Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, is the husband of Elizabeth II. Philip was born into the Danish royal families, he was born in Greece. After being educated in France and the United Kingdom, he joined the British Royal Navy in 1939, aged 18. From July 1939, he began corresponding with the 13-year-old Princess Elizabeth, whom he had first met in 1934. During the Second World War he served with distinction in the Pacific Fleets. After the war, Philip was granted permission by George VI to marry Elizabeth. Before the official announcement of their engagement in July 1947, he abandoned his Greek and Danish royal titles and became a naturalised British subject, adopting the surname Mountbatten from his maternal grandparents, he married Elizabeth on 20 November 1947. Just before the wedding, he was created Baron Earl of Merioneth and Duke of Edinburgh. Philip left active military service when Elizabeth became queen in 1952, having reached the rank of commander, was formally made a British prince in 1957.
Philip and Elizabeth have four children: Prince Charles, Princess Anne, Prince Andrew and Prince Edward. Through a British Order in Council issued in 1960, descendants of the couple not bearing royal styles and titles can use the surname Mountbatten-Windsor, used by some members of the royal family who do hold titles, such as Princess Anne and Princes Andrew and Edward. A keen sports enthusiast, Philip helped develop the equestrian event of carriage driving, he is a patron, president or member of over 780 organisations and serves as chairman of The Duke of Edinburgh's Award for people aged 14 to 24. He is the longest-serving consort of a reigning British monarch and the oldest male member of the British royal family. Philip retired from his royal duties on 2 August 2017, at the age of 96, having completed 22,219 solo engagements since 1952. Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark was born in Mon Repos on the Greek island of Corfu on 10 June 1921, the only son and fifth and final child of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark and Princess Alice of Battenberg.
Philip's four elder sisters were Margarita, Theodora and Sophie. He was baptised in the Greek Orthodox rite at St. George's Church in the Old Fortress in Corfu, his godparents were his paternal grandmother Queen Olga of Greece, represented by Princess Olga of Greece and Denmark, Alexandros S. Kokotos, the Mayor of Corfu, representing the people of Corfu. Shortly after Philip's birth, his maternal grandfather, Prince Louis of Battenberg known as Louis Mountbatten, Marquess of Milford Haven, died in London. Louis was a naturalised British citizen, after a career in the Royal Navy, had renounced his German titles and adopted the surname Mountbatten—an Anglicized version of Battenberg—during the First World War, owing to anti-German sentiment in Great Britain. After visiting London for the memorial and his mother returned to Greece where Prince Andrew had remained behind to command an army division embroiled in the Greco-Turkish War; the war went badly for Greece, the Turks made large gains. On 22 September 1922, Philip's uncle, King Constantine I, was forced to abdicate and the new military government arrested Prince Andrew, along with others.
The commander of the army, General Georgios Hatzianestis, five senior politicians were executed. Prince Andrew's life was believed to be in danger, Alice was under surveillance. In December, a revolutionary court banished Prince Andrew from Greece for life; the British naval vessel HMS Calypso evacuated Prince Andrew's family, with Philip carried to safety in a cot made from a fruit box. Philip's family went to France, where they settled in the Paris suburb of Saint-Cloud in a house lent to them by his wealthy aunt, Princess George of Greece and Denmark; because Philip left Greece as a baby, he does not have a strong grasp of the Greek language. In 1992, he said that he "could understand a certain amount". Philip has stated that he has thought of himself as Danish, his family spoke English and German. Philip, who in his youth was known for his charm, was linked to a number of women including Osla Benning. Philip was first educated at The Elms, an American school in Paris run by Donald MacJannet, who described Philip as a "know it all smarty person, but always remarkably polite".
