Charles A. Otis
Charles Augustus Otis, Sr. was a businessman and mayor of Cleveland from 1873 until 1874. Otis was born in Ohio, to William Augustus Otis and Eliza Proctor. Otis was a direct descendant of James Otis Jr.. William was a Massachusetts-born manufacturer who worked in Pittsburgh before traveled to Bloomfield, Trumbull County, Ohio, to start a primitive mercantile business and a tavern. In 1836, William moved to Cleveland to return to ironworks. Charles would follow his father in this line of work. William became a steamboat purser in 1848. Otis shipped wheat from Ohio to New York en route the Erie Canal, he manufactured high-quality flour and potash thirty-five miles to Ashtabula River, where it was loaded on a schooner and shipped to Buffalo and New York City. Otis established the Lake Erie Iron Company in 1852, he sold the business in 1866. The Otis Iron and Steel Company was established upon Otis' return in Industrial Valley, it was the first American company to manufacture acid open-hearth steel. Otis founded American Wire Company, which became the American Steel and Wire Company, was connected with the Standard Sewing Machine Company.
He founded the American Steel Screw Company, the Cleveland Electric Railway Company, the Society for Savings. Otis worked with Dr. Everett and Samuel T. Wellman in the old East Cleveland line, it was said. Otis was both a prominent industrial developer and municipal leader of Cleveland; the Democrats nominated him in his absence and without his knowledge, as their candidate for mayor by 1872. He defeated Republican candidate, John Huntington, it was said that Otis' lack of consent for the nomination allowed him to show respectable individuality in his political career. On October 17, 1873, Ulysses S. Grant passed through the city. Gossip and a telegram reached Otis. Grant's presidential train arrived to a city decorated with American flags; the group drove down Euclid Avenue to meet the President at Kennard House. In February, 1874, Otis visited Indiana. Much like Cleveland, Indianapolis saw its growth in the last decades of the nineteenth-century. Otis toured the city for less than a month to see much of the early growth.
Charles' brother, William H. Otis, was a prominent resident of Indianapolis. On March 19, 1874, forty members of the Women's Christian Temperance Union marched on Ontario Street, Public Square, the Young Men's Christian Association. Assaults were made against the women in the eleventh ward on Lorain Avenue; the WTC returned to their protest on Garden Street on the following day. Mayor Otis ordered a sidewalk ordinance. Mayor Otis argued that the few who could afford to use the Cleveland Water Works "should aid in extending" the service to the rest of the city. Written on page xxi of the City Documents of 1874, Otis advocated a 33.3% increase in the cost of public waterworks, to fund construction. Otis left as mayor in the following year due to business reasons, his political career was described as successful. His party found that his business was too successful; the work took much of his attention, so he declined to seek reelection. Otis had a strong wish to serve the people. Otis became a member of the Board of Imprisonments in 1878.
He served for one year. Otis became a member of the House of Correction Board in 1882 until 1884, he established Cleveland's first Board of Fire Board of Police Commissioners. Otis married Mary Shepard in 1853; the couple had two daughters and Nelly. Mary died in 1860. Otis married Mary's sister, Anna Elizabeth Shepard in 1863, they had 3 sons, Charles A. Jr. Harrison G. and William A. He moved to New York in 1890. Otis was a member of the Ohio Society of New York. In 1894, he became president of New Commercial National Bank, he retired from Otis Iron and Steel Company in 1899. By 1901, the Otis Iron and Steel Company merged with the Cleveland Rolling Mill Company into US Steel; the Jones and Laughlin Steel Company bought the former Otis Steel company along the Cuyahoga River in Cleveland was purchased in 1942. Otis retired from the New Commercial National Bank in 1904. Commercial Bank merged with the Mercantile National Bank, forming the present National Commercial Bank, his retirement left him unnoticed by the public in the 20th-Century.
