University of Edinburgh
The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities. The university has five main campuses in the city of Edinburgh, with many of the buildings in the historic Old Town belonging to the university; the university played an important role in leading Edinburgh to its reputation as a chief intellectual centre during the Age of Enlightenment, helped give the city the nickname of the Athens of the North. The University of Edinburgh is ranked 18th in the world by the 2019 QS World University Rankings, it is ranked as the 6th best university in Europe by the U. S. News' Best Global Universities Ranking, 7th best in Europe by the Times Higher Education Ranking; the Research Excellence Framework, a research ranking used by the UK government to determine future research funding, ranked Edinburgh 4th in the UK for research power, 11th overall. It is ranked the 78th most employable university in the world by the 2017 Global Employability University Ranking.
It is a member of both the Russell Group, the League of European Research Universities, a consortium of 21 research universities in Europe. It has the third largest endowment of any university in the United Kingdom, after the universities of Cambridge and Oxford; the annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £949.0 million of which £279.7 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £931.3 million. Alumni of the university include some of the major figures of modern history, including 3 signatories of the American declaration of independence and 9 heads of state; as of March 2019, Edinburgh's alumni, faculty members and researches include 19 Nobel laureates, 3 Turing Award laureates, 1 Fields Medalist, 1 Abel Prize winner, 2 Pulitzer Prize winners, 2 currently-sitting UK Supreme Court Justices, several Olympic gold medallists. It continues to have links to the British Royal Family, having had the Duke of Edinburgh as its Chancellor from 1953 to 2010 and Princess Anne since 2011.
Edinburgh receives 60,000 applications every year, making it the second most popular university in the UK by volume of applications. It has 4th highest average UCAS entry tariff in Scotland, 5th overall in the UK. Founded by the Edinburgh Town Council, the university began life as a college of law using part of a legacy left by a graduate of the University of St Andrews, Bishop Robert Reid of St Magnus Cathedral, Orkney. Through efforts by the Town Council and Ministers of the City the institution broadened in scope and became formally established as a college by a Royal Charter, granted by King James VI of Scotland on 14 April 1582 after the petitioning of the Council; this was unprecedented in newly Presbyterian Scotland, as older universities in Scotland had been established through Papal bulls. Established as the "Tounis College", it opened its doors to students in October 1583. Instruction began under the charge of another St Andrews graduate Robert Rollock, it was the fourth Scottish university in a period when the richer and much more populous England had only two.
It was renamed King James's College in 1617. By the 18th century, the university was a leading centre of the Scottish Enlightenment. In 1762, Reverend Hugh Blair was appointed by King George III as the first Regius Professor of Rhetoric and Belles-Lettres; this formalised literature as a subject at the university and the foundation of the English Literature department, making Edinburgh the oldest centre of literary education in Britain. Before the building of Old College to plans by Robert Adam implemented after the Napoleonic Wars by the architect William Henry Playfair, the University of Edinburgh existed in a hotchpotch of buildings from its establishment until the early 19th century; the university's first custom-built building was the Old College, now Edinburgh Law School, situated on South Bridge. Its first forte in teaching was anatomy and the developing science of surgery, from which it expanded into many other subjects. From the basement of a nearby house ran the anatomy tunnel corridor.
It went under what was North College Street, under the university buildings until it reached the university's anatomy lecture theatre, delivering bodies for dissection. It was from this tunnel. Towards the end of the 19th century, Old College was becoming overcrowded and Sir Robert Rowand Anderson was commissioned to design new Medical School premises in 1875; the design incorporated a Graduation Hall, but this was seen as too ambitious. A separate building was constructed for the purpose, the McEwan Hall designed by Anderson, after funds were donated by the brewer and politician Sir William McEwan in 1894, it was presented to the University in 1897. New College was opened in 1846 as a Free Church of Scotland college of the United Free Church of Scotland. Since the 1930s it has been the home of the School of Divinity. Prior to the 1929 reunion of the Church of Scotland, candidates for the ministry in the United Free Church studied at New College, whilst candidates for the old Church of Scotland studied in the Divinity Faculty of the University of Edinburgh.
During the 1930s the two institutions came together. By the end of the 1950s, there were around 7,000 students matriculating annually. An Edinburgh Students' Representative Council was founded in 1884 by student Robert Fitzroy Bell. In 1889, the SRC voted to be housed in Teviot Row House; the Edinburgh University Sports Union, founded in 1866. The Edinburgh
The Booth Theatre is a Broadway theatre located at 222 West 45th Street in midtown-Manhattan, New York City. Architect Henry B. Herts designed the Booth and its companion Shubert Theatre as a back-to-back pair sharing a Venetian Renaissance-style façade. Named in honor of famed 19th-century American actor Edwin Booth, brother of John Wilkes Booth, the theater's 783-seat auditorium was intended to provide an intimate setting for dramatic and comedic plays, it opened on October 16, 1913, with Arnold Bennett's play "The Great Adventure." The venue was the second New York City theatre to bear this name. The first, Booth's Theatre, was owned by Edwin Booth, built by the architectural partnership Renwick & Sands between 1867-69 on the corner of 23rd Street and 6th Avenue; the Booth Theatre appeared in The West Wing episode Posse Comitatus as venue for a fictitious charity performance of War of the Roses which President Jed Bartlet attended during the assassination of the Qumari Defence Minister Abdul ibn Shareef.
