Forbes Field was a baseball park in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, from 1909 to June 28, 1970. It was the third home of the Pittsburgh Pirates Major League Baseball team, the first home of the Pittsburgh Steelers, the city's National Football League franchise; the stadium served as the home football field for the University of Pittsburgh "Pitt" Panthers from 1909 to 1924. The stadium was named after British general John Forbes, who fought in the French and Indian War, named the city in 1758; the US$1 million project was initiated by Pittsburgh Pirates' owner Barney Dreyfuss, with the goal of replacing his franchise's then-current home, Exposition Park. The stadium was made of steel in order to increase its lifespan; the Pirates opened Forbes Field on June 30, 1909, against the Chicago Cubs, played the final game against the Cubs on June 28, 1970. The field itself featured a large playing surface, with the batting cage placed in the deepest part of center field during games. Seating was altered multiple times throughout the stadium's life.
The Pirates won three World Series while at Forbes Field and the other original tenant, the Pittsburgh Panthers football team had five undefeated seasons before moving in 1924. Some remnants of the ballpark still stand. Fans gather on the site annually on the anniversary of Bill Mazeroski's World Series winning home run, in what author Jim O'Brien writes is "one of the most unique expressions of a love of the game to be found in a major league city". In 1903, Pittsburgh Pirates' owner Barney Dreyfuss began to look for ground to build a larger capacity replacement for the team's then-current home, Exposition Park. Dreyfuss purchased seven acres of land near the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, adjacent to Schenley Park, with assistance from his friend, industrialist Andrew Carnegie; the low-priced land was selected. Dreyfuss signed a contract to "make the ballpark... of a design that would harmonize with the other structures in the Schenley Park district." The site was labeled "Dreyfuss's Folly" due to its long distance—a 10-minute trolley ride—from downtown Pittsburgh, but the land around the park developed and criticisms were dropped.
Official Pirates' records show that Forbes Field cost US$1 million for site acquisition and construction. However, some estimates place the cost at twice that amount. Dreyfuss announced that unlike established wooden ballparks such as the Polo Grounds, he would build a three-tiered stadium out of steel and concrete to increase longevity—the first of its kind in the nation. Charles Wellford Leavitt, Jr. was contracted to design the stadium's grandstand. A civil engineer, Leavitt had founded an engineering and landscape architecture firm in 1897, he had gained experience in steel and concrete constructs while designing the Belmont and Saratoga racetracks. Based on Dreyfuss' architectural requirements, Leavitt presented a plan for Forbes Field—the only ballpark he designed. Pirates' manager Fred Clarke had input into the stadium's design, giving groundskeepers advice on the field, in addition to designing and patenting a device to spread and remove a canvas tarpaulin over the infield in case of rain.
Initial work on the land began on January 1, 1909, but ground was not broken until March 1. Nicola Building Company built the stadium in 122 days and play began less than four months after ground was broken, on June 30. Though the scoreboard was operated by hand, the ballpark featured multiple innovations such as ramps and elevators to assist fan movement throughout the park, a room for the umpires, a visiting team clubhouse similar to the Pirates'; the facade of the stadium featured "buff-colored terra cotta" spelling out "PAC" for the Pittsburgh Athletic Company. The light green steelwork contrasted with the red slate of the roof; some members of the press urged Dreyfuss to name the stadium after himself. However, the owner decided on Forbes Field, in honor of General John Forbes, who captured Fort Duquesne from the French in 1758 and rebuilt a new "Fort Pitt" at the site. In 1935, after Dreyfuss' death, there was renewed media interest in renaming the stadium "Dreyfuss Field", his widow, resisted.
However, a monument to Dreyfuss was placed in center field just in front of the wall. On June 29, 1909, the Pittsburgh Pirates defeated 8 -- 1 at Exposition Park; the two teams opened Forbes Field the following day. Fans began to arrive at one-half hours early for the 3:30 pm game. Weather conditions were reported as clear skies with a temperature around 80°. Of the crowd, the Pittsburgh Press wrote, "the ceremonies were witnessed by the largest throng that attended an event of this kind in this or any other city in the country... Forbes Field is so immense—so far beyond anything else in America in the way of a baseball park—that old experts, accustomed to judging crowds at a glance, were at a loss for reasonable figures." Records show that the first game was attended by a standing-room only crowd of 30,338. Various National League officials and owners were present for the opening pre-game ceremonies, including league president Harry Pulliam, Civil War veteran and manager of Pittsburgh's first professional baseball team Al Pratt, American League president Ban Johnson.