In 1928, he was sent to the United Kingdom to attend Cheam School, living with his maternal grandmother, Victoria Mountbatten, Dowager Marchioness of Milford Haven, at Kensington Palace and his uncle, George Mountbatten, 2nd Marquess of Milford Haven, at Lynden Manor in Bray, Berkshire. In the next three years, his four sisters married German princes and moved to Germany, his mother was diagnosed with schizophrenia and placed in an asylum, his father took up residence in Monte Carlo. Philip had little contact with his mother for the remainder of his childhood. In 1933, he was sent to Schule Schloss Salem in Germany, which had the "advantage of saving school fees" because it was owned by the family of his brother-in-law, Margrave of Baden. With the rise of Nazism in Germany, Salem's Jewish founder, Kurt Hahn, fled persecution and founded Gordonstoun School in Scotland, which Philip moved to after two terms at Salem. In 1937, his sister Cecilie, her husband Georg Donatus, Hereditary Grand Duke of Hesse, her two young sons and Alexander, her newborn infant, her mother-in-law, Princess Eleonore of Solms-Hohensolms-Lich, were killed in an air crash at Ostend.
The following year, his uncle and guardian Lord Milford Haven died of bone marrow cancer. After leaving Gordonstoun in early 193
Long Island is a densely populated island off the East Coast of the United States, beginning at New York Harbor 0.35 miles from Manhattan Island and extending eastward into the Atlantic Ocean. The island comprises four counties in the U. S. state of New York. Kings and Queens Counties and Nassau County share the western third of the island, while Suffolk County occupies the eastern two-thirds. More than half of New York City's residents now live in Brooklyn and Queens. However, many people in the New York metropolitan area colloquially use the term Long Island to refer to Nassau and Suffolk Counties, which are suburban in character, conversely employing the term the City to mean Manhattan alone. Broadly speaking, "Long Island" may refer both to the main island and the surrounding outer barrier islands. North of the island is Long Island Sound, across which lie Westchester County, New York, the state of Connecticut. Across the Block Island Sound to the northeast is the state of Rhode Island. To the west, Long Island is separated from the island of Manhattan by the East River.
To the extreme southwest, it is separated from Staten Island and the state of New Jersey by Upper New York Bay, the Narrows, Lower New York Bay. To the east lie Block Island—which belongs to the State of Rhode Island—and numerous smaller islands. Both the longest and the largest island in the contiguous United States, Long Island extends 118 miles eastward from New York Harbor to Montauk Point, with a maximum north-to-south distance of 23 miles between Long Island Sound and the Atlantic coast. With a land area of 1,401 square miles, Long Island is the 11th-largest island in the United States and the 149th-largest island in the world—larger than the 1,214 square miles of the smallest U. S. state, Rhode Island. With a Census-estimated population of 7,869,820 in 2017, constituting nearly 40% of New York State's population, Long Island is the most populated island in any U. S. state or territory, the 18th-most populous island in the world. Its population density is 5,595.1 inhabitants per square mile.
If Long Island geographically constituted an independent metropolitan statistical area, it would rank fourth most populous in the United States. S. state, Long Island would rank 13th in population and first in population density. Long Island is culturally and ethnically diverse, featuring some of the wealthiest and most expensive neighborhoods in the Western Hemisphere near the shorelines as well as working-class areas in all four counties; as a hub of commercial aviation, Long Island contains two of the New York City metropolitan area's three busiest airports, JFK International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, in addition to Islip MacArthur Airport. Nine bridges and 13 tunnels connect Brooklyn and Queens to the three other boroughs of New York City. Ferries connect Suffolk County northward across Long Island Sound to the state of Connecticut; the Long Island Rail Road is the busiest commuter railroad in North America and operates 24/7. Nassau County high school students feature prominently as winners of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair and similar STEM-based academic awards.
Biotechnology companies and scientific research play a significant role in Long Island's economy, including research facilities at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, State University of New York at Stony Brook, the New York University Tandon School of Engineering, the City University of New York, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine. Prior to European contact, the Lenape people inhabited the western end of Long Island, spoke the Munsee dialect of Lenape, one of the Algonquian language family. Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to record an encounter with the Lenapes, after entering what is now New York Bay in 1524; the eastern portion of the island was inhabited by speakers of the Mohegan-Montauk-Narragansett language group of Algonquian languages. In 1609, the English navigator Henry Hudson explored the harbor and purportedly landed at Coney Island. Adriaen Block followed in 1615, is credited as the first European to determine that both Manhattan and Long Island are islands.
