Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal
The Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal known as the Chicago Drainage Canal, is a 28-mile-long canal system that connects the Chicago River to the Des Plaines River. It reverses the direction of the Main Stem and the South Branch of the Chicago River, which now flows out of Lake Michigan rather than into it; the related Calumet-Saganashkee Channel does the same for the Calumet River a short distance to the south, joining the Chicago canal about halfway along its route to the Des Plaines. The two provide the only navigation for ships between the Great Lakes Waterway and the Mississippi River system; the canal was built as a sewage treatment scheme. Prior to its opening in 1900, sewage from the city of Chicago was dumped into the Chicago River and flowed into Lake Michigan; the city's drinking water supply was located offshore, there were fears that the sewage could reach the intake and cause serious disease outbreaks. Since the sewer systems were flowing into the river, the decision was made to dam the river and reverse its flow, thereby sending all the sewage inland where it could be treated before emptying it into the Des Plaines.
A secondary goal was to replace the shallow and narrow Illinois and Michigan Canal, which had connected Lake Michigan with the Mississippi starting in 1848. As part of the construction of the new canal, the entire route was built to allow much larger ships to navigate it, it is 202 feet wide and 24 feet deep, over three times the size of the I&M. The I&M became a secondary route with the new canal's opening and was shut down with the creation of the Illinois Waterway network in 1933; the building of the Chicago canal served as intensive and practical training for engineers who built the Panama Canal. The canal is operated by the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago. In 1999, the system was named a Civil Engineering Monument of the Millennium by the American Society of Civil Engineers; the Canal was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on December 20, 2011. Early Chicago sewage systems discharged directly into Lake Michigan or into the Chicago River, which itself flowed into the lake.
The city's water supply came from the lake, through water intake cribs located two miles offshore. There were fears that sewage could infiltrate the water supply, leading to typhoid fever and dysentery. During a tremendous storm in 1885, the rainfall washed refuse from the river far out into the lake, spurring a panic that a future similar storm would cause a huge epidemic in Chicago; the only reason for the storm not causing such a catastrophic event was that the weather was cooler than normal. The Sanitary District of Chicago was created by the Illinois legislature in 1889 in response to this close call. In addition, the canal was built to supplement and replace the older and smaller Illinois and Michigan Canal as a conduit to the Mississippi River system. In 1871, the old canal had been deepened in an attempt to reverse the river and improve shipping but the reversal of the river only lasted one season; the I&M canal was badly polluted as a result of unrestricted dumping from city sewers and industries, such as the Union Stock Yards.
By 1887, it was decided to reverse the flow of the Chicago River through civil engineering. Engineer Isham Randolph noted that a ridge about 12 miles from the lakeshore divided the Mississippi River drainage system from the Great Lakes drainage system; this low divide had been known since pre-Columbian time by the Native Americans, who used it as the Chicago Portage to cross from the Chicago River drainage to the Des Plaines River basin drainage. The Illinois and Michigan Canal was cut across that divide in the 1840s. In an attempt to better drain sewage and pollution in the Chicago River, the flow of the river had been reversed in 1871 when the Illinois and Michigan Canal was deepened enough to reverse the river's flow for one season. A plan soon emerged to cut through that ridge and carry wastewater away from the lake, through the Des Plaines and Illinois rivers, to the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico. In 1889, the Illinois General Assembly created the Sanitary District of Chicago to carry out the plan.
After four years of turmoil during construction, Isham Randolph was appointed Chief Engineer for the newly formed Sanitary District of Chicago and resolved many issues circulating around the project. While the canal was being built, permanent reversal of the Chicago River was attained in 1892, when the Army Corps of Engineers further deepened the Illinois and Michigan Canal. One of the issues for Randolph to resolve was a strike of about 2000 union workers, centered in Lemont and Joliet. On June 1, 1893, quarrymen went out to protest a wage cut, an action that drew in 1200 canal workers. Reports describe 400 quarrymen marching along the length of the canal project on June 2, between Lemont and Romeo, conducting a "reign of terror" at worksites, "armed with clubs and revolvers", "almost crazed with liquor". On the 9th strikers clashed with replacement workers and local law enforcement, Governor Altgeld called out the First and Second Regiments of the Illinois National Guard. Dozens were wounded and at least five killed: strikers Gregor Kilka, Jacob Ast, Thomas Moorski, Mike Berger, 17-year-old bystander John Kluga.
