China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Middlebury College is a private liberal arts college in Middlebury, Vermont. It was founded in 1800 by Congregationalists, making it the first operating college or university in Vermont; the college enrolls 2,526 undergraduates from all 50 states and 74 countries and offers 44 majors in the arts, literature, foreign languages, social sciences, natural sciences. The college is the first American institution of higher education to have granted a bachelor's degree to an African-American, graduating Alexander Twilight in the class of 1823. Middlebury was one of the first all-male liberal arts colleges in New England to become a coeducational institution, following the trustees' decision in 1883 to accept women. In 1886, May Belle Chellis was the first woman to graduate, she was the valedictorian. Middlebury was listed as tied for the fifth-best liberal arts college in the U. S. in the 2019 U. S. News & World Report rankings. Middlebury's 31 varsity teams are known as the Middlebury Panthers and compete in the NCAA Division III's NESCAC conference.
The school is known for its graduate programs that focus on literature, political science, entrepreneurship. Middlebury received its founding charter on November 1, 1800, as an outgrowth of the Addison County Grammar School, founded three years earlier in 1797; the College's first president—Jeremiah Atwater—began classes a few days making Middlebury the first operating college or university in Vermont. One student named Aaron Petty graduated at the first commencement held in August 1802; the College's founding religious affiliation was loosely Congregationalist. Yet the idea for a college was that of town fathers rather than clergymen, Middlebury was "the Town's College" rather than the Church's. Chief among its founders were Seth Storrs and Gamaliel Painter, the former credited with the idea for a college and the latter as its greatest early benefactor. In addition to receiving a diploma upon graduation, Middlebury graduates receive a replica of Gamaliel Painter's cane. Painter bequeathed his original cane to the College and it is carried by the College President at official occasions including first-year convocation and graduation.
Alexander Twilight, class of 1823, was the first black graduate of any college or university in the United States. At its second commencement in 1804, Middlebury granted Lemuel Haynes an honorary master's degree, the first advanced degree bestowed upon an African American. In 1883, the trustees voted to accept women as students in the college, making Middlebury one of the first all-male liberal arts colleges in New England to become a coeducational institution; the first female graduate—May Belle Chellis—received her degree in 1886. As valedictorian of the class of 1899, Mary Annette Anderson became the first African-American woman elected to Phi Beta Kappa; the College's centennial in 1900 began a century of physical expansion beyond the three buildings of Old Stone Row. York and Sawyer designed the Egbert Starr Library, a Beaux-Arts edifice expanded and renamed the Axinn Center, Warner Hall. Growth in enrollment and the endowment led to continued expansion westward. McCullough Hall and Voter Hall featured gymnasium and laboratories adopting Georgian Revival styling while confirming the campus standard of grey Vermont limestone and marble.
The national fraternity Kappa Delta Rho was founded in Painter Hall on May 17, 1905. Middlebury College abolished fraternities in the early 1990s, but the organization continued on campus in the less ritualized form of a social house. Due to a policy at the school against single-sex organizations, the house was forced to coeducate during the same period as well; the German Language School, founded in 1915 under the supervision of then-President John Martin Thomas, began the tradition of the Middlebury College Language Schools. These Schools, which take place on the Middlebury campus during the summer, enroll about 1,350 students in the Arabic, French, Hebrew, Japanese, Portuguese and Spanish Language Schools. Middlebury President Paul Dwight Moody began the American tradition of a National Christmas Tree in 1923 when the College donated a 48-foot balsam fir for use at the White House; the tree was illuminated when Calvin Coolidge, a Vermont native in the first year of his presidency, flipped an electric switch.
