Jesse B. Thomas
Jesse Burgess Thomas was an American lawyer and politician who served as a delegate from the Indiana Territory to the tenth Congress and served as president of the Constitutional Convention which led to Illinois being admitted to the Union. He became one of Illinois' first two Senators, is best known as the author of the Missouri Compromise of 1820, although after his retirement from the U. S. Senate in 1829 he lived the rest of his life in Ohio. Thomas was born in Shepherdstown, Virginia, in part according to his 1850 census entry, although Appleton's Cyclopedia stated he was born somewhat east on what became the National Road in Hagerstown and that he was descended from Lord Baltimore, his family moved to Kentucky. He married Rebecca McKenzie of New York. Thomas studied law with his elder brother Richard Symmes Thomas in Bracken County, Kentucky along the Ohio River moved to nearby Mason County, where he served as the county clerk until 1803, he moved north of the Ohio River to Lawrenceburg in Indiana Territory, where he continued to practice law and became the territorial deputy attorney general in 1805.
In the same year, he began serving as a delegate to the Territorial House of Representatives, fellow delegates chose him as their speaker from 1805 to 1808. When Benjamin Parke resigned as the territorial delegate to Congress, Thomas was appointed to fill the vacancy from October 22, 1808 until March 3, 1809 when Thomas moved westward to the new Illinois Territory as discussed below. Jonathan Jennings succeeded him as Indiana's territorial delegate and would become the new state of Indiana's first U. S. representative and Indiana's Governor. Thomas moved westward to Kaskaskia, Illinois on the Mississippi River Cahokia and Edwardsville in Madison County, where Thomas would train his nephew, somewhat confusingly named Jesse B. Thomas, Jr. who would have a distinguished career as an Illinois lawyer and judge. When Illinois became a territory in 1809, President James Madison appointed Thomas judge of the United States court for the northwestern judicial district. Thomas exercised those duties from 1809 until 1818.
Voters from St. Clair County elected Thomas as Democratic-Republican to the Illinois State Constitutional Convention in 1818. Fellow delegates elected him to preside over the convention, which chose not to accept slavery in the new state. Upon the new state's admittance to the Union, fellow legislators elected Thomas to the U. S. Senate, in which he would serve for two terms. In 1820, Thomas proposed the Missouri Compromise to limit slavery above the southern border of Missouri. In 1823 he became a Crawford Republican, he served as chairman on the Committee on Public Lands in the 18th Congresses. He refused the nomination for a third term and moved to Mount Vernon, Ohio in 1829, where he lived the rest of his life. About two years after the death of his wife, Thomas committed suicide on May 2, 1853, having lived more than seven decades, he is buried in Mound View Cemetery. Thomas's nephew, Jesse B. Thomas, Jr. son of his brother Richard Symmes Thomas, served as Illinois Attorney General and on the Illinois Supreme Court.
United States Congress. "Jesse B. Thomas". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
St. Louis is an independent city and major inland port in the U. S. state of Missouri. It is situated along the western bank of the Mississippi River, which marks Missouri's border with Illinois; the Missouri River merges with the Mississippi River just north of the city. These two rivers combined form the fourth longest river system in the world; the city had an estimated 2017 population of 308,626 and is the cultural and economic center of the St. Louis metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in Missouri, the second-largest in Illinois, the 22nd-largest in the United States. Before European settlement, the area was a regional center of Native American Mississippian culture; the city of St. Louis was founded in 1764 by French fur traders Pierre Laclède and Auguste Chouteau, named after Louis IX of France. In 1764, following France's defeat in the Seven Years' War, the area was ceded to Spain and retroceded back to France in 1800. In 1803, the United States acquired the territory as part of the Louisiana Purchase.