The box-office record was broken in 2013 by Bette Midler in I'll Eat You Last: A Chat with Sue Mengers with a gross of $753,217 in just seven performances. Midler broke her own record the week following with a gross of $865,144; the revival of The Elephant Man, starring Bradley Cooper, topped Midler's record by grossing $1,058,547 for an eight-performance week ending December 28, 2014. 1915: Our American Cousin 1936: You Can't Take It With You 1946: Swan Song 1969: Butterflies Are Free 1972: That Championship Season 1976: for colored girls who have considered suicide / when the rainbow is enuf 1979: The Elephant Man 1984: Sunday in the Park with George 1990: Once on This Island 1992: The Most Happy Fella 2000: The Search for Intelligent Life in the Universe 2002: I'm Not Rappaport 2005: The Pillowman 2009: Next to Normal 2011: High'm, Other Desert Cities 2012: Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? 2013: I'll Eat You Last: A Chat with Sue Mengers. Booth Theatre | PlaybillVault.com
George Gilbert Aimé Murray, was an Australian-born British classical scholar and public intellectual, with connections in many spheres. He was an outstanding scholar of the language and culture of Ancient Greece the leading authority in the first half of the twentieth century, he is the basis for the character of Adolphus Cusins in his friend George Bernard Shaw's play Major Barbara, appears as the chorus figure in Tony Harrison's play Fram. Murray was born in Australia, his father, Sir Terence Aubrey Murray, who died in 1873, had been a Member of the New South Wales Parliament. In 1877, Agnes emigrated with Gilbert to the UK, where she died in 1891. Murray was educated at St John's College, Oxford. From 1889–1899, Murray was Professor of Greek at the University of Glasgow. There was a break in his academic career from 1899 to 1905. After 1908 he was Regius Professor of Greek at the University of Oxford. From 1925–1926 Murray was the Charles Elliot Norton Lecturer at Harvard University. Murray is now best known for his verse translations of Greek drama, which were popular and prominent in their time.
As a poet he was taken to be a follower of Swinburne and had little sympathy from the modernist poets of the rising generation. The staging of Athenian drama in English did have its own cultural impact, he had earlier experimented without much success. Over time he worked through the entire canon of Athenian dramas. From Euripides, the Hippolytus and The Bacchae. In the United States Granville Barker and his wife Lillah McCarthy gave outdoor performances of The Trojan Women and Iphigenia in Tauris at various colleges; the translation of Œdipus Rex was a commission from W. B. Yeats; until 1912 this could not have been staged for a British audience. Murray was drawn into the public debate on censorship that came to a head in 1907 and was pushed by William Archer, whom he knew well from Glasgow, George Bernard Shaw, others such as John Galsworthy, J. M. Barrie and Edward Garnett. A petition was taken to Herbert Gladstone Home Secretary, early in 1908, he was one of the scholars associated with Jane Harrison in the myth-ritual school of mythography.
They met first in 1900. He wrote an appendix on the Orphic tablets for her 1903 book Prolegomena. Francis Fergusson wrote In general the ritual had its agon, or sacred combat, between the old King, or god or hero, the new, corresponding to the agons in the tragedies, the clear "purpose" moment of the tragic rhythm, it had its Sparagmos, in which the royal victim was or symbolically torn asunder, followed by the lamentation and/or rejoicing of the chorus: elements which correspond to the moments of "passion". The ritual had its recognition scene and its epiphany. Professor Murray, in a word, studies the art of tragedy in the light of ritual forms, thus, throws a new light onto Aristotle's Poetics, he was a lifelong supporter of the Liberal Party, lining up on the Irish Home Rule and non-imperialist sides of the splits in the party of the late nineteenth century. He supported temperance, married into a prominent Liberal and temperance family, the Carlisles, he made a number of moves that might have taken him into parliamentary politics by tentative thoughts about standing in elections during the 1890s.