The Bread Loaf School of English, Middlebury's graduate school of English, was established at the College's Bread Loaf Mountain campus in 1920. The Bread Loaf Writers' Conference was established in 1926. In 1978, the Bread Loaf School of English expanded to include a campus at Lincoln College, Oxford University. In 1991, the School expanded to include a campus at St. John's College in New Mexico, to the University of North Carolina, Asheville, in 2006; the C. V. Starr-Middlebury Schools Abroad began in 1949 with the school in Paris; the Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies was founded as an educational charity in 1975 by Drs John and Sandy Feneley in Oxford, establishing a facility at St. Michael's Hall in 1978, including the Feneley Library, close links with Keble College, Oxford. S. undergraduates Middlebury Museum Studies in Oxford. In
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Midtown Manhattan is the central portion of the borough of Manhattan in New York City. Midtown is home to some of the city's most iconic buildings, including the Empire State Building, the Chrysler Building, the Hudson Yards Redevelopment Project, the headquarters of the United Nations, Grand Central Terminal, Rockefeller Center, as well as Broadway and Times Square. Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the world and ranks among the most expensive pieces of real estate. However, due to the high price of retail spaces in Midtown, there are many vacant storefronts in the neighborhood. Midtown is the country's largest commercial and media center, a growing financial center; the majority of New York City's skyscrapers, including its tallest hotels and apartment towers, are in Midtown. The area hosts commuters and residents working in its offices and retail establishments and students. Times Square, the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, is a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
Sixth Avenue has the headquarters of three of the four major U. S. television networks. Midtown is part of Manhattan Community District 5, it is patrolled by the 18th Precincts of the New York City Police Department. Geographically, the northern bound of Midtown Manhattan is defined to be 59th Street. Midtown spans the entire island of Manhattan along an east-west axis, bounded by the East River on its east and the Hudson River to its west; the Encyclopedia of New York City defines Midtown as extending from 34th Street to 59th Street and from 3rd Avenue to 8th Avenue. In addition to its central business district, Midtown Manhattan encompasses many neighborhoods, including Hell's Kitchen and Chelsea on the West Side, Murray Hill, Kips Bay, Turtle Bay, Gramercy Park on the East Side, it is sometimes broken into "Midtown East" and "Midtown West", or north and south as in the New York City Police Department's Midtown North and Midtown South precincts. Neighborhoods in the Midtown area include the following: Between 59th Street to the north and 42nd Street to the south, from west to east: Hell's Kitchen from the Hudson River to Eighth Avenue, including Theatre Row on West 42nd Street between Eleventh Avenue and Ninth Avenue, where Hell's Kitchen meets Central Park and the Upper West Side at West 59th Street and Eighth Avenue, Columbus Circle Times Square and the Theater District from West 42nd Street to around West 53rd Street, from Eighth Avenue to Sixth Avenue The Diamond District on West 47th Street between Sixth Avenue and Fifth Avenue Midtown East from around Sixth Avenue to the East River, including: Sutton Place near the East River between East 53rd Street and East 59th Street Turtle Bay from 53rd Street to 42nd Street and from Lexington Avenue to the East River Tudor City from First Avenue to Second Avenue and East 40th Street to East 43rd Street Between 42nd Street north and around 34th Street, from west to east, north to south: Hell's Kitchen from the Hudson River to Eighth Avenue The Garment District from West 42nd Street to West 34th Street and from Ninth Avenue to Fifth Avenue Herald Square around the intersection of Broadway, Sixth Avenue, West 34th Street Murray Hill from East 42nd Street to East 34th Street and Fifth Avenue to Second Avenue Between 34th Street and 23rd Street, from west to east: Chelsea, between the Hudson River and Sixth Avenue Koreatown from 36th Street to 31st Street and Fifth and Sixth Avenues, centered on "Korea Way" on 32nd Street between Fifth Avenue and Broadway Rose Hill or Curry Hill between Madison Avenue and Third Avenue Kips Bay from Third Avenue to the East River Between 23rd Street and 14th Street, going west to east and north to south: Chelsea, between the Hudson River and Sixth Avenue The Meatpacking District in the southwesternmost corner of Midtown, to the south of West 15th Street Madison Square and the Flatiron District, the area surround the intersection of Broadway, Fifth Avenue and 23rd Street.
Union Square, to the northeast of the intersection of Broadway, East 14th Street and Park Avenue South Gramercy from East 23rd Street to East 14th Street and Lexington Avenue to First Avenue Peter Cooper Village from East 23rd Street to East 20th Street and 1st Avenue to Avenue C Stuyvesant Town from East 20th Street to East 14th Street and First Avenue to Avenue CMidtown is the original district in the United States to bear the name and included historical but now defunct neighborhoods such as the Ladies' Mile, along Fifth Avenue from 14th to 23rd Street. Important streets and thoroughfares Broadway 34th Street 42nd Street The border of Midtown Manhattan is nebulous and further confused by the fact that the term "Midtown Manhattan" can be used to refer either to a district or a group of neighborhoods and districts in Manhattan: The area between 14th and 86th Streets includes the center of Manhattan. Manhattan Community District 5 is located from 14th to 59th Streets between Lexington Avenue and Eighth Avenue.