During the 19th century, St. Louis became a major port on the Mississippi River, it separated from St. Louis County in 1877, becoming an independent city and limiting its own political boundaries. In 1904, it hosted the Summer Olympics; the economy of metropolitan St. Louis relies on service, trade, transportation of goods, tourism, its metro area is home to major corporations, including Anheuser-Busch, Express Scripts, Boeing Defense, Energizer, Enterprise, Peabody Energy, Post Holdings, Edward Jones, Go Jet and Sigma-Aldrich. Nine of the ten Fortune 500 companies based in Missouri are located within the St. Louis metropolitan area; this city has become known for its growing medical and research presence due to institutions such as Washington University in St. Louis and Barnes-Jewish Hospital. St. Louis has two professional sports teams: the St. Louis Cardinals of Major League Baseball and the St. Louis Blues of the National Hockey League. One of the city's iconic sights is the 630-foot tall Gateway Arch in the downtown area.
The area that would become St. Louis was a center of the Native American Mississippian culture, which built numerous temple and residential earthwork mounds on both sides of the Mississippi River, their major regional center was at Cahokia Mounds, active from 900 to 1500. Due to numerous major earthworks within St. Louis boundaries, the city was nicknamed as the "Mound City"; these mounds were demolished during the city's development. Historic Native American tribes in the area included the Siouan-speaking Osage people, whose territory extended west, the Illiniwek. European exploration of the area was first recorded in 1673, when French explorers Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette traveled through the Mississippi River valley. Five years La Salle claimed the region for France as part of La Louisiane; the earliest European settlements in the area were built in Illinois Country on the east side of the Mississippi River during the 1690s and early 1700s at Cahokia and Fort de Chartres. Migrants from the French villages on the opposite side of the Mississippi River founded Ste.
Genevieve in the 1730s. In early 1764, after France lost the 7 Years' War, Pierre Laclède and his stepson Auguste Chouteau founded what was to become the city of St. Louis; the early French families built the city's economy on the fur trade with the Osage, as well as with more distant tribes along the Missouri River. The Chouteau brothers gained a monopoly from Spain on the fur trade with Santa Fe. French colonists used African slaves as domestic workers in the city. France, alarmed that Britain would demand French possessions west of the Mississippi and the Missouri River basin after the losing New France to them in 1759–60, transferred these to Spain as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain; these areas remained in Spanish possession until 1803. In 1780 during the American Revolutionary War, St. Louis was attacked by British forces Native American allies, in the Battle of St. Louis; the founding of St. Louis began in 1763. Pierre Laclede led an expedition to set up a fur-trading post farther up the Mississippi River.
Before Laclede had been a successful merchant. For this reason, he and his trading partner Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent were offered monopolies for six years of the fur trading in that area. Although they were only granted rights to set-up a trading post and other members of his expedition set up a settlement; some historians believe that Laclede's determination to create this settlement was the result of his affair with a married woman Marie-Thérèse Bourgeois Chouteau in New Orleans. Laclede on his initial expedition was accompanied by Auguste Chouteau; some historians still debate. The reason for this lingering question is that all the documentation of the founding was loaned and subsequently destroyed in a fire. For the first few years of St. Louis's existence, the city was not recognized by any of the governments. Although thought to be under the control of the Spanish government, no one asserted any authority over the settlement, thus St. Louis had no local government; this led Laclede to assume a position of civil control, all problems were disposed i
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
Charles S. Deneen
Charles Samuel Deneen was an American attorney and politician who served as the 23rd Governor of Illinois, from 1905 to 1913. He was the first Illinois governor to serve two consecutive terms totalling eight years. Notably, he was governor during the infamous Springfield race riot of 1908, which he helped put down, he served as a U. S. Senator from Illinois, from 1925 to 1931. Deneen had served as a member of the Illinois House of Representatives in 1892; as an attorney, he had been the lead prosecutor in Chicago's infamous Adolph Luetgert murder trial. Deneen was born in Illinois, to Samuel H. Deneen and Mary Frances Ashley, he was raised in Lebanon and graduated from McKendree College in Lebanon in 1882. He subsequently studied law at McKendree and at Union College of Law, while supporting himself by teaching school, he was admitted to the Illinois bar in 1886. On May 10, 1891, he married fellow Methodist Bina Day Maloney in Illinois, his political career began soon thereafter, with election to the Illinois House of Representatives in 1892.
Deenen was State's Attorney in the late 1890s. In 1896 Deenen appointed Ferdinand Lee Barnett as the first black assistant state's attorney in Illinois upon the recommendation of the Cook County Commissioner Edward H. Wright. Deneen and Barnett worked together for the next two decades. Deneen supported passage of the Illinois anti-lynching law in 1905; the state had not had many instances of lynchings, but in 1909 Will James was murdered in a spectacle lynching attended by a mob of 10,000 in Cairo, Illinois. The crowd lynched Henry Salzner, a white man, who had killed his wife; the governor sent in National Guard troops to suppress violence. Under the 1905 state law, Deneen dismissed Sheriff Frank E. Davis for failing to protect James and Salzner and resisted local efforts to have the officer reinstated. In 1924, Deneen defeated first-term Senator Joseph Medill McCormick in the Republican primary for the United States Senate. Illinois at that time customarily had a downstate seat and a Chicago-area seat, which McCormick held.
McCormick committed suicide in early 1925. She defeated him in the 1930 Republican primary, but lost the November election to James Hamilton Lewis. In 1928 Deneen's home was bombed during an outbreak of violence among rival political factions in Chicago in advance of the Pineapple Primary election. Deneen died in Chicago on February 5, 1940, was interred there in the Oak Woods Cemetery; the public Deneen School of Excellence was named in his honor. It is located in south Chicago next to the Dan Ryan Expressway, not far from Al Capone's former home on South Prairie. Deneen's great grandson is actor Jason Beghe; this article incorporates facts obtained from: Lawrence Kestenbaum, The Political Graveyard Media related to Charles S. Deneen at Wikimedia Commons
Joseph M. McCormick
Joseph Medill McCormick, called Medill, was part of the McCormick family of businessmen and politicians in Chicago. After working for some time and becoming part owner of the Chicago Tribune, which his maternal grandfather had owned, he entered politics. After serving in the State House, he was elected both as a Representative in the United States Congress and as a US Senator from Illinois, he committed suicide at age 47, a few months after losing his bid for renomination for a second term in the senate. Joseph Medill McCormick was born in Chicago on May 16, 1877, his father was the future diplomat Robert Sanderson McCormick, a nephew of Cyrus McCormick. McCormick attended a preparatory school at Groton, Massachusetts, he graduated from Yale University in 1900, where he was elected to the secret society Scroll and Key. He worked as a newspaper reporter and publisher, became an owner of the Chicago Daily Tribune, he purchased interests in The Cleveland Leader and Cleveland News. In 1901 he served as a war correspondent in the Philippine Islands.
In 1903 he married daughter of the Ohio Senator Mark Hanna. They had three children: Ruth "Bazy" McCormick, who married Peter Miller and Garvin Tankersley; as Bazy Miller, she founded Al-Marah Arabians, a breeding and training farm for Arabian horses in Tucson, still operating, now in Florida, under the ownership of her son, Mark Miller. Katrina McCormick, who married Courtlandt Dixon Barnes Jr. John Medill McCormick, called "Johnny", died in a mountain-climbing accident in 1938. McCormick was a grandson of the Tribune owner Joseph Medill, his mother Katherine Medill McCormick hoped that leadership of the paper would pass from her brother-in-law, Robert Wilson Patterson, to her first son. Joseph McCormick took over much of the management of the paper between 1903 and 1907, but became depressed and developed alcoholism. In 1907–1908, he spent some time under the care of the psychoanalyst Carl Jung in Zurich, subsequently followed Jung's advice to detach himself from the family newspaper, his younger brother, the famed "Colonel" Robert McCormick became involved in the newspaper, worked on it for four decades, was a leading isolationist figure in the Republican Party.
McCormick was vice chairman of the national campaign committee of the Progressive Republican movement from 1912 to 1914. He was elected to the Illinois House of Representatives in 1912 and 1914. Afterward he advanced to national office, being elected to the United States House of Representatives, where he served one term from March 4, 1917, to March 3, 1919, he was elected to the United States Senate in 1918, served from March 4, 1919, until his death at age 48 in 1925. In the Senate, McCormick was chairman of the Committee on Expenditures in the Department of Labor and the Committee on Expenditures in Executive Departments. McCormick lost the nomination in 1924 to Charles S. Deneen, who had served as the 23rd Governor of Illinois, he died on February 25, 1925, in a hotel room in Washington, DC. Although it was not publicized at the time, his death was considered suicide. McCormick was interred in Middle Creek Cemetery, near Illinois. List of United States Congress members who died in office American National Biography Dictionary of American Biography Miller, Kristie.
Ruth Hanna McCormick: A Life in Politics from 1880 to 1944. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 1992 Stone, Ralph A. "Two Illinois Senators Among the Irreconcileables." Mississippi Valley Historical Review 50: 443-65. Media related to Joseph M. McCormick at Wikimedia Commons Newspaper clippings about Joseph M. McCormick in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
The McKinley Bridge is a steel truss bridge across the Mississippi River. It connects northern portions of the city of Missouri with Venice, Illinois, it opened in 1910 and was taken out of service on October 30, 2001. The bridge was reopened for pedestrian and bicyclists on November 17, 2007 with a grand re-opening celebration. Since December 2007, McKinley has been open to vehicular traffic as well, it is accessible from Illinois State Route 3 in Illinois and from the intersection of Salisbury and North 9th Street in the City of St. Louis; the bridge carried both vehicular traffic across the Mississippi River for decades. By 1978, the railroad line over the span was closed, an additional set of lanes was opened for vehicles in the inner roadway; the McKinley Bridge was the first alignment of U. S. Route 66 across the Mississippi, it is assumed that the bridge was named for President William McKinley. McKinley, chief executive of the Illinois Traction System interurban electric railway, which accessed St. Louis via the bridge.
The current alignment of the bridge carries two lanes of traffic on the inner lanes. The outer lane on the north side of the bridge will become an exclusive service lane, while the outer lane on the south side of the bridge will become a sidewalk and bike path, it is expected to carry 14,000 vehicles across the river daily, but total traffic across the river increased in 2014 by 7.4% over 2013 levels, in April 2014, it was estimated that 17,000 vehicles use it daily. Designer of the bridge was Polish-American engineer Ralph Modjeski; when the US Highway System was instituted in 1926, the McKinley Bridge carried the famous Route 66 across the Mississippi River for four years until a new alignment took the route over Chain of Rocks Bridge in order to avoid leading traffic directly into the downtown St. Louis area; the Chain of Rocks Bridge was famous for having a curve in the middle. It is now open to pedestrians; the bridge was owned by the city of Venice and operated as a toll bridge. After decades of disrepair due to the lack of toll revenues, the McKinley Bridge was closed in 2001.
The state of Illinois attempted to provide money to the city of Venice for repairing the bridge, but was unable to do so because of the outstanding taxes owed by the city. As a result, the City of St. Louis foreclosed on the bridge, delaying reconstruction efforts further. In an agreement reached in June 2003, the states of Illinois and Missouri agreed to take over ownership of the bridge from the city of Venice. Rehabilitation began in 2004 and the original plans for the repairs anticipated a re-opening in late 2005. However, the date was pushed back due to the addition of The Great Rivers Greenway Bikeway tie-in; the rehabilitated McKinley Bridge consists of the three original river truss spans and thirty-three steel plate girder spans, with a length totaling 4,162.5 ft The Bridge reopened to pedestrians and bicycles on November 17, 2007 and was reopened to traffic on December 17, 2007. Bridges portal Missouri portal Illinois portal List of crossings of the Upper Mississippi River List of road-rail bridges Martin Luther King Bridge Eads Bridge Poplar Street Bridge Stan Musial Veterans Memorial Bridge IDOT:McKinley Bridge Structure Reconstruction Project McKinley Bridge Mississippi River Crossing At St. Louis Historic Bridges of the U.
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