James A. Garfield
James Abram Garfield was the 20th President of the United States, serving from March 4,1881, until his assassination that year. He is the only sitting House member to be elected president, Garfield was raised in humble circumstances on an Ohio farm by his widowed mother. He worked at various jobs, including on a canal boat, beginning at age 17, he attended several Ohio schools, studied at Williams College in Williamstown, from which he graduated in 1856. A year later, Garfield entered politics as a Republican and he married Lucretia Rudolph in 1858, and served as a member of the Ohio State Senate. Garfield opposed Confederate secession, served as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War, and fought in the battles of Middle Creek, Shiloh. He was first elected to Congress in 1862 to represent Ohios 19th District, throughout Garfields extended congressional service after the Civil War, he firmly supported the gold standard and gained a reputation as a skilled orator. Garfield initially agreed with Radical Republican views regarding Reconstruction, but favored an approach for civil rights enforcement for freedmen.
At the 1880 Republican National Convention, Senator-elect Garfield attended as campaign manager for Secretary of the Treasury John Sherman, and gave the presidential nomination speech for him. When neither Sherman nor his rivals – Ulysses S. Grant and James G. Blaine – could get votes to secure the nomination. In the 1880 presidential election, Garfield conducted a front porch campaign. Garfield made notable diplomatic and judiciary appointments, including a U. S. Supreme Court justice, Garfield advocated agricultural technology, an educated electorate, and civil rights for African Americans. He proposed substantial civil service reform, eventually passed by Congress in 1883 and signed into law by his successor, Chester A. Arthur, Presidents due to the short length of his presidency. James Garfield was born the youngest of five children on November 19,1831, in a log cabin in Orange Township, now Moreland Hills, Orange Township was located in the Western Reserve, and like many who settled there, Garfields ancestors were from New England.
James father Abram had been born in Worcester, New York and he instead wed her sister Eliza, who had been born in New Hampshire. James was named for a brother, dead in infancy. In early 1833, Abram and Eliza Garfield joined the Church of Christ, Abram Garfield died that year, his son was raised in poverty in a household led by the strong-willed Eliza. James was her child, and the two remained close for the rest of her life. Eliza Garfield remarried in 1842, but soon left her husband, Warren Belden
Signal Corps (United States Army)
The United States Army Signal Corps develops, tests and manages communications and information systems support for the command and control of combined arms forces. It was established in 1860, the brainchild of United States Army Major Albert J. Myer, support for the command and control of combined arms forces. Signal support includes Network Operations and management of the electromagnetic spectrum, while serving as a medical officer in Texas in 1856, Albert James Myer proposed that the Army use his visual communications system, called aerial telegraphy. When the Army adopted his system on 21 June 1860, the Signal Corps was born with Myer as the first, Major Myer first used his visual signaling system on active service in New Mexico during the early 1860s Navajo expedition. For nearly three years, Myer was forced to rely on detailed personnel, although he envisioned a separate, myers vision came true on 3 March 1863, when Congress authorized a regular Signal Corps for the duration of the war.
Some 2,900 officers and enlisted men served, although not at any single time, even in the Civil War, the wigwag system, restricted to line-of-sight communications, was waning in the face of the electric telegraph. Initially, Myer used his office downtown in Washington, D. C. to house the Signal Corps School, when it was found to need additional space, he sought out other locations. First came Fort Greble, one of the Defenses of Washington during the Civil War, the size and location were outstanding. The school remained there for over 20 years and ultimately was renamed Fort Myer, Signal Corps detachments participated in campaigns fighting Native Americans in the west, such as the Powder River Expedition of 1865. The electric telegraph, in addition to signaling, became a Signal Corps responsibility in 1867. Within 12 years, the Corps had constructed, and was maintaining and operating, in 1870, the Signal Corps established a congressionally mandated national weather service. Within a decade, with the assistance of Lieutenant Adolphus Greely, Myer died in 1880, having attained the rank of brigadier general and the title of Chief Signal Officer.
