Troy, New York
Troy is a city in the U. S. state of New York and the seat of Rensselaer County. The city is located on the western edge of Rensselaer County and on the eastern bank of the Hudson River. Troy has close ties to the nearby cities of Albany and Schenectady, forming a region popularly called the Capital District; the city is one of the three major centers for the Albany Metropolitan Statistical Area, which has a population of 1,170,483. At the 2010 census, the population of Troy was 50,129. Troy's motto is Ilium fuit. Troja est, which means "Ilium was, Troy is". Today, Troy is home to Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, the oldest private engineering and technical university in the US, founded in 1824. Due to the confluence of major waterways and a geography that supported water power, the American industrial revolution took hold in this area making Troy reputedly the fourth wealthiest city in America around the turn of the 20th century. Troy, therefore, is noted for a wealth of Victorian architecture downtown and elaborate private homes in various neighborhoods.
Several churches boast a concentrated collection of stained glass windows by Louis Comfort Tiffany. Troy is home to the world renowned "Troy Music Hall" the "Troy Savings Bank Music Hall" dating from the 1870s, said to have superb acoustics in a combination of restored and well preserved performance space; the area had long been occupied by the Mahican Indian tribe, but Dutch settlement began in the mid 17th century. The patroon Kiliaen van Rensselaer called the region Pafraets Dael, after his mother; the Dutch colony was conquered by the English in 1664, in 1707 Derick Van der Heyden purchased a farm near today's downtown area. In 1771, Abraham Lansing had his farm in today's Lansingburgh laid out into lots. Sixteen years Van der Heyden's grandson Jacob had his extensive holdings surveyed and laid out into lots, naming the new village Vanderheyden. In 1789, Troy adopted its present name following a vote of the people. Troy was incorporated as a town two years and extended east across the county to the Vermont line, including Petersburgh.
In 1796, Troy became a village and in 1816, it became a city. Lansingburgh, to the north, became part of Troy in 1900. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, the Mohican Indians had a number of settlements along the Hudson River near the confluence with the Mohawk River; the land comprising the Poesten Kill and Wynants Kill areas were owned by two Mohican groups. The land around the Poesten Kill was called Panhooseck; the area around the Wynants Kill, was known as Paanpack, was owned by Peyhaunet. The land between the creeks, which makes up most of downtown and South Troy, was owned by Annape. South of the Wynants Kill and into present-day North Greenbush, the land was owned by Pachquolapiet; these parcels of land were sold to the Dutch between 1630 and 1657 and each purchase was overseen and signed by Skiwias, the sachem at the time. In total, more than 75 individual Mohicans were involved in deed signings in the 17th century; the site of the city was a part of Rensselaerswyck, a patroonship created by Kiliaen van Rensselaer.
Dirck Van der Heyden was one of the first settlers. In 1707, he purchased a farm of 65 acres. An early local legend that a Dutch girl had been kidnapped by an Indian male who did not want her to marry someone else gained some credence when two skeletons were found in a cave under Poestenkill Falls in the 1950s. One skeleton was Caucasian with an iron ring; the other was male. The name Troy was adopted in 1789 before which it had been known as Ashley's Ferry, the region was formed into the Town of Troy in 1791 from part of the Manor of Rensselaerswyck; the township included Grafton. Troy became a village in 1801 and was chartered as a city in 1816. In 1900, the city of Lansingburgh was merged into Troy. In the post-Revolutionary War years, as central New York was first settled, there was a strong trend to classical names, Troy's naming fits the same pattern as the New York cities of Syracuse, Utica, Ithaca, or the towns of Sempronius, Manlius, or dozens of other classically named towns to the west of Troy.
Northern and Western New York was a theater of the War of 1812, militia and regular army forces were led by Stephen Van Rensselaer of Troy. Quartermaster supplies were shipped through Troy. A local butcher and meat-packer named Samuel Wilson supplied the military, according to an unprovable legend, barrels stamped "U. S." were jokingly taken by the troops to stand for "Uncle Sam" meaning Wilson. Troy has since claimed to be the historical home of Uncle Sam. Through much of the 19th and into the early 20th century, Troy was not only one of the most prosperous cities in New York State, but one of the most prosperous cities in the entire country. Prior to its rise as an industrial center, Troy was the transshipment point for meat and vegetables from Vermont, which were sent by the Hudson River to New York City; the Federal Dam at Troy is the head of the tides in the Hudson River and Hudson River sloops and steamboats plied the river on a regular basis. This trade was vastly increased after the construction of the Erie Canal, with its eastern terminus directly across the Hudson from Troy at Cohoes in 1825.