In 1901-2 he was in close contact with the Independent Labour Party. But the overall effect of the Second Boer War was to drive him back into the academic career he had put on hold in 1898, resigning his Glasgow chair, he stood five times unsuccessfully for the University of Oxford constituency between 1919 and 1929. He continued support for the Asquith faction of Liberals, after the party was split again by Lloyd George. During the 1930s the Liberals as a party were crushed electorally, but Liberal thinkers continued to write; as Regius Professor and literary figure, he had a platform to promote his views, which were many-sided but Whig-liberal. In 1912 he wrote an introduction to The Great Analysis: A Plea for a Rational World-Order, by his friend William Archer. During World War I he became a pamphleteer, he defended C. K. Ogden against criticism, took a public interest in conscientious objection. Murray never took a pacifist line himself, broke an old friendship with Bertrand Russell early in the war, supported British intervention in the Suez Crisis.
He was involved as an internationalist in the League of Nations. He was a Vice-President of the League of Nations Society from 1916, in 1917 wrote influential articles in the Daily News. At the invitation of Jan Smuts he acted in 1921/2 as a League delegate for South Africa, he was an influent member of the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation of the League from 1922 to 1939, being its president from 1928 to 1939. He was a major influence in the setting-up of Oxfam and of the Students' International Union. For a brief period Murray became involved with the novelist H
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t
Little Eyolf is an 1894 play by Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. The play was first performed on January 1895 in the Deutsches Theater in Berlin. Little Eyolf tells the story of the Allmers family. At the outset of the play, the father, has just returned from a trip to the mountains. While there, he resolved to focus foremost on raising his son Eyolf, rather than continue work on his book, Human Responsibility. Eyolf, though described as having "beautiful, intelligent eyes," is paralyzed in one of his legs, thus his life is a sheltered one, he craves more than anything else to live the life of a normal boy, but his father knows that this is not possible. As such, Alfred wants to turn Eyolf towards intellectual pursuits; the Allmers household is soon visited by the Rat-Wife, a woman capable of enchanting rodents into following her into the sea, where they drown. She leaves when informed that her services are unnecessary, Eyolf follows her, unnoticed by Alfred, his wife Rita, Alfred's sister Asta.
Once Eyolf is gone, Alfred details his plan for being a better father to Eyolf and allowing him to attain happiness. In the course of his description, they are visited by Borghejm, an engineer, interested in Asta. While Asta and Borghejm walk outside, Rita's possessiveness of Alfred is revealed, during which she wishes that Eyolf had never been born, as he diverts Alfred's attention from herself. Rita and Alfred's conversation is interrupted by the return of Asta and Borghejm, followed by sounds of shouts down by the sea, which reveal that Eyolf has drowned after following the Rat-Wife into the sea. Down by the sea, Alfred is comforted by Asta. Rita and Borghejm follow, once again Borghejm removes Asta from the action allowing for confrontation between Rita and Alfred. In the course of their conversation, Rita talks more about needing Alfred wholly while Alfred reveals that he married Rita in order to be able to better Asta's life, they each blame each other for Eyolf's injury, with Alfred accusing Rita of "luring me in to you," distracting him from his duty to watch over Eyolf.
Borghejm and Asta return, Borghejm is once again unsuccessful at convincing Asta to marry him. However, when asked by Alfred and Rita to stay with them and take Eyolf's place, somehow allowing them to ease their guilt and avoid the problems in their relationship, Asta decides to marry Borghejm and follow him north. With Alfred indicating a continued unwillingness to be the husband Rita desires, she shares her new plan to try to better the lives of the poorer children who live down by the sea. In this, Alfred sees something positive again in Rita, Alfred decides to remain, so that together they can atone for their mistakes. Alfred Allmers Rita Allmers, his wife Eyolf, their son, nine years old Asta Allmers, Alfred's younger half-sister Borghejm, a road builder The Rat-Wife A production of Little Eyolf was featured in the BBC television anthology series Play of the Month in July 1982, it stars Anthony Hopkins as Alfred, Diana Rigg as Rita and Peggy Ashcroft in the role of the Rat Wife. Samuel Adamson's Mrs Affleck, which translates the action to the 1950s and set it on the English coast in Kent, premiered at the National Theatre in January 2009 to mixed reviews.