The weather bureau became part of the U. S. Department of Agriculture in 1891, the Signal Corps role in the Spanish–American War of 1898 and the subsequent Philippine Insurrection was on a grander scale than it had been in the Civil War. In 1908, on Fort Myer, the Wright brothers made test flights of the Armys first airplane built to Signal Corps specifications, reflecting the need for an official pilot rating, War Department Bulletin No. 2, released on 24 February 1911, established a Military Aviator rating, Army aviation remained within the Signal Corps until 1918, when it became the Army Air Service. The Signal Corps lost no time in meeting the challenges of World War I, Chief Signal Officer George Owen Squier worked closely with private industry to perfect radio tubes while creating a major signal laboratory at Camp Alfred Vail. Early radiotelephones developed by the Signal Corps were introduced into the European theater in 1918, while the new American voice radios were superior to the radiotelegraph sets and telegraph remained the major technology of World War I.
A pioneer in radar, Colonel William Blair, director of the Signal Corps laboratories at Fort Monmouth, even before the United States entered World War II, mass production of two radar sets, the SCR-268 and the SCR-270, had begun
8th Infantry Regiment (United States)
The 8th Infantry Regiment of the United States, known as the Fighting Eagles, is an infantry regiment in the United States Army. The 8th Infantry participated in the Mexican War, American Civil War, Philippine Insurrection, Moro Rebellion, World War I, World War II, Vietnam War and Iraq Campaign. Crest, On a wreath of the colors Argent and Azure out of a mural coronet a dexter arm in armor embowed the hand grasping a flagstaff with tassel all Proper, The shield is white with a blue bend, the Infantry colors. The arrow and tomahawk represent the Indian campaigns in which the regiment has participated, the claw representing the maimed strength of the Prussian eagle alludes to the regiments part in the Occupation of Germany after World War I. Crest, The crest symbolizes service in the Mexican War, the 8th was the first United States Regiment to plant its colors on the fort at Churubusco, the coat of arms was approved on 1923-07-06. It was amended to correct the spelling of the motto on 1963-10-01, the overall height of the insignia is 1 5/32 inches.
The shield is silver with a bend, the Infantry colors. The arrow and tomahawk represent the Indian campaigns in which the regiment has participated, the claw representing the maimed strength of the Prussian eagle alludes to the regiments part in the Occupation of Germany after World War I. The distinctive unit insignia was approved on 1923-11-25 and it was amended to correct the description on 1925-04-28. Decorations of the Fighting Eagles Battalion include three presidential unit citations, the first citation was awarded to the regiment during World War II on 6 June 1944, for action on the beaches of Normandy. Two other presidential unit citations were awarded to the battalion for actions in Pleiku Province, a co and C co were awarded another presidential unit citation for Kontum Province in the Republic of Vietnam. In World War II, the 8th Infantry Regiment was cited twice in the order of the day by the Belgian Army – the first for action in the Belgian Campaign, the Belgian Government subsequently awarded the regiment the Belgian Fourragère.