Native American land deeds recorded by the Dutch from 1636 state that the Indians referred to Long Island as Sewanhaka. Sewan was one of the terms for wampum, is translated as "loose" or "scattered", which may refer either to the wampum or to Long Island; the name "'t Lange Eylandt alias Matouwacs" appears in Dutch maps from the 1650s. The English referred to the land as "Nassau Island", after the Dutch Prince William of Nassau, Prince of Orange, it is unclear. Another indigenous name from colonial time, comes from the Native American name for Long Island and means "the island that pays tribute." The first settlements on Long Island were by settlers from England and its colonies in present-day New England. Lion Gardiner settled nearby Gardiners Island. T
Chicago and Eastern Illinois Railroad
The Chicago and Eastern Illinois Railroad was a Class I railroad that linked Chicago to southern Illinois, St. Louis, Evansville. Founded in 1877, it grew aggressively and stayed strong throughout the Great Depression and two World Wars before being purchased by the Missouri Pacific Railroad and the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. Missouri Pacific merged with the C&EI corporate entity in 1976, was acquired itself by the Union Pacific Railroad; the Chicago and Eastern Illinois Railroad was organized in 1877 as a consolidation of three others: the Chicago and Vincennes Railroad, the Evansville, Terre Haute and Chicago Railroad and the Evansville and Terre Haute Railroad. Intended to merge or purchase railroads that had built lines between the southern suburbs of Chicago and Terre Haute, Indiana through Danville, the C&EI constructed a new line from Chicago to a Mississippi River connection in extreme southern Illinois at Thebes; the management of the Chicago and Eastern Illinois and the Chicago and Indiana Coal Railway became intertwined and a connection was built between the two railroads between Goodland and Momence.
By 1894 the Eastern had merged the C&IC. The C&EI continued this vigorous growth into the next decade. In 1902, the Frisco purchased a controlling interest in the Chicago and Eastern Illinois and continued building. However, in 1913 financial problems led to the collapse of the Frisco, the Eastern was once again on its own by 1920; the C&EI spun off a variety of their lines, including the "Coal Road". The C&EI did not survive the Great Depression intact, entering bankruptcy in 1933, re-emerging just before World War II in 1940; the railroad continued its brisk growth once again, gaining access to St. Louis, Missouri in 1954; the Missouri Pacific Railroad began to purchase C&EI stock in 1961. After approval was gained from the Interstate Commerce Commission, Mopac assumed control of the C&EI in May 1967. One of the stipulations of the merger required sale of part of the railroad to the Louisville and Nashville Railroad; the line directly south of Chicago to near Danville was purchased by both railroads.
The C&EI was maintained as a separate subsidiary for a few years, but Missouri Pacific merged it in 1976. The route from Woodland Junction, Illinois through Danville into Indiana became part of L&N and its successors, while the western fork toward Thebes and St. Louis became MoPac/UP; the Chicago terminal for the C&EI passenger trains was Dearborn Station, sometimes known as'Polk Station.' The C&EI operated many streamliners. Its own trains, the Chicago to Cypress Meadowlark, the Chicago to Evansville Whippoorwill were short lived; the C&EI ran the Chicago to Evansville portion of the L&N's Humming Bird, Georgian. The railroad participated in the Chicago to Florida passenger service on the "Dixie Route", with trains such as the Dixie Limited, the Dixie Flyer, the Dixie Mail, the Dixie Flagler, the Dixiana. Miles of road operated at year end: 945 in 1925, 863 in 1967, 643 in 1970 after L&N took over its piece. Track-miles operated: 1928 in 1925, 1435 in 1967, 1067 in 1970. In 1967 it reported 3173 million ton-miles of 41 million passenger-miles.
Lyford, Will H.. History of Chicago and Eastern Illinois Railroad Company to June 30, 1913. Chicago: The Gunthorp-Warren Printing Company. Retrieved 2012-01-14. Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad Historical Society Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad photos A Brief History of the Chicago and Eastern Illinois Railroad Chicago and Eastern Illinois Railroad System Map 1953 Chicago and Eastern Illinois timetable
Prince Christopher of Greece and Denmark
Prince Christopher of Greece and Denmark was the fifth and youngest son and youngest child of King George I of Greece, belonging to a dynasty which mounted and lost the throne of Greece several times during his lifetime. Much of his life was spent living abroad, he was born at Pavlovsk, Imperial Russia, son of George I of Greece and his queen, Olga, a Russian grand duchess by birth. He was the youngest of their eight children, being twenty years younger than their oldest child, Constantine, he was called "Christo" in the family. His older brothers were future King Constantine I, George and Andrew, his nephew Philip, son of his brother Andrew, married into the British royal family. Upon his marriage, he and his wife, King George VI's older daughter Elizabeth, were titled The Duke of Edinburgh and Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh. Christopher, like his siblings, was a polyglot, speaking Greek, Danish, Russian and Italian; the siblings spoke Greek to one another, used English with their parents.
The parents, spoke German to each other. The Greek royal family maintained close relations with the Danish royal family, to which they officially belonged; the Hellenic royal line was a cadet branch of the Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg dynasty which had mounted the throne of Denmark in 1863. When Christopher came of age he joined the Hellenic Navy, although he would rather have studied the piano. While a young man, he was offered no fewer than three different thrones - those of Portugal and Albania - but he declined them all, as he did not wish the stress of royal duties, he was engaged to Princess Alexandra, 2nd Duchess of Fife in about 1910. The engagement was terminated. On 1 January 1920, Christopher married a wealthy American widow, Nonnie May "Nancy" Stewart Worthington Leeds, at Vevey, Switzerland, his bride, a once-divorced and once-widowed commoner at least a decade older than the prince, was nonetheless recognised as Christopher's dynastic wife by his family. Her fortune, estimated in the tens of millions of dollars, was inherited from her second husband, a tin millionaire, eased the Greek royal family's exile during the 1920s.
The wedding followed a six-year engagement while the royal court-in-exile negotiated the terms and arrangements of the marriage. Shortly after their marriage, Princess Anastasia developed cancer, died in London on 29 August 1923, leaving no children from this marriage. Prince Christopher did, have a stepson, William Bateman Leeds Jr, who had, in 1921, married Princess Xenia Georgievna of Russia, she was Christopher's niece through his elder sister, Marie of Greece, Grand Duchess George of Russia. Prince Christopher remarried. Françoise was a daughter of Jean d'Orléans, Duc de Guise, Orléanist pretender to the throne of France, by his wife/first cousin, Isabelle d'Orléans. Isabelle was, in turn, a daughter of Philippe, Comte de Paris by his wife and first cousin, Infanta Isabel de Orléans y Borbon; the couple were married in 1929 in Italy. They were childless for a decade one child was born to Françoise: Prince Michael of Greece and Denmark was born in Rome in 1939, shortly before Prince Christopher's death.
In 1927, Prince Christopher paid a visit to the Long Island home of William and Xenia Leeds, who were his step-son and niece, respectively. Xenia had taken an interest in the strange case of a woman, Anna Anderson, who claimed to be Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia, youngest daughter of the last Tsar of Russia, Nicholas II; as Prince Christopher explained, "That was her story, fantastic as it was, there were many who believed − and still believe − in her, among them one or two members of the Imperial Family." He went on, "Dozens of people who had known the Grand Duchess Anastasia were brought to see the girl in the hope that they might be able to identify her, but none of them could come to any definite conclusion." Prince Christopher described her, "In the first place she was unable to speak Russian, which the Grand Duchess Anastasia, like all the Czar's children, had talked fluently − and would only converse in German."Summing up, he said of her, "The poor girl was a pathetic figure in her loneliness and ill health, it was comprehensible enough that many of those around her let their sympathy over-rule their logic...
She was unable to recognise people whom the Grand Duchess Anastasia had known intimately, her descriptions of rooms in the different palaces and of other scenes familiar to any of the Imperial Family were inaccurate." Prince Christopher recorded his thoughts on monarchy and those aspiring to it: "Nothing under the sun would induce me to accept a Kingdom. A crown is too heavy a thing to be put on lightly, it has to be worn by those born to that destiny, but that any man should willingly take on the responsibility, not being constrained by duty to do so, passes my comprehension." Prince Christopher of Greece died on 21 January 1940, aged 51. Greece, Prince. Memoirs of HRH Prince Christopher of Greece. London: The Right Book Clu
Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad
The Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad was a Class I railroad in the United States. It was known as the Rock Island Line, or, in its final years, The Rock. At the end of 1970, it operated 7,183 miles of road on 10,669 miles of track; the song "Rock Island Line", a spiritual from the late 1920s first recorded in 1934, was inspired by the railway. Its predecessor, the Rock Island and La Salle Railroad Company, was incorporated in Illinois on February 27, 1847, an amended charter was approved on February 7, 1851, as the Chicago and Rock Island Railroad. Construction began October 1, 1851, in Chicago, the first train was operated on October 10, 1852, between Chicago and Joliet. Construction continued on through La Salle, Rock Island was reached on February 22, 1854, becoming the first railroad to connect Chicago with the Mississippi River. In Iowa, the C&RI's incorporators created the Mississippi and Missouri Railroad Company, to run from Davenport to Council Bluffs, on November 20, 1855, the first train to operate in Iowa steamed from Davenport to Muscatine.