Cast credits are Claire Skinner as Rita Affleck, Angus Wright as Alfred Affleck, Naomi Frederick as Audrey Affleck. The 1989 film Jazeere, directed by Indian director Govind Nihlani, is a modernized take on the story; this Hindi version starred stalwarts like Ratna Pathak, Rajit Kapoor, Mita Vashisht, Irrfan Khan. Vanraj Bhatia scored the background music for the film; the 2009 film The Frost, directed by Spanish director Ferran Audí, is a modernized take on the story. The 2016 Edinburgh Festival performance Little Wolfie, directed by Norwegian director Invi Brenna, is a contemporary adaptation for the 21st century; the Pied Piper of Hamelin Ibsen, Henrik. Ibsen: The Complete Major Prose Plays. New York: Plume. ISBN 0-452-26205-4. Little Eyolf at Project Gutenberg Little Eyolf public domain audiobook at LibriVox Little Eyolf at the Internet Broadway Database
Elizabeth Robins was an actress, playwright and suffragette. She wrote as C. E. Raimond. Elizabeth Robins, the first child of Charles Robins and Hannah Crow, was born in Louisville, Kentucky. After financial difficulties, her father left for Colorado, leaving the children in the care of Hannah; when Hannah was committed to an insane asylum and the other children were sent to live with her grandmother in Zanesville, where she was educated. It would be her grandmother who armed her with The Complete Works of William Shakespeare and her unconditional support on her endeavor to act in New York City, her father held progressive political views. Though her father was an insurance broker, he traveled a lot during her childhood and in the summer of 1880, Robins accompanied him to mining camps and was able to attend theatre in New York and Washington along the way; because of her intelligence, Elizabeth was one of her father's favorites. He wanted her to attend study medicine. At the age of fourteen, Robins saw her first professional play which ignited her desire to pursue an acting career.
From 1880 to 1888, she would have an acting career in America. After arriving in New York, Robins soon met James O'Neill, who helped her join Edwin Booth's theatre and by 1882, she was touring, she soon grew bored and irritated playing "wretched, small character parts" and in 1883 joined the Boston Museum stock company. It would be here that she met her future husband, George Parks, a member of the company. In 1885 Robins married Parks. Although her husband struggled to get acting parts, she was soon in great demand and would be on tour throughout their marriage, her refusal to leave the stage may have caused Parks to kill himself in 1887 by jumping off a bridge into the Charles River, stating in his suicide note, "I will not stand in your light any longer." On September 3, 1888, Robins moved to London. "Her move to London represented a rebirth after personal tragedy in America." Except for extended visits to the U. S. to visit family, she remained in England for the rest of her life. At a social gathering during her first week in England, she met Oscar Wilde.
Throughout her career, he would come see her act and give her critiques, such as in one of her roles in Frances Hodgson Burnett's The Real Little Lord Fauntleroy in 1889. Wilde's comment was "you have asserted your position as an actress of the first order. Your future on our stage is assured." Early in her time in London, she became enamoured of Ibsen's plays. In 1891 a London matinee revival of A Doll's House put Robins in contact with Marion Lea. Together they would form a joint management, making this the "first step toward the theatre that Robins had dreamed of… a theatre of independent management and artistic standards." Finding work in "'women's plays' written by men like Ibsen," Robins and Lea brought strong female characters to the stage. George Bernard Shaw noted "what is called the Woman Question has begun to agitate the stage." Together Elizabeth Robins and Marion Lea brought Ibsen's Hedda Gabler to the stage, for the first time in England. A Doll's House "marked an important step in the representation of women by dramatists" and Hedda marked an important step for Elizabeth Robins, becoming her defining role.
"Sarah Bernhardt could not have done it better," wrote William Archer in a publication of The World. From on, Hedda became synonymous with Robins on the English stage. Robins and Lea would go on to produce a handful of Ibsen's other'New Woman' plays. "The experience of acting and producing Ibsen's plays and the reactions to her work helped transform Elizabeth over time into a committed supporter of women's rights." In 1898, she joined forces with William Archer, an influential critic, together they produced non-profit Ibsen plays. She became known in Britain as "Ibsen's High Priestess." In 1902, she was Lucrezia in Stephen Phillips's Paolo and Francesca at the St. James's Theatre, London. Ending her acting career at the age of forty, Robins had made her mark on the English stage as not only an actress but an actress-manageress. Robins realised her income from acting. While Robins was busy being a successful actress, she had to leave England to look for her brother in Alaska, who had gone missing.
Her experiences searching for her brother led her to write her novels, Magnetic North and Come and Find Me. Before this, she had written novels such as George Mandeville's Husband, The New Moon, Below the Salt and Other Stories and several others under the name of C. E. Raimond, she explained her use of a pseudonym as a means of keeping her acting and writing careers separate but gave it up when the media reported that Robins and Raimond were the same. She enjoyed a long career as a nonfiction writer. In her biography of Elizabeth Robins, Staging a Life, Angela John says, "It is possible to trace in Elizabeth's writing from 1890s onwards an emerging feminist critique but only influenced by the psychological realism of Ibsen, which would find most confident expression in 1907 in her justly celebrated novel The Convert". Robins' main character, speaks to "male politicians and social acquaintances", something different from what the women of Robins' time did – something reminiscent of one of Ibsen's'new women.'
The novel is an adaptation of Robins's most successful play, Votes for Women! The first play to bring the "street politics of women's suffrage to the stage", Votes for Women! led to a surge of suffrage theatre. Elizabeth Robins first attended "open-air meetings of the suffrage union" when the Women's Social and Political Union moved its headquarters fro