The Vietnamese Government awarded the battalion the Vietnamese Cross of Gallantry with Palm and Charlie Companies were awarded an Oakleaf Cluster to their Presidential Unit Citation for extraordinary heroism in the Republic of Vietnam. A-1-4 engineers took much of the brunt blast of automatics and mortar fire from human waves charging and retreating many times and they received A Company 4th Engineers Battalion, Combat U. S. Army. The regiment had seven Medal of Honor recipients, a few of the famous past commanders include former General of the Army George C. Marshall, and General James Van Fleet, who led the regiment ashore on D-Day, the 1st Battalion, 8th Infantry Regiment was originally organized on 1 July 1838 as a detachment of recruits at Detroit, Michigan. It was designated on 5 July 1838 as Company A, 8th Infantry and it was consolidated in May 1869 with Company A, 33rd Infantry, with the consolidated unit being designated as Company A, 8th Infantry. The 8th Infantry was assigned on 17 December 1917 to the 8th Division and relieved on 2 March 1923 from its assignment to the 8th division before being reassigned to the 4th Division
George Henry Thomas
George Henry Thomas was a United States Army officer and a Union general during the American Civil War, one of the principal commanders in the Western Theater. Thomas served in the Mexican-American War and chose to remain with the U. S. Army for the Civil War, despite his heritage as a Virginian. He won one of the first Union victories in the war, at Mill Springs in Kentucky and his stout defense at the Battle of Chickamauga in 1863 saved the Union Army from being completely routed, earning him his most famous nickname, the Rock of Chickamauga. He followed soon after with a breakthrough on Missionary Ridge in the Battle of Chattanooga. Thomas had a record in the Civil War, but he failed to achieve the historical acclaim of some of his contemporaries, such as Ulysses S. Grant. He developed a reputation as a slow, deliberate general who shunned self-promotion, after the war, he did not write memoirs to advance his legacy. He had a personal relationship with Grant, which served him poorly as Grant advanced in rank.
Thomas was born at Newsoms Depot, Southampton County and his father, John Thomas, of Welsh descent, and his mother, Elizabeth Rochelle Thomas, a descendant of French Huguenot immigrants, had six children. George had three sisters and two brothers, the family led an upper-class plantation lifestyle. By 1829, they owned 685 acres and 24 slaves, John died in a farm accident when George was 13, leaving the family in financial difficulties. George Thomas, his sisters, and his mother were forced to flee from their home. This was an event in the formation of his views on slavery. Christopher Einholf, in contrast wrote For George Thomas, the view that slavery was needed as a way of controlling blacks was supported by his experience of Nat Turners Rebellion. Thomas left no record of his opinion on slavery. A traditional story is that Thomas taught as many as 15 of his familys slaves to read, violating a Virginia law that prohibited this, Thomas was appointed to the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, in 1836 by Congressman John Y.
Mason, who warned Thomas that no nominee from his district had ever graduated successfully, entering at age 20, Thomas was known to his fellow cadets as Old Tom and he became instant friends with his roommates, William T. Sherman and Stewart Van Vliet. He made steady progress, was appointed a cadet officer in his second year. He was appointed a lieutenant in Company D, 3rd U. S. Artillery
Battle of Stones River
Of the major battles of the Civil War, Stones River had the highest percentage of casualties on both sides. Union Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecranss Army of the Cumberland marched from Nashville, Tennessee, on December 26,1862, on December 31, each army commander planned to attack his opponents right flank, but Bragg struck first. A massive assault by the corps of Maj. Gen. William J. Hardee, followed by that of Leonidas Polk, repeated Confederate attacks were repulsed from this concentrated line, most notably in the cedar Round Forest salient against the brigade of Col. William B. Bragg attempted to continue the assault with the corps of Maj. Gen. John C, but the troops were slow in arriving and their multiple piecemeal attacks failed. Fighting resumed on January 2,1863, when Bragg ordered Breckinridge to assault the well-fortified Union position on a hill to the east of the Stones River, faced with overwhelming artillery, the Confederates were repulsed with heavy losses. Falsely believing that Rosecrans was receiving reinforcements, Bragg chose to withdraw his army on January 3 to Tullahoma and this caused Bragg to lose the confidence of the Army of Tennessee.
Although Braggs newly combined force was up to 38,000 veteran troops, Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell, the Union commander at Perryville, was equally passive and refused to attack Bragg. His army, joined with Smiths Army of Kentucky and together renamed the Army of Tennessee as of November 20, the loss of Stevensons 7,500 men would be sorely felt in the coming battle. Bragg reorganized his army, and Kirby Smith left for East Tennessee, Bragg commanded two corps, under Maj. Gen. William J. Hardee and Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk (divisions of Maj. Gens. Benjamin F. Cheatham and Jones M. Withers, and a command under Brig. Gen. Joseph Wheeler. Davis refused to relieve either Bragg or the rebellious generals, on the Union side, President Abraham Lincoln had become frustrated with Buells passivity and replaced him with Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans, victor of the recent battles of Iuka and Corinth. Rosecrans moved his XIV Corps to Nashville and was warned by Washington that he too would be replaced if he did not move aggressively against Bragg, Rosecrans took ample time to reorganize and train his forces and resupply his army.