Troy's one-time great wealth was produced in the steel industry, with the first American Bessemer converter erected on the Wyantskill, a stream with a falls in a small valley at the south end of the city. The industry first used iron ore from the Adirondacks. On, ore and coal from the Midwest was shipped on the Erie Canal to Troy, there processed before being sent on down the Hudson to New York City; the iron an
University of Southern Indiana
The University of Southern Indiana is a public university located just outside Evansville in Vanderburgh County, United States. Founded in 1965, USI enrolls 10,929 dual credit, undergraduate and doctoral students in more than 80 majors. USI offers programs through the College of Liberal Arts, Romain College of Business, College of Nursing and Health Professions and the Pott College of Science and Education. USI is a member of the American Association of State Universities, it is a Carnegie Foundation Community Engaged University which offers continuing education and special programs to more than 15,000 participants annually through outreach and engagement. USI athletic teams are known as the Screaming Eagles. USI is a member of the Great Lakes Valley Conference; the university is home with more than 140 student organizations. The University of Southern Indiana began as a regional campus of Indiana State University, opening on September 15, 1965. In 1967, Southern Indiana Higher Education, Inc. raised nearly $1 million to acquire 1,400 acres for the Mid-America University Center.
Groundbreaking was held June 22, 1968. Since September 1969, the University has occupied 330 acres donated by SIHE; the first buildings constructed were the Wright Administration Building. The school built facilities, as funding became available during the Indiana State University-Evansville period. On April 16, 1985, ISU-Evansville became an autonomous four-year institution, the University of Southern Indiana. Governor Robert D. Orr, an Evansville native, signed the newly independent school's charter. Since gaining its independence, USI's growth has continued to where it is now the fastest growing comprehensive university in the state; the university established student housing, diversified the programs offered, enrollment has more than doubled since gaining its independence. In October, 2006, the university completed a master plan that provides the framework to double the size of the school and support a campus of over 20,000 students; the master plan features key planning principles to guide the university and help it create a cohesive campus as it continues to grow.
USI offers over 70 undergraduate majors, 13 master's programs, two doctoral programs as of the fall 2018 semester. Divisions of the University include the Romain College of Business, College of Liberal Arts, College of Nursing and Health Professions, Pott College of Science and Education, University Division, Division of Outreach and Engagement; each college is led by a dean who reports to the vice president for Academic Affairs. USI employs 652 full-time faculty and academic administrators, 239 part-time faculty; the university is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission and carries several discipline-specific accreditations as well, including from the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, ABET. The New Harmony Theatre is a professional theatre operating under an agreement with Actors' Equity Association, the union of professional actors and stage managers in the United States. In fall 2007, USI Theatre partnered with The New Harmony Theatre on The Repertory Project, which allows top Theatre students to perform with Equity actors.
Student actors and stage managers involved in The Repertory Project earn points toward joining the union, a membership, considered the “gold standard” for theatre professionals. Historic Southern Indiana is an outreach organization dedicated to preserving and promoting the abundant historical and recreational resources of southern Indiana; as a community outreach program of the University of Southern Indiana, HSI hosts workshops, produces publications, conducts visitor research, facilitates and coordinates with many groups and agencies with the goal of creating a sense of regional identity and pride. The Heritage Area contains numerous sites of historical significance, including Vincennes, New Harmony and Abraham Lincoln's boyhood home. Forests, caves and lakes offer scenic beauty and recreational activities; the USI Center for Communal Studies is a clearinghouse for information, a research facility, a sponsor of activities related to historic and contemporary intentional communities. The center encourages and facilitates meetings, scholarships, publications and public interest in communal groups past and present and abroad.