The strike was settled by the 15th. The new Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, linking the south branch of the Chicago River to the Des Plaines River at Lockport, in advance of an application by the Missouri Attorney General for an injunction against the opening, opened on January 2, 1900. However, it
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
Illinois's 11th congressional district
The 11th Congressional District of Illinois is represented by Democrat Bill Foster. From 1865 to 1867 the district included Bureau, LaSalle and Woodford counties. From 1901 until 1947 the 11th congressional district included Kane, DuPage, McHenry and Will Counties. Following the Congressional Apportionment Act of 1947, the district covered a portion of Cook County and the far northwest side of Chicago centered on Norwood Park; the district was not changed by 1951's redistricting. In 1961, the district was widened westward to the Des Plaines River and east into parts of Lincoln Square; the district covered the northwest side of Chicago until the early 1990s when it moved closer to its current area, encompassing most of LaSalle and Grundy Counties, the southern part of Will County, the northern part of Kankakee County and a small portion of southwestern Cook County. The Illinois Congressional Reapportionment Act of 2001 defined its boundaries following the U. S. Census 2000. Following the U. S. Census 2010 the district includes Joliet in Will County, parts of Naperville in southern DuPage County, Aurora in Kane County.
It includes the Argonne National Laboratory. The congressional district covers parts of Cook, Du Page, Kane and Will counties, as of the 2011 redistricting which followed the 2010 census. All or parts of Aurora, Darien, Montgomery, Lisle, Downers Grove, New Lenox and Woodridge are included; the representatives for these districts were elected in the 2012 primary and general elections, the boundaries became effective on January 5, 2013. Illinois's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present 2002 Census of Agriculture – 11th Congressional District Profile District map Congressional district profiles Washington Post page on the 11th District of Illinois U.
S. Census Bureau – 11th District Fact Sheet Maps Illinois Districts in 1903. Illinois Districts following the Congressional Apportionment Act of 1947. Illinois Districts following the Congressional Apportionment Act of 1951. Illinois Districts following the Congressional Apportionment Act of 1961; as of May 2015, three former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Illinois's 11th congressional district are alive
Illinois and Michigan Canal
The Illinois and Michigan Canal connected the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico. In Illinois, it ran 96 miles from the Chicago River in Bridgeport, Chicago to the Illinois River at LaSalle-Peru; the canal crossed the Chicago Portage, helped establish Chicago as the transportation hub of the United States, before the railroad era. It was opened in 1848, its function was replaced by the wider and shorter Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal in 1900, it ceased transportation operations with the completion of the Illinois Waterway in 1933. Illinois and Michigan Canal Locks and Towpath, a collection of eight engineering structures and segments of the canal between Lockport and LaSalle-Peru, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1964. Portions of the canal have been filled in. Much of the former canal, near the Heritage Corridor transit line, has been preserved as part of the Illinois and Michigan Canal National Heritage Corridor. Canals, in the 1800s, were important modes of transportation.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal connected the Mississippi Basin to the Great Lakes Basin. The canal influenced Illinois's north border; the Erie Canal and the Illinois and Michigan Canal cemented cultural and trade ties to the Northeast rather than the South. Before the canal, farming in the region was limited to subsistence farming; the canal made agriculture in northern Illinois profitable, opening up connections to eastern markets. With the expansion of agriculture, the canal created the city of Chicago. Without the initial stimulus of the canal, Chicago would not have attracted the populations and the industry that it did; the first known Europeans to travel the area, Father Marquette and Louis Joliet went through the Chicago Portage on their return trip. Joliet remarked that with a canal they could remove the need to portage and the French could create an empire spanning the continent; the first quantitative survey of the portage was performed in 1816 by Stephen H. Long, it was on the basis of these measurements.