He did not begin his march in pursuit of Bragg until December 26, the relatively small battle that followed Morgans surprise attack was an embarrassing Union defeat, resulting in many captured Union supplies and soldiers. The Union engaged in a cavalry raid. On December 26, the day Rosecrans marched from Nashville, a force under Brig. Gen. Samuel P. Carter raided the upper Tennessee Valley from Manchester. Until January 5, Carters men destroyed railroad bridges and fought a few skirmishes, but none of the cavalry raids, Confederate or Union, had any significant effect on the Stones River Campaign. The left wing of 14,500 men under Maj. Gen. Thomas L. Crittenden took a route that was parallel to the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad, passing through La Vergne and south of Smyrna. The right wing of 16,000 men under Maj. Gen. Alexander M. McCook marched south along the Nolensville Turnpike to Nolensville, south to Triune, the center wing of 13,500 men under Maj. Gen
President of the United States
The President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president directs the executive branch of the government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is considered to be one of the worlds most powerful political figures, the role includes being the commander-in-chief of the worlds most expensive military with the second largest nuclear arsenal and leading the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP. The office of President holds significant hard and soft power both in the United States and abroad, Constitution vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The president is empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves. The president is responsible for dictating the legislative agenda of the party to which the president is a member. The president directs the foreign and domestic policy of the United States, since the office of President was established in 1789, its power has grown substantially, as has the power of the federal government as a whole.
However, nine vice presidents have assumed the presidency without having elected to the office. The Twenty-second Amendment prohibits anyone from being elected president for a third term, in all,44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. On January 20,2017, Donald Trump was sworn in as the 45th, in 1776, the Thirteen Colonies, acting through the Second Continental Congress, declared political independence from Great Britain during the American Revolution. The new states, though independent of each other as nation states, desiring to avoid anything that remotely resembled a monarchy, Congress negotiated the Articles of Confederation to establish a weak alliance between the states. Out from under any monarchy, the states assigned some formerly royal prerogatives to Congress, only after all the states agreed to a resolution settling competing western land claims did the Articles take effect on March 1,1781, when Maryland became the final state to ratify them.
In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies, with peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. Prospects for the convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washingtons attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. It was through the negotiations at Philadelphia that the presidency framed in the U. S. The first power the Constitution confers upon the president is the veto, the Presentment Clause requires any bill passed by Congress to be presented to the president before it can become law. Once the legislation has been presented, the president has three options, Sign the legislation, the bill becomes law. Veto the legislation and return it to Congress, expressing any objections, in this instance, the president neither signs nor vetoes the legislation
Colonel (United States)
It is equivalent to the naval rank of captain in the other uniformed services. The pay grade for colonel is O-6, the insignia of the rank of colonel, as seen on the right, is worn on the officers left side. The insignia for a colonel is an eagle which is a stylized representation of the eagle dominating the Great Seal of the United States. As on the Great Seal, the eagle has a U. S. shield superimposed on its chest and is holding an olive branch, however, in simplification of the Great Seal image, the insignia lacks the scroll in the eagles mouth and the rosette above its head. On the Great Seal, the branch is always clutched in the eagles right-side talons. The head of the eagle faces towards the branch, rather than the arrows. As a result, the head of the eagle faces towards the viewers left. During World War II the military insignia for the rank of Colonel changed somewhat with the eagle facing the arrows and this was done only during war years. These special war eagles, although rare, can sometimes be found in surplus or memorabilia sales.