The Mississippi river bridge between Rock Island and Davenport was completed on April 22, 1856. In 1857, Abraham Lincoln represented the Rock Island in an important lawsuit regarding bridges over navigable rivers; the suit had been brought by the owner of a steamboat, destroyed by fire after running into the Mississippi river bridge. Lincoln argued that not only was the steamboat at fault in striking the bridge but that bridges across navigable rivers were to the advantage of the country; the M&M was acquired by the C&RI on July 9, 1866, to form the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad Company. The railroad expanded through construction and acquisitions in the following decades; the Rock Island stretched across Arkansas, Illinois, Kansas, Missouri, New Mexico, South Dakota and Texas. The easternmost reach of the system was Chicago, the system reached Memphis, West, it reached Denver and Santa Rosa, New Mexico. Southernmost reaches were to Galveston and Eunice, while in a northerly direction the Rock Island got as far as Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Major lines included Minneapolis to Kansas City, via Des Moines, Iowa. The heaviest traffic was on the Chicago-to-Rock Rock Island-to-Muscatine lines. In common with most American railroad companies, the Rock Island once operated an extensive passenger service; the primary routes served were: Chicago-Los Angeles, Chicago-Denver, Memphis-Little Rock-Oklahoma City-Tucumcari, Minneapolis-Dallas. The Rock Island ran both limited and local service on those routes as well as locals on many other lines on its system. In 1937, the Rock Island introduced Diesel power to its passenger service, with the purchase of six lightweight Rocket streamliners. In competition with the Santa Fe Chiefs, the Rock Island jointly operated the Golden State Limited with the Southern Pacific Railroad from 1902–1968. On this route, the Rock Island's train was marketed as a "low altitude" crossing of the Continental Divide; the Rock Island did not concede to the Santa Fe's dominance in the Chicago-Los Angeles travel market and re-equipped the train with new streamlined equipment in 1948.
At the same time, the "Limited" was dropped from the train's name and the train was thereafter known as the Golden State. The local run on this line was known as the Imperial; the 1948 modernization of the Golden State occurred with some controversy. In 1947, both the Rock Island and Southern Pacific jointly advertised the coming of a new entry in the Chicago-Los Angeles travel market; the Golden Rocket was scheduled to match the Santa Fe's transit time end-to-end and was to have its own dedicated trainsets, one purchased by the Rock Island, the other by Southern Pacific. As the Rock Island's set of streamlined passenger cars was being finished, the Southern Pacific abruptly withdrew its purchase; the Rock Island's cars were delivered and would find their way into the Golden State's fleet soon after delivery. The Golden State was the last first-class train on the Rock Island, retaining its dining cars and sleeping cars until its last run on February 21, 1968; the Rock Island competed with the Chicago and Quincy railroad in the Chicago to Denver market.