Community District 5 is coterminous with Midtown but includes the Flatiron District, NoMad, Union Square, parts of Gramercy Park an
Tulane University is a private, nonsectarian research university in New Orleans, United States. It is the top university and the most selective institution of higher education in the state of Louisiana; the school is known to attract a geographically diverse student body, with 85 percent of undergraduate students coming from over 300 miles away. The school was founded as a public medical college in 1834, became a comprehensive university in 1847; the institution was made private under the endowments of Paul Tulane and Josephine Louise Newcomb in 1884. Tulane is the 9th oldest private university in the Association of American Universities, which consists of major research universities in the United States and Canada; the Tulane University Law School and Tulane University Medical School are considered the 12th oldest and 15th oldest law and medical schools in the United States. Alumni include prominent entrepreneurs and inventors in technology, medical devices, retail, mass media and public policy.
S. State governors. S. Senators. S. Members of Congress. S. diplomats. At least two Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university; the university was founded as the Medical College of Louisiana in 1834 as a response to the fears of smallpox, yellow fever, cholera in the United States. The university became only the second medical school in the South, the 15th in the United States at the time. In 1847, the state legislature established the school as the University of Louisiana, a public university, the law department was added to the university. Subsequently, in 1851, the university established its first academic department; the first president chosen for the new university was Francis Lister Hawks, an Episcopalian priest and prominent citizen of New Orleans at the time. The university was closed from 1861 to 1865 during the American Civil War. After reopening, it went through a period of financial challenges because of an extended agricultural depression in the South which affected the nation's economy.
Paul Tulane, owner of a prospering dry goods and clothing business, donated extensive real estate within New Orleans for the support of education. This donation led to the establishment of a Tulane Educational Fund, whose board of administrators sought to support the University of Louisiana instead of establishing a new university. In response, through the influence of former Confederate general Randall Lee Gibson, the Louisiana state legislature transferred control of the University of Louisiana to the administrators of the TEF in 1884; this act created the Tulane University of Louisiana. The university was privatized, is one of only a few American universities to be converted from a state public institution to a private one. Paul Tulane's endowment to the school specified that the institution could only admit white students, Louisiana law passed in 1884 reiterated this condition. In 1884, William Preston Johnston became the first president of Tulane, he had succeeded Robert E. Lee as president of Lee University after Lee's death.
He had become president of Louisiana State University. In 1885, the university established its graduate division becoming the Graduate School. One year gifts from Josephine Louise Newcomb totaling over $3.6 million, led to the establishment of the H. Sophie Newcomb Memorial College within Tulane University. Newcomb was the first coordinate college for women in the United States and became a model for such institutions as Pembroke College and Barnard College. In 1894 the College of Technology formed, which would become the School of Engineering. In the same year, the university moved to its present-day uptown campus on historic St. Charles Avenue, five miles by streetcar from downtown New Orleans. With the improvements to Tulane University in the late 19th century, Tulane had a firm foundation to build upon as the premier university of the Deep South and continued this legacy with growth in the 20th century. In 1901, the first cornerstone was laid for the F. W. Tilton Library, endowed by New Orleans businessman and philanthropist Frederick William Tilton.
During 1907, the school established a four-year professional curriculum in architecture through the College of Technology, growing into the Tulane School of Architecture. One year Schools of Dentistry and Pharmacy were established, albeit temporarily; the School of Dentistry ended in 1928, Pharmacy six years later. In 1914, Tulane established a College of the first business school in the South. In 1925, Tulane established the independent Graduate School. Two years the university set up a School of Social Work the first in the southern United States. Tulane was instrumental in promoting the arts in New Orleans and the South in establishing the Newcomb School of Art with William Woodward as director, thus establishing the renowned Newcomb Pottery; the Middle American Research Institute was established in 1925 at Tulane "for the purpose of advanced research into the history, tropical botany (
Pepperdine University is a private research university affiliated with the Churches of Christ and located near Malibu, California. It is the location for Seaver College, the School of Law, the Graduate School of Education and Psychology, the Graziadio Business School, the School of Public Policy. Courses are taught at the main campus, six graduate campuses in southern California, a center in Washington, DC, at international campuses in Germany, Italy, China and Argentina; the Ed. D. program in Organizational leadership, has held international courses in China, Chile, Costa Rica, India. In February 1937, against the backdrop of the Great Depression, George Pepperdine founded the university as a Christian liberal arts college in the city of Los Angeles. On September 21, 1937, 167 new students from 22 different states and two other countries entered classes on a newly built campus on 34 acres at West 79th Street and South Vermont Avenue in the Vermont Knolls neighborhood of South Central Los Angeles, referred to as the Vermont Avenue campus.