The center archives contain primary and secondary materials on more than 100 historic communes and several hundred collective, co-housing communities founded since 1965. Noted communal scholars have donated their private collections and their extensive research notes and papers to the center archives; the Center for Applied Research works with businesses and organizations throughout the region to conduct research and other applied projects. The Southwest Indiana STEM Resource Center offers a free-equipment lending service to K-12 public and parochial school educators as well as informal educators in a seventeen-county region in southwest Indiana. Teacher professional development as well as an extensive line-up of K-12 student outreach activities are offered throughout the calendar year. Online graduate degree nursing program was ranked 15th in the categories of Admissions Selectivity and Faculty Credentials and Training in the 2012 U. S. News & World Report rankings. Online graduate degree nursing program ranked 25th for Student Accreditation.
Online graduate degree nursing program ranked 71st for Student Services and Technology. Online graduat
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Emma Willard School
The Emma Willard School called Troy Female Seminary and referred to as Emma, is an independent university-preparatory day and boarding school for young women, located in Troy, New York, on Mount Ida, offering grades 9–12 and postgraduate coursework. The first women's higher education institution in the United States, it was founded by women's rights advocate Emma Willard in 1814; as of 2015, it had an endowment of $93 million. In 2018, the school was ranked by The Post-Standard as the #1 private school in Upstate New York. Emma Willard is an independent college-preparatory day and boarding school enrolling students in grades 9–12 and post-graduate studies. Class sizes are kept at a 16-student maximum. Advanced Placement preparation is offered in all disciplines. Students may enroll in college-level courses at neighboring Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Most students take five courses each semester. Classes meet four or five times each week for fifty minutes, though lab sciences, AP sections meet for varying lengths of time.
An ESL program offers advanced-level curriculum for international students. Core requirements for graduation include a minimum of four units of English. All students must fulfill a community service requirement and take physical education or its equivalent each semester in the ninth and eleventh grades. Seniors must take at least ten weeks. Emma Willard offers inquiry-based classes across all disciplines. In the fall of 2005, Emma Willard began its Physics First program for all incoming ninth-grade students, it has students take a basic physics course in the ninth grade rather than the biology course, standard in most public schools. The guiding educational philosophy, known on campus as EMpowerment, teaches that every young woman who attends Emma Willard will be encouraged to develop in all areas of her life, as a strong intellectual in a variety of disciplines, as a practitioner of her chosen passions, as a social member of the community, as a responsible global citizen in her future. In keeping with that philosophy of personal development providing its own benchmarks, class rank is not provided.
The grading system uses number grades. It goes as follows: A, A−, B+, B, B−, C+, C, C−, etc. accompanied by a number indicating where on the spectrum the individual student falls. Emma Willard's independent-study program, allows students to pursue coursework at area colleges, career internships, community service, individualized athletic training and competition off-campus for academic credit. Over one-third of the students participate in Practicum each year. Emma Willard students worked to make Emma Willard School the first fair trade high school in the United States in 2010. In 1821, Emma Hart Willard opened the Troy Female Seminary in Troy, New York, to provide young women with the same higher education as their male peers. Prior to the school's founding, young women had been unable to pursue the advanced curricular offerings in mathematics, classical languages and the sciences that were taught to their male counterparts. Having taught for several years, Emma Willard perceived the egregious disparity in what girls learned compared to boys.
In 1819, Willard promoted a comprehensive secondary and post-secondary female educational institution, which would require funding by the State of New York. Her address to the office of New York's “innovative” governor DeWitt Clinton met with initial success. However, the New State legislature at Albany, on hearing her request, responded with mixed sentiment, rejected her proposal. Many of the wives of prominent men steadfastly supported and promoted her educational agenda to their friends and associates. Thereafter, the City of Troy's Common Council raised $4,000 that would facilitate Willard's purchase of a suitable flagship building for her proposed seminary for young women, she had obtained inexpensive accommodation in a nearby historic Waterford, New York landmark farm. There, she rented two nondescript long and narrow stone structures, former pre-Colonial Dutch estate's outbuildings in a picturesque setting along the mighty Mohawk River; the property's border still abuts the Erie Canal's first but long-defunct stone lock, near a major point of the Mohawk's primary arterial confluence into the Hudson River.
However, in early 1821, a critical funds shortage from to a brief economic downturn that had affected the region forced her to close her Waterford Academy. Toward the close of 1821, Willard secured $4,000 in funding and relocated to Troy, downstream from Watertown along the Hudson River; the Albany Academy for Boys had been established in March 1813, just downstream from Waterford and her temporary school. She was able to formally found the Troy Female Seminary "for young ladies of means", becoming "the first school in the country to provide girls the same educational opportunities given to boys". From its establishment in 1821 until 1872, the seminary admitted 12,000 students; the Troy Female Seminary promoted the education of young girls as well as women teachers in training. The seminary provided tuition on credit for students who could not afford it, with the agreement that those students would be teaching assistants and become teachers themselves; that type of on-credit tuition led to the growing reputation of the Troy Female Seminary as the demand for female teachers increased during the nineteenth century.
Willard advocated for publicly
A rosette is a round, stylized flower design. The rosette derives from the natural shape of the botanical rosette, formed by leaves radiating out from the stem of a plant and visible after the flowers have withered; the rosette design is used extensively in sculptural objects from antiquity, appearing in Mesopotamia,and in funeral steles' decoration in Ancient Greece. It was adopted in Romaneseque and Renaissance, common in the art of Central Asia, spreading as far as India where it is used as a decorative motif in Greco-Buddhist art. One of the earliest appearances of the rosette in ancient art is in early fourth millennium BC Egypt. Another early Mediterranean occurrence of the rosette design derives from Minoan Crete; the formalised flower motif is carved in stone or wood to create decorative ornaments for architecture and furniture, in metalworking, jewelry design and the applied arts to form a decorative border or at the intersection of two materials. Rosette decorations have been used for formal military awards.
They appear in modern, civilian clothes, are worn prominently in political or sporting events. Rosettes sometimes decorate musical instruments, such as around the perimeter of sound holes of guitars. Six petal rosette
Evansville Vanderburgh Public Library
The Evansville Vanderburgh Public Library is a public library system serving Evansville and Vanderburgh County in Indiana, USA. The EVPL supplements the services provided by the Evansville Vanderburgh School Corporation and has the authority to approve the tax levy of the independently run and operated Willard Library; the EVPL had a total circulation of 2,922,126 and had 1,842,085 in-person visits to its system in 2013, making it one of the largest public library systems in Indiana. EVPL was rated a five star library by the Library Journal, which places it in the top 1% of public libraries in the U. S. EVPL obtained a Top Ten library ranking in the 2010 edition of Hennen's American Public Library Ratings, achieving a number eight ranking within its population category. Evansville's public library system was started in 1848 in the county auditor's office. John Ingle, Jr. was given money to purchase 1,000 books with money approved by the county commissioners. The books were stored in the County Auditor's Office at the old courthouse at Third and Main Streets.
The Evansville Library Association was formed in 1855 and Mr. Ingle served as its first President. One thousand shares of stock were authorized at $30.00 per share, stockholders and patrons who paid $5.00 a year could borrow books. At this point the books were kept at a building at Main Streets. In the 1850s and 1860s Pigeon Township, the Mechanics' Association and a local group of Catholics opened libraries. By 1874 the County Library had amassed about 3,500 books, but that year the library association closed and gave its books to the city for free public use. Therefore, a new city library was governed by the school board, it was funded through a newpenny tax and located in the former German Reformed Church building at the corner of Seventh and Vine Streets. This library gave its collection to Willard Library when it opened; the foundation for what is now the EVPL began in 1908 when the West Side Business Association decided it wanted to expand library services to that area and sent a request to Andrew Carnegie for funds to build four locations for a new library system in Evansville.
Carnegie offered $50,000 for two locations if the city provided the land. He gave the money to the city in 1911 and two new branches - what is now the East and West Branches - opened on January 1, 1913. Both branches are still operational. Carnegie gave $10,000 to establish the Cherry Street Library to serve the city's black community, it opened in 1914. Miss Ethel McCollough, for whom the McCollough Branch is named, became head librarian during the 1920s, she provided the leadership. In 1922 she and the library commissioned a neighborhood survey that sent a citizen's advisory committee out on several hundred home visits. Historians have described the Evansville survey as "exceptional for its time", because it relied neither on impressionistic observations nor on indirect sources like circulation records; the old Central Library in downtown Evansville was an Art Deco building. It was built in 1931 and opened in 1932; the old building now houses the Children's Museum of Evansville. The new 145,000 square foot Central Library building opened in September 2004, replacing a building one-fourth of its size.