While the Q fielded its Zephyrs on the route, the Rock Island ran the Rocky Mountain Rocket. The RMR split at Limon, Colorado with half the train diverting to Colorado Springs, an operation known as "The Limon Shuffle"; the Rock Island conceded nothing to its rival installing ABS signaling on the route west of Lincoln in an effort to maintain transit speed. The train was re-equipped with streamlined equipment in 1948; as the Rocky Mountain Rocket was downgraded due to non-rail competition, the route traveled by the train was shortened from the western terminal at Denver, first to Omaha to Council Bluffs and the train was renamed The Cornhusker. In 1970, the train was cut to a Chicago to Rock Island run, a run within the confines of the state of Illinois and renamed the Quad Cities Rocket. Other trains operated by the Rock Island as part of its Rocket fleet included the Corn Belt Rocket, the Des Moines-Omaha Limit
New York Yacht Club
The New York Yacht Club is a private social club and yacht club based in New York City and Newport, Rhode Island. It was founded in 1844 by nine prominent sportsmen; the members have contributed to the sport of yacht design. As of 2001, the organization was reported to have about 3,000 members. Membership in the club is by invitation only, its officers include a Commodore, vice-commodore, rear-commodore and treasurer. The America's Cup trophy was won by members in 1851 and held by the NYYC until 1983; the NYYC defended the trophy twenty-four times in a row before being defeated by the Royal Perth Yacht Club, represented by the yacht Australia II. The NYYC's reign was the longest winning streak in the history of all sports; the NYYC has entered 2021 America's Cup under the syndicate name American Magic, In 1845, the club's first clubhouse was established — a modest, Gothic-revival building in Hoboken, New Jersey, on land donated by Commodore John Cox Stevens. After outgrowing its cramped quarters, the club moved to several other locations, including Staten Island, Glen Cove, New York and Mystic, Connecticut.
Its primary clubhouse is a six-storied Beaux-Arts landmark with a nautical-themed limestone facade, located at 37 West 44th Street in midtown Manhattan. Opened in 1901, the clubhouse was designed by Warren and Wetmore, architects of the exterior of Grand Central Terminal; the centerpiece of the clubhouse is the "Model Room", which contains a notable collection of full and half hull models including a scale model history of all New York Yacht Club America's Cup challenges. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1987. In addition to its Manhattan headquarters, located inland, the club maintains "Harbour Court", a clubhouse opened in 1988 on the water in Newport; the New York Yacht Club was founded on July 1844, by nine gentlemen. John Cox Stevens, the leader of this group, a prominent citizen of New York with a passion for sports, was elected commodore. John Clarkson Jay of Rye, one of the nine founders, was a grandson of Founding Father John Jay and served as the first Secretary of the board.
George L. Schuyler and Hamilton Wilkes were NYYC founders who, together with Stevens and two others, created the syndicate that built and raced the great schooner-yacht, America. Wilkes served as the club's first vice-commodore. Schuyler played a key role in the founding of the America's Cup regatta, served as its unofficial consultant until his death in 1890. In 1845, the club's burgee was designed; the waters off Newport have been a key sailing venue for the NYYC since the beginning of its history. Indeed, the day the club was founded in 1844, its members resolved to sail from the Battery to Newport. Two days they did, with several stops on the way, trials of speed. During the first decades of the club's history, racing for prize money was the objective among most members. In 1851, a syndicate of NYYC enthusiasts built and raced America, capturing the "One Hundred Sovereign Cup" at the annual regatta of the Royal Yacht Squadron. On July 8, 1857, the coveted trophy was donated to the NYYC, to serve as a challenge cup for sportsmanlike competition between nations.
The "America's Cup Race", named for its first winner, played a central role in the history of the club until this day. In 1865, the Club was incorporated, adopting the Latin motto: "Nos agimur tumidis velis" -- "We go with swelling sails". During this time, membership transitioned from the "old guard" to a new generation of yachtsmen, who built large schooner yachts captained by professionals. Marking this evolution was the 1866 resignation of Commodore Edwin Augustus Stevens, brother of founder John Cox Stevens and member of the America syndicate; the year 1866 is remembered in club annals for the legendary "Transatlantic Race". In December, the NYYC schooners Henrietta and Vesta raced from Sandy Hook to The Needles, Isle of Wight for a $90,000 winner-take-all prize; the Henrietta, owned by 21-year-old James Gordon Bennett, Jr. and skippered by Captain Samuel S. Samuels, a professional, won the race in 13 days, 21 hours and 55 minutes. Bennett would be elected commodore in 1871. In 1876, the Mohawk, a large centerboard schooner, capsized due to its sheets being "made fast" when a freak squall struck.