Pittsburgh Mayor William A. Magee threw out the stadium's ceremonial first pitch. Mayor Magee was in the second tier and threw the ball to John M. Morin, Director of Public Safety, on the field below. Morin went to the mound and threw the first pitch to the Pirate catch
Magnus Miller Murray
Magnus Miller Murray, served as the Mayor of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania from 1828 to 1830 and again from 1831 to 1832. Mayor Murray now rests in Section Lot 29 of Allegheny Cemetery. Murray was born to Commodore Alexander Murray and Mary Miller Murray, he was named after Magnus Miller, a local merchant. He attended Pennsylvania University, earning both bachelor's and master's degrees in an era when many statesmen had only a grade school education. On January 6, 1806 he was admitted to the Philadelphia Bar, he married Mary Wilkens, daughter of John Wilkins, Jr. and Catherine Reagan Murray, on February 23, 1810. Murray began politics as an understudy to his uncle, area judge and political insider William Wilkins. Under Murray's mayoral administration, the Western Terminus of the Pennsylvania Canal was completed along the Grant Street corridor of the city. Murray was the first of a handful of Pittsburgh mayors to serve two non-consecutive terms in office, having to cede control of the mayor's office to Matthew B.
Lowrie from 1830 to 1831, before regaining his mayoral powers. Mayor Magnus Murray's son, James Butler Murray, President of the First Exchange Bank of Pittsburgh is remembered in the naming of Murray Avenue in Pittsburgh's Squirrel Hill neighborhood. Member of The Society of the Cincinnati as the oldest male heir of Commodore Alexander Murray. Murray is an ancestor of actress Julie Bowen. Killikelly, S.. The History of Pittsburgh: Its Rise and Progress. Pittsburgh: B. C. & Gordon Montgomery Co. Martin, J.. Martin's Bench and Bar of Philadelphia, Philadelphia: R. Welsh & co
John M. Snowden
John Maugridge Snowden, served as Mayor of Pittsburgh City from 1825 to 1828. Snowden was born in Pennsylvania to a revolutionary war family of patriots, his father, John Snowden, was a hero of the war, being imprisoned by the British forces and dying in their custody. His mother, Elizabeth Moor, was a major advisor to General Washington during his Pennsylvania campaigns. In 1811 Snowden began a book business in Pittsburgh, he bought and edited his own newspaper, the Pittsburgh Mercury. Like his predecessor as Mayor, John Darragh, he used his appointment as President of the Bank of Pittsburgh to launch his mayoral candidacy. Snowden served terms as Allegheny County Recorder and Treasurer before being elected mayor of Pittsburgh in 1825, he served until 1828. Pittsburgh 12 March 1829 His ExcellencyGen A. Jackson Prest. U. S. Dr Sir To the many requests to which your attention is at this time drawn, may I be permitted respectfully to add mine? I have this day written to the Hon. M Van Buren applying for the appointment to publish the laws of the United States, &c in the Pittsburgh Mercury of which I am the editor and proprietor.
Presuming on your knowledge of my character and standing here and on your friendly feelings may I be permitted respectfully to solicit your aid in this particular. I presume it is known to your excellency that the Mercury was, both in 1824 and 1828, devoted to those principles which have so signally triumphed in the late contest, it is the second oldest paper in this place and has a respectable patronage and circulation. Calculated with firmness, but at the same time maintaining that decorous course, calculated to merit and secure the public confidence, it is believed that it was not an unimportant auxiliary in that contest, but neither my scrupulous regard as an editor for private character - the correctness of my course - nor my acknowledged good reputation - has secured me from many sacrifices in the just support of my political principles and opinions. Wherever political opponents could assail me, they have done it. From their own avowals, the first effort displayed itself by a combination to oust me from the mayoralty of this city - not because I was considered to be incompetent to or unfaithful in the discharge of the duties of that office, but because the fact that an opponent of the existing administration had been removed from the head of the city authorities, would give éclat abroad and subserve their political interests.
This step has been followed up by attempts to break down my establishment or diminish its patronage - attempts which have to a considerate extent affected my pecuniary interests, subjected me to an inconvenience, sensibly felt at my advanced period of life, with a numerous family dependent on my labour and exertions for maintenance. I make these statements not by way of complaint, but to show that the Pittsburgh Mercury was not, is not regarded as an inefficient partisan in the struggle for principles. If other recommendations be wanting for the obtainment of that appointment, I shall with great pleasure afford to your excellency any testimonials which may be asked of the purity of my life and character. I write with the freedom of a friend, I hope that my candour will not be construed into a want of respect. Had I less confidence in your willingness to give my application a favorable reception, or in the benevolence of your disposition, I should scarcely have ventured to write this letter, or if I had written, would have written more reservedly.