With several slave states admitted to the Union, Nathaniel Pope and Ninian Edwards saw the opportunity to make Illinois a state. They proposed moving the border northward from the southern tip of Lake Michigan to allow the canal to be within a single state, they believed that the canal would align Illinois with the free states and so Congress granted them statehood though Illinois did not meet the population requirements. In 1824, Samuel D. Lockwood, one of the first commissioners of the canal, was given the authorization to hire contractors to survey a route for the canal to follow. Construction on the canal began in 1836, although it was stopped for several years due to an Illinois state financial crisis related to the Panic of 1837; the Canal Commission had a grant of 284,000 acres of federal land which it sold at $1.25 per acre to finance the construction. Still, money had to be borrowed from eastern U. S. and British investors to finish the canal. Most of the canal work was done by Irish immigrants who worked on the Erie Canal.
The work was considered dangerous and many workers died, although no official records exist to indicate how many. The Irish immigrants who toiled to build the canal were derided as a sub-class and were treated poorly by other citizens of the city; the canal was finished in 1848 at a total cost of $6,170,226. Chicago Mayor James Hutchinson Woodworth presided over the opening ceremony. Pumps were used to draw water to fill the canal near Chicago, soon supplemented by water from the Calumet Feeder Canal; the feeder was originated in Blue Island, Il. The DuPage River provided water farther south. In 1871 the canal was deepened to improve sewage disposal; the canal was 60 feet wide and 6 feet deep, with towpaths constructed along each edge to permit mules to be harnessed to tow barges along the canal. Towns were planned out along the path of the canal spaced at intervals corresponding to the length that the mules could haul the barges, it had seventeen locks and four aqueducts to cover the 140-foot height difference between Lake Michigan and the Illinois River.
From 1848 to 1852 the canal was a popular passenger route, but passenger service ended in 1853 with the opening of the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad that ran parallel to the canal. The canal had its peak shipping year in 1882 and remained in use until 1933. Experiencing a remarkable recovery from the devastating Great Chicago Fire of 1871, Chicago rebuilt along the shores of the Chicago River; the river was important to the development of the city since all wastes from houses, the stockyards, other industries could be dumped into the river and carried out into Lake Michigan. The lake, was the source of drinking water. During a tremendous storm in 1885, the rainfall washed refuse from the river from the polluted Bubbly Creek, far out into the lake. Although no epidemics occurred, the Chicago Sanitary District was created by the Illinois legislature in 1889 in response to this close call; this new agency devised a plan to construct channels and canals to reverse the flow of the rivers away from Lake Michigan and divert the contaminated water downstream where it could be diluted as it flowed into the Des Plaines River and the Mississippi.
In 1892, the direction of part of the Chicago River was reversed by the Army Corps of Engineers with the result that the river and much of Chicago's sewage flowed into the canal instead
The Illinois River is a principal tributary of the Mississippi River 273 miles long, in the U. S. state of Illinois. The river drains a large section of central Illinois, with a drainage basin of 28,756.6 square miles. The drainage basin extends into Wisconsin, a small area of southwestern Michigan; this river was important among Native Americans and early French traders as the principal water route connecting the Great Lakes with the Mississippi. The French colonial settlements along the rivers formed the heart of the area known as the Illinois Country. After the construction of the Illinois and Michigan Canal and the Hennepin Canal in the 19th century, the role of the river as link between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi was extended into the era of modern industrial shipping, it now forms the basis for the Illinois Waterway. The Illinois River is formed by the confluence of the Kankakee River and the Des Plaines River in eastern Grundy County 10 miles southwest of Joliet; this river flows west across northern Illinois, passing Morris and Ottawa, where it is joined by the Mazon River and Fox River.
At LaSalle, the Illinois River is joined by the Vermilion River, it flows west past Peru, Spring Valley. In southeastern Bureau County it turns south at an area known as the "Great Bend", flowing southwest across western Illinois, past Lacon and downtown Peoria, the chief city on the river. South of Peoria, the Illinois River goes by East Peoria and Creve Coeur, Pekin, Illinois, in Tazewell County, Illinois, it is joined by the Mackinaw River and passes through the Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge. Across from Havana, the Illinois is joined by the Spoon River coming from Fulton County and across from Browning, it is joined by the Sangamon River, which passes through the state capital, Illinois; the La Moine River flows into it five miles southwest of Beardstown, south of Peoria and Pekin and north of Lincoln and Springfield. Near the confluence of the Illinois with the La Moine River, it turns south, flowing parallel to the Mississippi across southwestern Illinois. Macoupin Creek joins the Illinois on the border between Greene and Jersey counties 15 miles upstream from the confluence with the Mississippi.