In the United States Army and United States Air Force, the eagle is worn with the head of the eagle to the wearers right. In the United States Marine Corps, United States Navy, United States Coast Guard and NOAA, the United States rank of colonel is a direct successor to the same rank in the British Army. The first colonels in America were appointed from Colonial militias maintained as reserves to the British Army in the American colonies, upon the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, colonial legislatures would grant commissions to men to raise a regiment and serve as its colonels. Thus, the first American colonels were usually respected men with ties in local communities, such was the origin of the phrase soldier and statesman. With the post-war reduction of the US Army, the rank of colonel disappeared, the first insignia for the rank of colonel consisted of gold epaulettes worn on the blue uniform of the Continental Army. The first recorded use of the insignia was in 1805 as this insignia was made official in uniform regulations by 1810.
The rank of colonel was relatively rare in the early 19th century, partly because the U. S. Army was very small, and the rank was usually obtained only after long years of service. During the War of 1812 the Army grew rapidly and many colonels were appointed, a number of other colonels were appointed by brevet - an honorary promotion usually for distinguished service in combat. The American Civil War saw an influx of colonels as the rank was commonly held in both the Confederate army and Union Army by those who commanded a regiment
Vermont is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders the other U. S. states of Massachusetts to the south, New Hampshire to the east, New York to the west, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. Lake Champlain forms half of Vermonts western border with the state of New York, Vermont is the 2nd-least populous of the U. S. states, with nearly 50,000 more residents than Wyoming. The capital is Montpelier, the least populous state capital in the U. S, the most populous municipality, Burlington, is the least populous city in the U. S. to be the most populous within a state. As of 2015, Vermont continued to be the producer of maple syrup in the U. S. It was ranked as the safest state in the country in January 2016, for thousands of years inhabited by indigenous peoples, including the Algonquian-speaking Abenaki and Mohawk, much of the territory that is now Vermont was claimed by Frances colony of New France. France ceded the territory to Great Britain after being defeated in 1763 in the Seven Years War, for many years, the nearby colonies, especially the provinces of New Hampshire and New York, disputed control of the area.
Settlers who held land titles granted by New York were opposed by the Green Mountain Boys militia, those settlers prevailed in creating an independent state, the Vermont Republic. Founded in 1777 during the American Revolutionary War, the republic lasted for 14 years, aside from the original 13 states that were formerly colonies, Vermont is one of only four U. S. states that were previously sovereign states. Vermont was the first state to join the U. S. as its 14th member state after the original 13, while still an independent republic, Vermont was the first of any future U. S. state to partially abolish slavery. It played an important geographic role in the Underground Railroad, sights in Vermont Vermont is located in the New England region of the northeastern United States and comprises 9,614 square miles, making it the 45th-largest state. It is the state that does not have any buildings taller than 124 feet. Land comprises 9,250 square miles and water comprises 365 square miles, making it the 43rd-largest in land area, in total area, it is larger than El Salvador and smaller than Haiti.
The west bank of the Connecticut River marks the eastern border with New Hampshire. 41% of Vermonts land area is part of the Connecticut Rivers watershed, Lake Champlain, the major lake in Vermont, is the sixth-largest body of fresh water in the United States and separates Vermont from New York in the northwest portion of the state. From north to south, Vermont is 159 miles long and its greatest width, from east to west, is 89 miles at the Canada–U. S. Border, the narrowest width is 37 miles at the Massachusetts line, the states geographic center is approximately three miles east of Roxbury, in Washington County. There are fifteen U. S. federal border crossings between Vermont and Canada, the origin of the name Vermont is uncertain, but likely comes from the French les Verts Monts, meaning the Green Mountains
Army of the Tennessee
The Army of the Tennessee was a Union army in the Western Theater of the American Civil War, named for the Tennessee River. It should not be confused with the similarly named Army of Tennessee, Gen. Ulysses S. Grant in the Unions District of West Tennessee. In April 1862, Grants troops survived a severe test in the bloody Battle of Shiloh. In October 1862, Grants command was reconfigured and elevated to status, as the Department of the Tennessee. Grant commanded these forces until after his critically important victory at Vicksburg in July 1863 and it should suffice to note that the nucleus around which was to gather the. Army of the Tennessee first took shape in 1861–1862, while Grant was headquartered at Cairo and those troops continued under Grant in his next command, the distinct District of West Tennessee, they were sometimes, and perhaps most appropriately, called the Army of West Tennessee. During the course of the war, elements of the Army of the Tennessee performed many tasks, and it is not feasible to chronicle every such development here, even at the corps level.