Otis spent his last years as an avid tourist of Europe. Otis died at his son's house in 1905, in which his obituary stated that Cleveland lost one of the builders. Otis was described as a pioneer in the creative industrial enterprises which made the possibility of modern Cleveland, he was described as "one of the most active forces in the growth of Cleveland." Otis is buried in Lake View Cemetery
Nelson Hayward was the sixth mayor of Cleveland, Ohio. He served only one term, in 1843. Hayward was born in Massachusetts to William and Marjory Hayward, he was educated in Massachusetts and came to Cleveland with his two brothers and John, in 1825. In 1840 Hayward became the assistant chief of the Old Volunteer Fire Department, he was elected alderman in 1841 and 1842 and served as the vice-president of the city's Temperance Society in 1842. He was elected as mayor in 1843 because of his Jacksonian Democrat political philosophy. Hayward was not re-elected because the city's political views shifted to partisan Whig and Republican. In 1844 he became a members of the Cleveland Lodge of Odd Fellows. Hayward was never married; the Encyclopedia Of Cleveland History by Cleveland Bicentennial Commission, David D. Van Tassel, John J. Grabowski ISBN 0-253-33056-4
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
103rd Ohio Infantry
The 103rd Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry was a three-years' infantry regiment from northeastern Ohio that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War. It participated in many of the battles of the Army of the Ohio in the Western Theater. "this Regiment was organized in the State of Ohio at large, in August and September, 1862, to serve for three years. It was mustered out of service June 1865, in accordance with orders from the War Department; the official list of battles in which this Regiment bore an honorable part is not yet published by the War Department, but the following list has been compiled after careful research during the preparation of this work" Blue Spring Tennessee, October 5, 1863 Knoxville Tennessee, November 17 to December 4, 1863 Dandridge Tennessee, January 16–18, 1864 Resaca Georgia, May 13–16, 1864 Atlanta Georgia, July 28-September 2, 1864 Spring Hill Tennessee, November 29, 1864 The battle and the enlistment records of every soldier from the 103rd Ohio Infantry is available online.
Needing additional soldiers, President Lincoln put out the call for volunteers to serve in the Union army. Several hundred men - farmers - from the northern Ohio counties of Cuyahoga and Lorain answered the call; this unit was organized in Cleveland in August 1862 and became known as the 103rd Regiment of the Ohio Volunteer Infantry"On July 21, 1862, William B. Castle, as chairman of the District Military Committee in Cleveland, sent a letter to Governor David Tod, enclosing a copy of a resolution recommending that the appointment of company officers for the 103rd Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry; the new regiment was to draw members from Lorain County and Medina County. The 103rd OVI was organized at Cleveland in August 1862 under command of Colonel John S. Casement, it was ordered to Kentucky on September 3, 1862, attached to the 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, Army of Kentucky, Department of the Ohio. The regiment saw action in Kentucky, Georgia and Tennessee. After mustering up near Cleveland Ohio travelling by train to Cincinnati, where the 103 OVI ferried across the Ohio River to Covington.
September 10–11, 1862 members of the 103rd OVI skirmish with Henry Heth, before the rebels retreated to Lexington, Kentucky. From Fort Mitchell the 103rd OVI marched ninety miles to Lexington, where the infantry men boarded a train to Frankfort, arriving around 1:00 pm on October 30, 1862 March 26, 1863, The 103 Ohio Volunteer Infantry Commanded by Colonel John S. Casement begins construction of Fort on a Hill in Frankfort Kentucky. Named Fort Crittenden by the 103 OVI in honour of Kentucky's famed United States Senator John J. Crittenden, who gave the 103rd OVI a rousing speech and warm welcome when they arrived. Sometime during the war this Frankfort post received the name Fort Boone, not to be confused with Fort Boone. Lyman Beecher Hannaford describes "We have now moved our encampment up on the hill in the rear of the fort", the planned Fort would over look the city providing defense of the now Union controlled Kentucky Capital, the only Union capital to fall to the Rebels"Towards the city, there is first a stone wall and an embankment about 5 feet high and 8 feet thick.
This is right on the brow of the hill. The embankment on the other side is eight feet high. On the inside is a platform or shelf about three or four feet wide for infantry to stand on to repel an attack. On the outside of the embankment there is a ditch 8 feet wide and five feet deep". 1–inside of fort 2–shelf for infantry 3–embankment of dirt 4–cedar brush 2 feet thick and projecting over the side of the ditch about 18 inches. The other end buried in 5 -- ditch. I understand. Six 32-pounders & six 64-pounders. "I shall now tell you. It is about ten rods wide at the widest place and thirty rods long."The 103rd mustered out on June 12, 1865. It lost during its term of service two officers and 137 enlisted men killed and mortally wounded, three officers and 106 enlisted men by disease, a total 248 fatalities. List of casualties: Field and Staff Assistant Surgeon, Frank M. Andrews, Died October 8, 1864 Company A Captain, Isaac C. Vail, died August 10, 1863 at Danville Kentucky In 1866, veterans formed the 103rd O.