By April 6, 1938, George Pepperdine College was accredited by the Northwest Association. Pepperdine had built a fortune founding and developing the Western Auto Supply Company, which he started with a $5 investment, but his prosperity led to his greater ambition to discover "how humanity can be helped most with the means entrusted to care. Considered it wrong to build up a great fortune and use it selfishly." Pepperdine voiced his twofold objective for the college that bore his name, "First, we want to provide first-class accredited academic training in the liberal arts... Secondly, we are dedicated to a greater goal—that of building in the student a Christ-like life, a love for the church, a passion for the souls of mankind." By the 1960s, the young college faced serious problems. The area around the Vermont Avenue campus developed issues with urban decay; the situation exploded in the 1965 Watts Riots. In 1969 activists in the Watts area threatened to burn down the campus. In addition, the Vermont Avenue campus was running out of room to expand.
In 1967, the school began planning to move the undergraduate campus and a committee was formed to look at alternative locations, including sites in Valencia, Orange County, Ventura County and Westlake Village. Pepperdine favored the Westlake Village location until the Adamson-Rindge family, who owned hundreds of acres near Malibu, offered 138 acres of land. Despite concerns over building costs on the mountainous site, the school decided to move forward based on its prime location and potential for raising donations. Construction began on April 13, 1971 and the new campus opened for student enrollment in September 1972; the campus and many of its buildings were planned by Los Angeles-based architect and urban planner William Pereira. The old campus was sold to Crenshaw Christian Center, whose minister, Frederick K. C. Price oversaw construction of the "FaithDome," the largest domed-church in the United States, seating over 10,000. Pepperdine gained university status in 1971 when the school of law was added and the business and education departments became separate schools.
In the 1980s, Pepperdine rose to prominence as one of the United States' leading centers of conservative politics, attracting many conservative-leaning professors from nearby UCLA and USC. Prominent conservatives on the Pepperdine faculty have included Bruce Herschensohn, Ben Stein, Kenneth Starr, Arthur Laffer, Douglas Kmiec, Daniel Pipes. In 1985, 1993, 1996, massive brushfires threatened the campus with destruction, but firefighters protected all structures. On October 21, 2007, fast-moving wildfires forced campus residents to relocate and shelter in the Firestone Field house and Cafeteria, plus evacuations of local homes and businesses. Another November 2007 fire in Corral Canyon, accidentally set off by a group of Los Angeles youths, caused an evacuation of the Drescher Campus. However, most students were off-campus for the Thanksgiving holiday; the campus was again threatened by the Woolsey Fire in November 2018. Batsell Baxter Hugh M. Tiner M. Norvel Young William S. Banowsky Howard A. White David Davenport Andrew K. Benton The main campus is located among several ridges that overlook the Pacific Ocean and the Pacific Coast Highway in Malibu, California.
It is considered one of the most beautiful college campuses in the world in terms of scenery and architecture, has been described as "a place that looks more like a beach resort than a private university." The main campus entrance road ascends a steep, well-groomed grassy slope past a huge stylized cross known as the Phillips Theme Tower, symbolizing the university's dedication to its original Christian mission. Most buildings were constructed in a reinterpretation of Mediterranean Revival Style architecture; the majority of the construction on the main campus was completed in 1973. There are views of the Pacific Ocean, Catalina Island, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Long Beach and the westside of Los Angeles from numerous points. Alumni Park is located on the campus, it is a 30-acre expanse of lawns, hills and coral trees overlooking Pacific Coast Highway and the Pacific Ocean. Landscape architects Armstrong and Scharfman were responsible for the campus green space plann
Brown University is a private Ivy League research university in Providence, Rhode Island. Founded in 1764 as the College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, it is the seventh-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. At its foundation, Brown was the first college in the U. S. to accept students regardless of their religious affiliation. Its engineering program was established in 1847, it was one of the early doctoral-granting U. S. institutions in the late 19th century, adding masters and doctoral studies in 1887. In 1969, Brown adopted a New Curriculum sometimes referred to as the Brown Curriculum after a period of student lobbying; the New Curriculum eliminated mandatory "general education" distribution requirements, made students "the architects of their own syllabus" and allowed them to take any course for a grade of satisfactory or unrecorded no-credit. In 1971, Brown's coordinate women's institution, Pembroke College, was merged into the university.
Undergraduate admissions is selective, with an acceptance rate of 6.6% for the class of 2023. The university comprises the College, the Graduate School, Alpert Medical School, the School of Engineering, the School of Public Health and the School of Professional Studies. Brown's international programs are organized through the Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs, the university is academically affiliated with the Marine Biological Laboratory and the Rhode Island School of Design; the Brown/RISD Dual Degree Program, offered in conjunction with the Rhode Island School of Design, is a five-year course that awards degrees from both institutions. Brown's main campus is located in the College Hill Historic District in the city of Providence, Rhode Island; the University's neighborhood is a federally listed architectural district with a dense concentration of Colonial-era buildings. Benefit Street, on the western edge of the campus, contains "one of the finest cohesive collections of restored seventeenth- and eighteenth-century architecture in the United States".
As of August 2018, 8 Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with Brown University as alumni, faculty members or researchers. In addition, Brown's faculty and alumni include five National Humanities Medalists and ten National Medal of Science laureates. Other notable alumni include eight billionaire graduates, a U. S. Supreme Court Chief Justice, four U. S. Secretaries of State and other Cabinet officials, 54 members of the United States Congress, 56 Rhodes Scholars, 52 Gates Cambridge Scholars 49 Marshall Scholars, 14 MacArthur Genius Fellows, 21 Pulitzer Prize winners, various royals and nobles, as well as leaders and founders of Fortune 500 companies; the origin of Brown University can be dated to 1761, when three residents of Newport, Rhode Island drafted a petition to the General Assembly of the colony: Your Petitioners propose to open a literary institution or School for instructing young Gentlemen in the Languages, Geography & History, & such other branches of Knowledge as shall be desired.
That for this End... it will be necessary... to erect a public Building or Buildings for the boarding of the youth & the Residence of the Professors. The three petitioners were Ezra Stiles, pastor of Newport's Second Congregational Church and future president of Yale. Stiles and Ellery were co-authors of the Charter of the College two years later; the editor of Stiles's papers observes, "This draft of a petition connects itself with other evidence of Dr. Stiles's project for a Collegiate Institution in Rhode Island, before the charter of what became Brown University."There is further documentary evidence that Stiles was making plans for a college in 1762. On January 20, Chauncey Whittelsey, pastor of the First Church of New Haven, answered a letter from Stiles: The week before last I sent you the Copy of Yale College Charter... Should you make any Progress in the Affair of a Colledge, I should be glad to hear of it; the Philadelphia Association of Baptist Churches had an eye on Rhode Island, home of the mother church of their denomination: the First Baptist Church in America, founded in Providence in 1638 by Roger Williams.
The Baptists were as yet unrepresented among colonial colleges. Isaac Backus was the historian of the New England Baptists and an inaugural Trustee of Brown, writing in 1784, he described the October 1762 resolution taken at Philadelphia: The Philadelphia Association obtained such an acquaintance with our affairs, as to bring them to an apprehension that it was practicable and expedient to erect a college in the Colony of Rhode-Island, under the chief direction of the Baptists. Mr. James Manning, who took his first degree in New-Jersey college in September, 1762, was esteemed a suitable leader in this important work. Manning arrived at Newport in July 1763 and was introduced to Stiles, who agreed to write the Charter for the College. Stiles's first draft was read to the General Assembly in August 1763 and rejected by Baptist members who worried that the College Board of Fellows would under-represent the Baptists. A revised Charter written by Stiles and Ellery was adopted by the Assembly on March 3, 1764.
In September 1764, the inaugural meeting of the College Corporation was held at Newport. Go