In 2013, the EVPL purchased land nearby from the Evansville Rescue Mission, further expanding the Central Library footprint. There are over 130 public access computers. Other features include the READ Center with story room, an enclosed garden and activity area, the Popular Materials Center which includes the Teen Zone, the Reference and Technology Center, study rooms and meeting rooms, the Talking Books Service, a book corner, a garden; the Central Library features the Indiana Room, which contains volumes of information on Evansville history in addition to a large, indexed clipping file that can be used for local research. Local artists' work is found throughout the library; the EVPL has an extensive collection of local history articles. After the Evansville Press ceased publication on December 31, 1998, it donated its archives jointly to the EVPL and Willard Library; the library houses the Browning Genealogy Database, the lifetime work of Charles Browning, who compiled the obituary records of Vanderburgh County and surrounding southwestern Indiana from the Evansville newspapers.
Browning's two monumental biographical works, People of Evansville in World War II, his People Study, are now online. This project was supported by the Institute of Museums and Library Services under the provisions of the Library Services and Technology Act by the Indiana State Library and Historical Bureau; the East and West Branch Libraries are Carnegie Libraries built in the style of Beaux Arts Classicism. Negotiations between Andrew Carnegie and the Evansville library committee began in 1909 with a petition to Carnegie for funding a west side library. Over a two-year correspondence, the request was expanded to include a facility for Evansville's growing "East End." In January 1911, Carnegie agreed to give $50,000 for building two libraries. Land between Bayard Park and the Chandler Avenue School was purchased for the east side library from the school board with money raised by Bayard Park residents through popular subscription and by a generous contribution from one of Evansville's own industrialists and benefactors, Major Albert Carl Rosencranz, owner of Vulcan Plow Works.
Construction on both $25,000 buildings began in summer 1911 on plans prepared by Carnegie-approved architects Clifford Shopbell & Company of Evansville. The style of each building was a simplified version of Beaux Arts Classicism; the Shopbell interpretation featur
Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Coliseum
The Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Coliseum is a multi-purpose auditorium and meeting space in downtown Evansville, Indiana. The Coliseum was erected as a tribute to the men of Vanderburgh County who fought in the American Civil War and Spanish–American War. After several old buildings were torn down, the cornerstone of the 66,000-square-foot facility was laid May 9, 1916. Construction concluded in March 1917 and the Coliseum was formally dedicated April 18, 1917 right around the time the United States was joining World War I; the original construction cost $180,000. The neoclassical coliseum was designed by Shopbell & Company and provided the community with its first modern facility for conventions and other public gatherings; the ceremonial aspect of the building was heightened by placing the structure directly on an axis with Fourth Street. Rockport native George H. Honig created two heroic monuments; the Spirit of 1865, on the left, represents victory for the Union. The Spirit of 1916, on the right, shows the reflective elderly veterans of the Civil War.
Once considered the premier location for events in Evansville, the Coliseum was seen as dated and small when Roberts Municipal Stadium was built in the mid 1950s. When a push for "urban renewal" involving demolitions occurred in the city, the Coliseum was threatened. A "Save the Coliseum" campaign was developed and the same organization that helped save the Old Vanderburgh County Courthouse stepped in. In 1919 a 4,000 pipe concert organ was installed as a memorial to Prof. Milton Z. Tinker, for years supervisor of music in the local public schools. At the time of its installation it was among the largest municipal pipe organs in the world. In 2013, the University of Evansville purchased the pipe organ, dismantled it, put it into storage; the University hopes to restore it to full operating condition sometime in the future. When the Old National Events Plaza was constructed, the Colisum's use as an auditorium and convention space waned. In 1971 Vanderburgh County leased the building to the Vanderburgh County Veterans Council for a period of 99 years at the rate of $1 a year.
The Coliseum's Convention Hall still retains a seating capacity of 2,400 and a standing room capacity of 4,055. The Veterans Council leases out the venue for sporting events, stage plays, wedding receptions, musical productions, bingo and philanthropic organizations; the Coliseum is home to the Demolition City Roller Derby's two teams: the Dynamite Dolls and Destruction Dames. The Coliseum is home to professional wrestling