V. I. Association, they and/or their descendants have held a reunion every year since, the only U. S. organization of its kind. The association operates the 103rd Ohio Volunteer Infantry Museum in Sheffield Lake, Ohio that houses and displays historic Civil War relics which have been inherited, collected by or donated to the descendants of the members. June 17, 1886, at a meeting of the Cuyahoga County Soldiers' and Sailors' Union, held at Bedford, it was determined that the time had arrived to commence the undertaking, which had for many years been contemplated by that body, of erecting the Memorial, authorized by Legislative enactment, accordingly a vote was taken as to the character and style of the structure; the names of members of the 103rd OVI can be found on this monument as well as an image depicting the Color Guard of the 103rd OVI "in vivid truthfulness" a gallant defense of the flag by the 103rd Ohio Infantry at the battle of Resaca Georgia, May 13–16, 1864. "The lion-hearted Sergeant Matin Striebler and eight Corporals stood before the enemys fire until they were wounded or killed.
March 9, 2014, Charles Levereth Bonney, 103rd OVI letter to Henry Sanford is transcribed. In the letter from Fort Mitchell where the 103rd Ohio Infantry had been brought to bolster the Defense of Cincinnati from Confederate Brigadier General Henry Heth, Charles indicates in his letter
St. John's Episcopal Church (Cleveland, Ohio)
St. John's Episcopal Church is located at 2600 Church Street in the Ohio City neighborhood of Cleveland, Ohio. St. John's is the oldest consecrated building in Cuyahoga county; this stone gothic revival church building was designed by Hezekiah Eldredge and built beginning in 1836 and was completed 1838. Eldridge was familiar with John Henry Hopkins' "An Essay on Gothic Architecture", the first book on Gothic ecclesiastical architecture to be published in the United States. St. John's is a good representative of a small group of American churches inspired by Hopkins' book. On November 9, 1816, a group of Episcopalians met in the log home of Phineas Shepard on the Cleveland's west side at what is now West 25th Street and Detroit Avenue, to organize what was to become Trinity Parish; the parish is the site of the original Episcopal congregation in Cleveland. In 1825, east side members moved the original parish, named Trinity from Ohio City, to a site near Public Square. West side members remained in Ohio City.
Trinity Cathedral is now the seat of the Episcopal Diocese of Ohio. St. John's was the mother church to several of the west side parishes. In 1837, the Ohio City Directory described the church as follows, "The Episcopal Church, not yet finished, is built of hammered stone, has a lofty steeple, its style of architecture is Gothic, resembling that of the venerable Cathedral. This building, when finished, will be one of the best of the kind in the western country, may be considered as an ornament to the young city"; the original bell now is housed in the west side of the narthex, due to weakening of the steeple. Next to the church stands the frame; this "Gothicized meeting house" has been rebuilt twice, once after a fire in the 1880s and once after a tornado in 1953. The present plan, with neither a central aisle nor an apse, is therefore similar to the original plan. At one time the church was more elaborate. St, John's was known as "Station Hope" on the Underground Railroad. An Episcopal parish continued to worship in this space through December, 2007.
Social justice events, guest speakers and meetings occur at the church. As of 2016, the Vicar is The Rev. Kelly Aughenbaugh. Yearly, an event called; the following is from an advertisement for the event: "STATION HOPE 2017 - A Beacon Of Freedom. A Convening of Community. A CELEBRATION OF HOPE. - Join over 200 artists to engage and reflect on social justice, equity and a shared vision of hope- on the grounds of Cleveland's first authenticated Underground Railroad site, St. John's Episcopal Church in Ohio City. Audiences explore the historic church and surrounding properties to view short works of theatre, music and dance, along with choir performances and visual art installations inspired by the most important issues of our time. Saturday, April 29, 2017-- FREE AND OPEN TO ALL." This event is done in partnership with the Cleveland Public Theatre, other community organizations. William B. Castle: Cleveland mayor Mark Hanna: industrialist and Republican politician from Cleveland. Hezekiah Eldredge: builder, charter member and was a member of the Vestry.
