeating England 18–9 in 1963 in Sydney, Australia beat the Springboks in consecutive Tests in South Africa. Fewer tests were played throughout the mid-1960s, with Australia only playing a three Test series against All Bla