For the last 20 miles of its course, the Illinois is separated from the Mississippi River by only about five miles, by a peninsula of land that makes up Calhoun County. The Illinois joins the Mississippi near Grafton 25 miles northwest of downtown St. Louis and about 20 miles upstream from the confluence of the Missouri River and the Mississippi. South of Hennepin, the Illinois River is following the ancient channel of the Mississippi River; the Illinoian Stage, about 300,000 to 132,000 years ago, blocked the Mississippi near Rock Island, diverting it into its present channel. After the glacier melted, the Illinois River flowed into the ancient channel; the Hennepin Canal follows the ancient channel of the Mississippi upstream of Rock Island. The modern channel of the Illinois River was shaped in a matter of days by the Kankakee Torrent. During the melting of the Wisconsin Glacier about 10,000 years ago, a lake formed in present-day Indiana, comparable to one of the modern Great Lakes; the lake formed behind the terminal moraine of a substage of that glacier.
Melting ice to the north raised the level of the lake so that it overflowed the moraine. The dam burst, the entire volume of the lake was released in a short time a few days; because of the manner of its formation, the Illinois River runs through a deep canyon with many rock formations. It has an "underutilized channel", one far larger than would be needed to contain any conceivable flow in modern times. Flooding along the Illinois River The Illinois River valley was one of the strongholds of the Illinois Confederation of Native Americans; the French first met the natives here in 1673. The first European settlement in the state of Illinois was the Jesuit mission founded in 1675 by Father Jacques Marquette on the banks of the Illinois across from Starved Rock at the Grand Village of the Illinois. Marquette wrote of the river, “We have seen nothing like this river that we enter, as regards its fertility of soil, its prairies and woods. There are many small rivers; that on which we sailed is wide and still, for 65 leagues."In 1680, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle built the first fort in Illinois, Ft. St. Louis, at Starved Rock.
It was relocated to the present site of Creve Coeur, near Peoria, where the Jesuits relocated. The Peoria Riverfront Museum contains a gallery, "Illinois River Encounter," that attempts to interpret the museum through an aquarium tank and displays of the river's geology, social history and commercial use. From 1905 to 1915, more freshwater fish were harvested from the Illinois River than from any other river in the United States except for the Columbia River; the Illinois River was once a major source of mussels for the shell button industry. Overfishing, habitat loss from heavy siltation, water pollution have eliminated most commercial fishing except for a small mussel harvest to provide shells to seed pearl oysters overseas, it is commercially fished downstream of the Rt. 89 bridge at Spring Valley. However, an infestation of invasive Asian Carp has crowded out many game fish in the river; the Illinois River is still an important sports fishing waterway with a good sauger fishery. The Illinois forms part of a modern waterway that connects the Great
The Alton Railroad was the final name of a railroad linking Chicago to Alton, Illinois, St. Louis and Kansas City, Missouri, its predecessor, the Chicago and Alton Railroad, was purchased by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in 1931 and was controlled until 1942 when the Alton was released to the courts. On May 31, 1947 the Alton Railroad was merged into the Gulf and Ohio Railroad. Jacob Bunn had been one of the founding reorganizers of the Chicago & Alton Railroad Company during the 1860s. Main lines included Chicago to a branch to Kansas City; the former is now part of Union Pacific, with Metra Heritage Corridor commuter rail service north of Joliet. The latter is part of the Kansas City Southern Railway system; the earliest ancestor to the Alton Railroad was the Alton and Sangamon Railroad, chartered February 27, 1847 in Illinois to connect the Mississippi River town of Alton to the state capital at Springfield in Sangamon County. The line was finished in 1852, as the Chicago & Mississippi Railroad extended to Bloomington in 1854 and Joliet in 1855.
Trains ran over the completed Chicago and Rock Island Railroad to Chicago. The Joliet and Chicago Railroad was chartered February 15, 1855 and opened in 1856, continuing north and northeast from Joliet to downtown Chicago, it was leased by Mississippi, providing a continuous railroad from Alton to Chicago. In 1857 the C&M was reorganized as the St. Louis and Chicago Railroad, another reorganization on October 10, 1862, produced the Chicago and Alton Railroad; the C&A chartered the Alton and St. Louis Railroad to extend the line to East St. Louis, opened in 1864, giving it a line from Chicago to East St. Louis. In 1925 Chicago & Alton carried 2143 million revenue ton-miles of freight and 202 million revenue passenger-miles on 1056 miles of road and 1863 miles of track. Same numbers for 1944 were 2596, 483, 959 and 1717. By 1950, all of the Alton's steam locomotives were replaced by diesel locomotives. Springfield-Kansas City and Godfrey-Roodhouse Gateway Western Railway 1997–present Gateway Western is a Kansas City Southern Railway subsidiary 1990-1997 Gateway Western was an affiliate of the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway Chicago and Western Railway 1987-1989 Union Pacific Railroad 1996–present Chicago-St.
Louis line SPCSL Corporation 1989-1996 a subsidiary of Southern Pacific Transportation Company Chicago and Western Railway 1987-1989 Chicago and Western Railway 1987-1989 Illinois Central Gulf Railroad 1972-1987 Gulf and Ohio Railroad 1947-1972 Alton Railroad 1931-1947 Subsidiary of Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Chicago and Alton Railroad 1906-1931 took over line from Peoria-Springfield Chicago and Alton Railway 1900-1906 controlled by UP & Rock. Louis route. Sleeping cars were operated over most routes between Chicago, Bloomington, St. Louis and Kansas City in principal train consists. Successor Gulf, Mobile & Ohio operated Chicago-St. Louis sleeping car service until December 31, 1969, the last railroad to do so between the two cities; the first dining car, the Delmonico, named for the famous New York restaurant, was built by Pullman in the Aurora, Illinois shops of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy. The car first appeared in regular service over the C&A's Chicago-St. Louis mainline. Two other Pullman diners built at the same time, the Tremont, the Southern, were leased, providing dining car service on all three principal C&A Chicago-St.
Louis trains. Dining cars were a part of Chicago-St. Louis train consists until May 1971, with the takeover of passenger service by Amtrak. In 1932 the Alton was the first Chicago-St. Louis Railroad to install air conditioning on its passenger trains; the Alton Limited Abraham Lincoln Ann Rutledge The Hummer The Midnight Special First entry of C&A passenger trains from Joliet into Chicago was over the Chicago & Rock Island to that railroad's depot. Passenger trains were moved over to the Illinois Central depot. On December 28, 1863, the leased J&C and Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railway came to an agreement where the J&C would use the PFW&C's terminal at Madison Street becoming a tenant of Union Station, which opened in 1881. In 1924, with the completion of a new Union Station between Adams and Jackson streets, C&A became a tenant and its successors used Union Station until the takeover by Amtrak. Presidents of the Alton Railroad have included: Timothy Blackstone 1864–1899. Samuel Morse Felton, Jr. 1899–1908.