Vice-Commodore William T. Garner, his wife and crew died in the accident, it is believed. The Mohawk was sold to the U. S. Navy and recommissioned as the U. S. Eagre. By 1894, the New York Yacht Club had a number of Clubhouses: Station 1 in Bay Ridge. In 1868, the club bought a big mansion used as Station 2 at Staten Island; this building still is known as the Macfarlane Bredt House. In 1895, Richard H. Barker composed'The yacht club march: march and two-step: for piano' in honour of the New York Yacht Club. In 1994, as part of the Club's 150th celebrations, Melissa H. Harrington wrote'The New York Yacht Club, 1844-1994,' Following the disastrous Bay of Quinte America's Cup challenge in 1881, the Club's committee voted a new rule to govern its races: Rating = 2 ⋅ Load Waterline Length + Sail Area 3 The America's Cup challenges of 1885, 1886 and 1887 used this rule
Burlington, Cedar Rapids and Northern Railway
The Burlington, Cedar Rapids and Northern Railway was a railroad that operated in the United States from 1876 to 1903. It was formed to take over the operations of the bankrupt Burlington, Cedar Rapids and Minnesota Railway, which was, in turn, the result of merging several predecessor lines, the construction of which began in 1869; the corporate headquarters were in Cedar Rapids, it had operations in Iowa and in Minnesota. It was succeeded by Rock Island and Pacific Railway; the original mainline ran from Burlington, Iowa via Cedar Rapids north to Albert Lea, with a perpetual lease of the'Minneapolis Road' from there to Minneapolis. By 1882, branch lines had been built to Traer, Muscatine, Iowa City, the coal mines of the What Cheer region, all in Iowa. Through passenger service was offered from Minneapolis to St. Louis in conjunction with the St. Louis and Northwestern Railroad. In 1880, the Burlington Cedar Rapids and Northern granted running rights to the Burlington and Northwestern Railway from Burlington, Iowa north to Mediapolis, a distance of 13.77 miles.
Since the latter line used three foot gauge until regauged in the 20th century, a third rail was put down on this stretch of mainline, converting it to dual gauge. The last run of the Zephyr Rocket between St. Louis and Minneapolis over the former BCR&N mainline was on April 8-9, 1967. Freight service on the line from Burlington to Cedar Rapids ceased with the bankruptcy of the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad in March 1980. In the early 1990s, the Hoover Nature Trail began acquiring the Burlington to Cedar Rapids right of way for conversion to a recreational trail. Between Cedar Rapids and Manly, the former mainline remains in service, operated by the Iowa Northern Railway. At least eight of its stations survive: Station in Clarion, listed on the National Register of Historic Places listings in Wright County, Iowa Depot in Dows, listed on the National Register of Historic Places listings in Wright County, Iowa Depot in Greene, Iowa Depot in Kalona, Iowa. Depot and bridge in Rock Rapids, listed on the National Register of Historic Places listings in Lyon County, Iowa Station in Vinton, listed on the National Register of Historic Places listings in Benton County, Iowa Depot in Walker, Iowa Depot in Rockford, Iowa Depot in Pipestone, listed on the National Register of Historic Places listings in Pipestone County, Minnesota The corporate headquarters building at 411 1st Ave.
SE in Cedar Rapids still carries the BCR&N Ry initials at the top of the wall facing the tracks. The historic facade facing First Avenue, constructed in 1885, has been modernized; the building now serves Skogman Realty. The former roundhouse of the Iowa City branch was still standing in Iowa City in 2010; the former Burlington, Cedar Rapids & Northern Freight House, built in 1898 on the corner of Front and High Streets in Burlington, Iowa, is now a restaurant. This building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. During the Iowa Flood of 2008, this building was inundated with four feet of water; the construction of this freight house lead to a court battle with the Burlington Gaslight Company, decided by the US Supreme Court. A two span through truss bridge, composed of a Warren truss and a Lattice truss, exists in Iowa City in Napoleon Park, it is now being used by the Cedar Rapids and Iowa City Railway, albeit infrequently. An abandoned three span Parker through truss bridge, built circa 1890, exists over the Iowa River in Columbus Junction.
Several bridges and culverts in Cedar Rapids, Iowa have been reused on the Cedar River Trail. Several other bridges have been reused on the various portions of the Hoover Nature Trail. A destroyed bridge exists in the Czech Village neighborhood of Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Iowa Northern Railway operates across several BCRN structures, including a Warren through truss bridge over Beaver Creek northeast of Cedar Falls, Iowa