Www.dohio.org Cleveland Public Theatre, www.cptonline.org History of Trinity parish, Cleveland Gothic Processional Structure Underground Railroad Tour of Cleveland African American Heritage Trail, St. John's Episcopal Church Designated Cleveland Landmarks History of St. John's Church Official website
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Tom L. Johnson
Tom Loftin Johnson was an American industrialist, Georgist politician, important figure of the Progressive Era and a pioneer in urban political and social reform. He was a U. S. Representative from 1891 to 1895 and Mayor of Cleveland for four terms from 1901 to 1909. Johnson was one of the most well known and dedicated admirers of Henry George's views on political economy and anti-monopoly reform. Johnson's father, a wealthy cotton planter with lands in Kentucky and Arkansas, served in the Confederate Army in the Civil War; the war ruined the family financially, they were forced to move to several locations in the South in search of work. By age 11, Johnson was selling newspapers on the railroads in Staunton and providing a substantial part of the family's support, he worked all through his youth, never had more than one complete year of formal education. Johnson's break came through an old family connection with the industrial du Pont dynasty. In 1869, the brothers A. V. and Bidermann du Pont gave him a clerk's job on the street railway business they had acquired in Louisville.
Johnson rose in the business, discovered a taste for the mechanical side of it. He patented several inventions, including an improved type of streetcar rail, the glass-sided farebox still used on many buses today. By 1876, thanks to royalties from his farebox, Johnson was able to strike out on his own, purchasing a controlling share in the street railways of Indianapolis. In the 1880s and 90s he expanded his interests to lines in Cleveland, St. Louis and Detroit, entered the steel business, building mills in Lorain and Johnstown, Pennsylvania to provide rails for streetcar tracks, he moved to Cleveland in 1883 and soon afterwards bought a mansion on the'Millionaire's Row' of Euclid Avenue. Two chance events helped spark Johnson's interest in politics and social questions, convert him from a conventional business tycoon to a radical reformer; the first was reading, on the suggestion of a train conductor, Henry George's Social Problems, in which the political philosopher expounded his belief that poverty and misery were a result of society's newly created wealth becoming locked up in increasing land values, advocating a Single Tax on land in place of wastefully taxing the productive activity of capital and labor.
Johnson became consumed by the arguments George made in Progress and Poverty. Johnson took the book to his lawyer and said, "I must get out of the business, or prove that this book is wrong. Here, Russell, is a retainer of five hundred dollars. I want you to read this book and give me your honest opinion on it, as you would on a legal question. Treat this retainer as you would a fee." Johnson sought out George in New York at the first possible opportunity, the two became close friends and political collaborators. Johnson abandoned his business of rail monopoly and spent much of his fortune promoting the ideas of Henry George; the second event was being present to witness the terrible Johnstown Flood of 1889. Johnson and his business partner Arthur Moxham organized the immediate relief activities in the stricken, leaderless city. Interpreting the events through a Georgist lens, the experience left him with a deep resentment of what he called'Privilege'; the disaster had been caused by the improper maintenance of a dam holding a private recreational lake, owned by Henry Clay Frick and other Pittsburgh industrialists, who escaped all responsibility for it.
More than that, to Johnson, the flood exemplified the inadequacy of charity and weak'remedial measures' to solve society's problems. Johnson mounted an unsuccessful campaign for the U. S. House of Representatives in 1888, won the seat in 1890, serving two terms, he promoted free trade and the Single Tax idea, was a useful moderate on the divisive currency question. The issue of privilege made Johnson reconsider his own business career.'Traction' companies depended on route franchises granted by city councils. In an era when most everyone rode the cars, the stakes were high, battles for franchises were the hidden issue behind cities' factional strife. Johnson knew the game intimately. In Cleveland, he came into conflict early with Mark Hanna, the powerful local businessman who by 1894 would be the leading power broker of the Republican Party, the man credited with putting fellow Ohioan William McKinley in the White House. Johnson's streetcar fights with Hanna and his allies make a colorful part of Cleveland political folklore.
In a time when companies with a monopoly of transport on a route were able to charge five cents for a ride, he made the'three-cent fare' a cornerstone of his populist philosophy, he would come out in favor of complete public ownership. Through the 1890s Johnson divested himself of most of his transit and steel holdings, to devote himself to the politics of reform. In 1901, pressed on by influential citizens and a public petition, he decided to run for mayor of Cleveland, his campaign electrified the city. Johnson liked to rent large circus tents and set them up on neighborhood lots, attracting big crowds for whom he would deliver a powerful speech, banter cheerfully with hecklers, finish with a stereopticon show with a political moral. On April 1, 1901, he was elected with 54% of the vote. Johnson's entry into office would