At the time of your visit to this place, I had the honour of introducing to your notice my son Wm Snowden. He accompanied you to Washington, he has been bred to the law. He is a young man of steady habits. Several of his and my friends have advised him to apply for a clerkship in one of the public offices in that of the secretary of state, his course of education we think best qualifies him for such a clerkship. I have understood that Mr Stevenson, many of the Pennsylvania delegation, together with Col McKinley of Alabama, other of your distinguished personal friends in and out of our congress, with whom he is acquainted, will join in his recommendation. If from the partial acquaintance you have had of him, the recommendations he may obtain, your excellency could be induced to interest yourself in his behalf, it would not only afford great gratification to me, but might be the happy means of bringing a promising young man into the public usefulness. I have the honour to be your excellencys most obt sevrt.
John M. Snowden This is a transcript of a letter from the National Archives, Record Group 59. IN pursuance to/ public notice, the citizens of Pittsburgh, convened in town meeting, at the court house, on Saturday evening, the 22nd inst. John M. Snowden, Esq. Mayor of the City, was called to the chair, William Eichbaum, jr. and Robert Burke, were chosen secretaries. The object of the meeting having been stated by the chairman, Judge Wilkins rose, after some appropriate and eloquent remarks, submitted the following preamble and resolutions, which were adopted: When men and honored for their virtues and services are removed from the scene of life, full of years, bearing with them the benedictions of millions whom they have blessed- when he who brought to light the principles of our revolutionary struggle, he who stood foremost
Edward V. Babcock
Edward Vose Babcock was a lumber industrialist who served as Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1918 to 1922. Edward Vose Babcock entered the lumber business from an early age, he ran for City Council in 1911 and began making a political name for himself. Unlike his predecessor "Joe the builder", Babcock's administration had little time to implement much policy, they were too busy dealing with the triple threat of a massive steel strike that created much social dissension and unrest, the 1918-1919 flu pandemic that hit Pittsburgh hard, all this while at the family dinnertables and company lunch rooms around the city the women's suffrage movement tested the strength of families and employers. Despite all of those challenges to Babcock's focus on his agenda, he did make some lasting accomplishments including expansion and groundbreaking of new parks and playgrounds, along with the modernization of some key traffic arteries within the city. In response to the suffrage movement, Babcock became the first mayor to appoint a woman to a cabinet-level position within the city.
After leaving the mayor's office Babcock continued his political career at the county level, becoming a commissioner in 1927. During his rule of Allegheny County he was successful in pushing through the opening of the Allegheny County Airport in West Mifflin, he was instrumental in providing county help to the city for the opening of the triplet bridges, he was extremely generous, purchasing at personal expense 4,000 acres of land for the expansive "North Park" and "South Park" in the county. He died in 1948, being buried in Homewood Cemetery. Babcock Boulevard in the North Hills of Pittsburgh is named for him. Babcock State Park in West Virginia. Babcock Ranch and Babcock Preserve in Florida; the profitable Babcock Lumber and Boom Company, operating out of Davis, West Virginia from 1907, was responsible for devastating environmental damage to much of surrounding Tucker County, including Canaan Valley, Dolly Sods and the Blackwater Canyon. These areas were clear-cut and the landscape converted into a tinderbox by the residual slashings.
By 1910, fires swept over the wasteland burning continuously from spring until the first snows. In 1914, with the county denuded of standing trees, the ground burned continually for 6 months; when the fires subsided, thin mineral soil and bare rock were all. Uncontrollable soil erosion and flooding further degraded and depopulated the region, which bears the scars of the conflagration to the present day
James Blackmore was an American politician. He served as Mayor of Pittsburgh from 1868 to 1869 and 1872 to 1875. Blackmore was born in 1821 in Pennsylvania, his father was County Treasurer in 1855, young Blackmore served as Chief Clerk. Mayor Blackmore was engaged in the coal business; the city expanded east and George Westinghouse began manufacture of the air brake in the Strip District during Mayor Blackmore's initial term. A new City Hall was completed on Smithfield Street and the city's southern boundaries were extended during Mayor Blackmore's second term. James Blackmore's last address was 167 Wylie Avenue, his only child was called his name sake, James Blackmore Jr, it was unknown what he did for a living. He died February 6, 1875, less than a week after finishing his term, is buried in Allegheny Cemetery, his only known living relative lives in the United Kingdom and is a direct descendent of James Blackmore Sr List of mayors of Pittsburgh James Blackmore at Political Graveyard Norman J. Meinert's list of plots in Allegheny Cemetery
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
Hill District (Pittsburgh)
The Hill District is a historic black collection of neighborhoods in the City of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Beginning in the years leading up to World War I "the Hill" was the cultural center of black life in the city and a major center of jazz. Despite its cultural and economic vibrancy, in the mid-1950s a substantial area was slated for redevelopment, displacing about 8,000 individuals and leading to the neighborhood's dramatic economic decline; the Hill District of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania as of 2010 the area comprises Census Tracts 305, 501, 506, 509, 510 and 511. It is bordered by the Downtown on the west, the Strip District next to the Allegheny River and Polish Hill to the north, the Bluff on the southwest, Oakland on the east and southeast; the census tract/neighborhoods noted in the Hill District are represented on the Pittsburgh City Council by the council member for District 6. Part of the Upper Hill is represented under District 7; the 15219 ZIP code covers all five neighborhoods, the 15213 ZIP code covers part of Terrace Village and the Upper Hill.
Following the rebellion by slaves and gaining of independence of Haiti in 1804, the free African-American community of the Hill District, Pittsburgh's oldest black community, was called "Little Haiti." The early residents of the Hill District were middle-class free blacks. In 2004 the Pittsburgh City Council announced commemoration of the 200th anniversary of Haiti's independence. Beginning in the 1910s, the Hill attracted migrants from elsewhere in the United States and from abroad; the neighborhood's black population exploded from around 10,000 in 1890 to over 37,000 by 1920. The influx of so many new residents resulted in a housing shortage, exacerbated by the rigid system of segregation that limited potential dwellings for blacks entirely to the Hill District; the experience of young, single black men underscored the severity of the housing crisis. By virtue of housing segregation and their marital status, these men crammed into the limited number of units available in the district; the result was an epidemic of cramped boarding houses where workers slept in shifts, as one 1969 study showed when it stated:"Men who work at night sleep during the day in the beds vacated by day workers.
There is no space in these rooms, except for beds and as many of them are crowded in as can be accommodated." The Hill developed a vibrant entertainment district that turned the area into a cultural hub for music the jazz genre. Black entrepreneurs established and ran a large roster of nightspots that included nightclubs and gambling dens, all of which required a constant influx of musical acts to keep guests entertained; this concentration of entertainment spots along Wylie Avenue, Fullerton Street, Center Avenue provided ready venues for both famous national acts and upstart local artists to perform. A short list of the more well-known spots consisted of the following institutions: The Crawford Grill The Collins Inn The Humming Bird The Leader House The ToonTown Hub Derby Dan's Harlem Bar Musician's Club Sawdust Trail The Fullerton InnThe establishment of such robust entertainment infrastructure allowed for the proliferation of musical entertainment in the neighborhood when it came to jazz.
Nationally known artists such as Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington made the Hill District a regular stop on national tours. In fact it was after a performance at the Lincoln Tavern that the nationally-syndicated black-run newspaper "The Pittsburgh Courier" crowned Ellington "the King of Jazz."The presence of such a vibrant entertainment district proved most instrumental to the development of Pittsburgh-reared jazz musicians. As historian Colter Harper notes, this thriving environment of entertainment venues served as a training ground for young innovators who needed regular employment to develop ideas and techniques, places in which to network with each other, audiences for feedback, club managers to aid in accessing the music scene in other cities; the benefits of networking showed themselves through mentor-ship opportunities, as famous musicians could provide young artists with crucial career and technical advice. This was the case with renowned Pittsburgh-reared jazz pianist Mary Lou Williams, whose distinct left-hand-dominated playing style could be traced back to her youthful interactions with touring vaudeville artist Jack Howard as he played shows in the city.
That phrase would be popularized by radio DJ Mary Dee, of WHOD Radio, Pittsburgh's only black radio station. The district had cultural vibrancy, numerous successful entertainment venues and black-owned businesses, but much of the housing was aged and substandard. Following World War II, the federal government committed to upgrade housing across the nation, in Pittsburgh, 95 acres of the Hill District were selected for redevelopment. In an article from 1943, George E. Evans, a member of the City Council, reasoned that public-private redevelopment could provide significant employment to returning war veterans, while ameliorating what he saw as an area beset by deterioration and urban blight, he wrote, "The Hill District of Pittsburgh is one of the most outstanding examples in Pittsburgh of neighborhood deterioration... There are 7,000 separate property owne