Rather, this article traces the main thrust of the armys development, at any given time, substantial numbers of troops were engaged in activities not discussed here. For example, in April 1863, less than half of Grants departmental strength was directly engaged in the Vicksburg Campaign, one of Grants wartime aides, John A. Rawlins, stated that rom this time. Commenced the growth and organization of the Army of the Tennessee, paducah promptly became a separate Union command under Brig. Gen. Charles F. Smith, who soon occupied Smithland, Kentucky, at the junction of the Cumberland River and the Ohio. Grants own first engagement came on November 7 at Belmont, Grants casualties in this first battle totaled about 500, Confederate casualties were similar. While Grant had suffered a repulse, he won favorable press coverage and this battle, reports Rawlins, confirmed General Grant in his views that he should give battle whenever he had what he thought a sufficient number of men. Also in November, John Fremont lost his command at St.
Louis, to be replaced by Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck, on December 20, Grants command was reconfigured to include C. F. Smiths and renamed the District of Cairo, from that perch, in February 1862, Grant led the Union campaign against Fort Henry, on the Tennessee River, and Fort Donelson, on the Cumberland River. His troops for this campaign eventually numbered approximately 27,000 men and Brig. Gen. Lewis Wallace. Grant initially moved up the Tennessee River to Fort Henry with only two divisions, McClernands and Smiths. On February 6, even before he could organize his force for attack, additional Union regiments arrived at Fort Donelson by water, these were formed into the new 3rd Division under Lew Wallace. The Battle of Fort Donelson began on February 13 and, after sharp fighting, another historian notes that Grants troops had performed prodigies of valor and endurance during the campaign and had learned from it that hard fighting would bring success
Battle of Shiloh
The Battle of Shiloh, known as the Battle of Pittsburg Landing, was a major battle in the Western Theater of the American Civil War, fought April 6–7,1862, in southwestern Tennessee. A Union force known as the Army of the Tennessee under Major General Ulysses S. T. Beauregard, launched an attack on Grants army from its base in Corinth. Johnston was killed in action during the fighting, who succeeded to command of the army. Overnight Grant was reinforced by one of his own divisions stationed further north and was joined by three divisions from another Union army under Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell. This allowed them to launch a counterattack the next morning which completely reversed the Confederate gains of the previous day. On April 6, the first day of the battle, the Confederates struck with the intention of driving the Union defenders away from the river, Johnston hoped to defeat Grants army before the anticipated arrival of General Buells Army of the Ohio. The Confederate battle lines became confused during the fighting, and Grants men instead fell back to the northeast.
A Union position on a sunken road, nicknamed the Hornets Nest. Benjamin Prentisss and William H. L. Wallaces divisions, provided critical time for the remainder of the Union line to stabilize under the protection of artillery batteries. Wallace was mortally wounded when the position collapsed, while several regiments from the two divisions were surrounded and surrendered. General Johnston was shot in the leg and bled to death while leading an attack. Beauregard, his second in command, acknowledged how tired the army was from the days exertions, Confederate forces were forced to retreat from the area, ending their hopes of blocking the Union advance into northern Mississippi. Smiths orders were to lead raids intended to capture or damage the railroads in southwestern Tennessee, Brig. Gen. William T. Shermans troops arrived from Paducah, Kentucky, to conduct a similar mission to break the railroads near Eastport, Mississippi. Halleck ordered Grant to advance his Army of West Tennessee on an invasion up the Tennessee River, Grant left Fort Henry and headed upriver, arriving at Savannah, Tennessee, on March 14, and established his headquarters on the east bank of the river.