Glendinning, Gene V.. The Chicago & Alton Railroad, The Only Way. DeKalb, Illinois: Northern Illinois University Press. ISBN 0-87580-287-7. Railroad History Database Dead Link PRR Chronology Encyclopedia of the History of Missouri - Chicago & Alton Railway Lewis, Edward A.. The historical guide to North American railroads. Waukesha, Wisconsin: Kalmbach Publishing. Pp. 20–21. ISBN 0-89024-356-5. Alton Railroad - Pantagraph Chicago and Alton Railroad Collection - McLean Country Museum of History archives Steve Gossard Railroad Collection, McLean County Museum of History United Brot
Joliet is a city in Will and Kendall counties in the U. S. state of Illinois, 30 miles southwest of Chicago. It is a major part of the southwest Chicago metropolitan area. At the 2010 census, the city was the fourth largest in Illinois, with a population of 147,433. A population estimate in 2018 put Joliet's population at 150,495, which would make it the 3rd largest city in Illinois if accurate. In 1673, Louis Jolliet, along with Father Jacques Marquette, paddled up the Des Plaines River and camped on a huge mound, a few miles south of present-day Joliet. Maps from Jolliet's exploration of the area, placed a large hill or mound on what is now the southwest corner of the city, since there is no point, farther southwest; that hill was named Mound Jolliet. The spot is now a depression. In 1833, following the Black Hawk War, Charles Reed built a cabin along the west side of the Des Plaines River. Across the river in 1834, James B. Campbell, treasurer of the canal commissioners, laid out the village of "Juliet", named after his daughter.
Just before the economic depression of 1837, Juliet incorporated as a village, but to cut tax expenses, Juliet residents soon petitioned the state to rescind that incorporation. In 1845, local residents changed the community's name from "Juliet" to "Joliet". Joliet was reincorporated as a city in 1852. Cornelius Covenhoven Van Horne was active in getting the city its first charter, because of this he was elected Joliet's first Mayor; when the city built a new bridge it was named The Van Horne Bridge. Joliet is located at 41°31′14″N 88°09′02″W. According to the 2010 census, Joliet has a total area of 62.768 square miles, of which 62.11 square miles is land and 0.658 square miles is water. It has a sprawling, irregular shape that extends into nine different townships, more than any other Illinois city, they are: Joliet, Troy, New Lenox, Jackson and Lockport in Will County, Na-Au-Say and Seward in Kendall County. Joliet is a Des Plaines River town, with the downtown located in the river valley; this is evident on Interstate 80 if one is coming from the east or the west where it has been flat for many miles and the land drops as one approaches the river.
This offers a great view looking north to see downtown Joliet. For most of its existence Joliet geographically has had its "west side" and "east side", referring to areas to the west or the east of the Des Plaines River, which runs through the city. Both sides were proportionate throughout most of its history until the 2nd half of the 20th century when westward expansion began. Many businesses moved from the downtown area to the expanding areas west of the river. Many stores relocated to the west side in new strip malls and shopping centers with more parking and easier access; this began the decline of the downtown shopping district, still felt today. Today Joliet has a "west side" and a "far west side"; this has given rise to a newly referenced "Central Joliet" portion of the city, all land west of the Des Plaines River and east of Interstate 55. This new reference may soon change the current meaning of "west side" to west of Interstate 55. While the heart and history of Joliet is centered around the Des Plaines River Joliet expands across both the Des Plaines River and the DuPage River.
There are several other waterways that traverse through the city limits including Hickory Creek, Spring Creek, the historic Illinois and Michigan Canal, Jackson Creek, Aux Sable Creek. Some small lakes and bodies of water include Chase Lake, Lake Juco, Michigan Beach, the Brandon Road Quarry, Leisure Lake. Joliet has a hot summer humid continental climate with hot, wet summers, cold winters with moderate to heavy snowfall. |source 2 = https://w2.weather.gov/climate/xmacis.php?wfo=lot> As of July 2014, Joliet was the 169th most populous city in the United States. As of the census of 2010, there were 147,433 people, 48,019 households, 34,900 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,288.3 people per square mile. There were 51,285 housing units at an average density of 796 per square mile; the racial makeup of the city was 67.48% white, 15.98% African American, 0.32% Native American, 1.93% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 11.32% from other races, 2.95% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 27.84% of the population.
There were 48,019 households out of which 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.1% were married couples living together, 14% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.3% were non-families. 22.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.01 and the average family size was 3.56. In the city, the population was spread out with 30.8% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, 8.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31.7 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.8 males. For 2015, the median income for a household in the city was $60,976, the median income for a family was $69,386. Full-time, year-round working males had a median income of $51,082 versus $39,235 for females; the per capita income for the city was $24,374. About 10.4% of families and 12.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.2% of those under age 18 and 8.4% of those age 65 or over.
From April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2011, Joliet was the fastest-growing city in the Mi