Grants troops set up camp farther upriver, five divisions at Pittsburg Landing, meanwhile, Hallecks command was enlarged through consolidation of Grants and Buells armies and renamed the Department of the Mississippi. With Buells Army of the Ohio under his command, Halleck ordered Buell to concentrate with Grant at Savannah, Buell began a march with much of his army from Nashville and headed southwest toward Savannah. The railroad was a supply line connecting the Mississippi River at Memphis, Tennessee to Richmond. Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant developed a reputation during the war for being concerned with his own plans than with those of the enemy
Battle of Chickamauga
The Battle of Chickamauga, fought September 18–20,1863, marked the end of a Union offensive in southeastern Tennessee and northwestern Georgia called the Chickamauga Campaign. The battle was the most significant Union defeat in the Western Theater of the American Civil War and it was the first major battle of the war that was fought in Georgia. After his successful Tullahoma Campaign, Rosecrans renewed the offensive, aiming to force the Confederates out of Chattanooga, in early September, Rosecrans consolidated his forces scattered in Tennessee and Georgia and forced Braggs army out of Chattanooga, heading south. The Union troops followed it and brushed with it at Daviss Cross Roads, Bragg was determined to reoccupy Chattanooga and decided to meet a part of Rosecranss army, defeat it, and move back into the city. On September 17 he headed north, intending to attack the isolated XXI Corps, as Bragg marched north on September 18, his cavalry and infantry fought with Union cavalry and mounted infantry, which were armed with Spencer repeating rifles.
Fighting began in earnest on the morning of September 19, Braggs men strongly assaulted but could not break the Union line. The next day, Bragg resumed his assault, in late morning, Rosecrans was misinformed that he had a gap in his line. Longstreets attack drove one-third of the Union army, including Rosecrans himself, Union units spontaneously rallied to create a defensive line on Horseshoe Ridge, forming a new right wing for the line of Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas, who assumed overall command of remaining forces. Although the Confederates launched costly and determined assaults and his men held until twilight, Union forces retired to Chattanooga while the Confederates occupied the surrounding heights, besieging the city. General-in-chief Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck and President Abraham Lincoln were insistent that Rosecrans move quickly to take Chattanooga, seizing the city would open the door for the Union to advance toward Atlanta and the heartland of the South. Chattanooga was a rail hub, and an important manufacturing center for the production of iron and coke.
Situated between Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, Raccoon Mountain, and Stringers Ridge, Chattanooga occupied an important, defensible position. Although Braxton Braggs Army of Tennessee had about 52,000 men at the end of July, into Braggs Department of Tennessee, which added 17,800 men to Braggs army, but extended his command responsibilities northward to the Knoxville area. This brought a third subordinate into Braggs command who had little or no respect for him, Lt. Gen. Leonidas Polk and Maj. Gen. William J. Hardee had already made their animosity well known. Buckners attitude was colored by Braggs unsuccessful invasion of Buckners native Kentucky in 1862, as well as by the loss of his command through the merger. A positive aspect for Bragg was Hardees request to be transferred to Mississippi in July, but he was replaced by Lt. Gen. D. H. Hill, a general who did not get along with Robert E. Lee in Virginia. The Confederate War Department asked Bragg in early August whether he could assume the offensive against Rosecrans if he were given reinforcements for Mississippi and he demurred, concerned about the daunting geographical obstacles and logistical challenges, preferring to wait for Rosecrans to solve those same problems and attack him.
He was concerned about a sizable Union force under Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside that was threatening Knoxville, Bragg withdrew his forces from advanced positions around Bridgeport, which left Rosecrans free to maneuver on the northern side of the Tennessee River
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci